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ELOCUTION; 



OR, 



MENTAL AND VOCAL PHILOSOPHY. 

INVOLVING THE PRINCIPLES OF 

READING AND SPEAKING; 



AND DESIGNED 



FOR THE dIeVELOPMENT AND CULTIVATION 

OF 

BOTH BODY AND MIND. 

IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE 

NATURE, USES, AND DESTINY OF MAN: 

IliLr^RATED'B,"^ ] 

TWO OR Tfiids HL»NDltl5l> CKOlSB ANECDOTES; 

THREE THOUSAND ORATORICAL AND POETICAL READINGS; FIVE THOUSAND 

PROVERBS, MAXIMS AND LACONICS, AND SEVERAL HUNDRED 

ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS. 

BY PROF. BRONSON, A. M., M. D. 



FORTY-TOIRD THOUSAND. 
RB7ISKD AND CORRECTED, WITH LARGE ADDITIONS, ORIGINAL AND BSLECTED DLALOQOKS AND 
SPEECHES, WHICH ARE COPr-RIOHTED. 



LOUISVILLE, KY. 
JOHN P. MOIiTOlSr &c CO. 



ADVEETISEMENT. 



THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THIS SYSTEM. 

Some years ago, the Author was extensively engaged as a Public Speakei 
and, in consequence of the habit of speaking, principally, with the muscles of 
the throat and breast, he finally broke down, — falling senseless, after speaking 
about an hour and a half: that was followed by a protracted illness ; durino 
which, he providentially discovered the Causes, and also the Remedies, of the dif 
Acuities under which he had labored; and now, for months in succession, by the 
aid of thefee principles, he often speaks from six to ten h(^rs a day, without the 
least inconvenience: the principal cause of which is, that the effort is made 
from the dorsal and abdominal region. Few are aware of the comprehensive 
nature of the principles here partially unfolded ; and probably the Author would 
now be in a similar state, had it not been for the teachings afforded by children 
and Indians. To secure a perfectly healthy distribution of the vital fluids 
throughout the body, and a free and powerful activity of the mind, there must 
be a full and synchronous action in the brain, the lungs, and the viscera of the 
abdomen ; the soul operating, naturally, on the dorsal and abdominal muscles, 
and thus setting in motion the whole body. 

That he was the first to teach the specific use of those muscles, for a healthy 
breathing, and the exercise of the vocal organs, as well as blowing on wind in- 
struments for hours together, without injury, he has not the least doubt; and, if 
any person will produce evidence to the contrary, from any medical writer, or 
teacher of elocution, previous ^o 1330, he shall be handsomely rewarded. The 
time is fast approaching, when this, and its kindred subjects, will be duly ap- 
preciated ; and it will be seen epaI felt, that witbouc a practical knowledge of 
these important principle*^ jCiq one can becomo a. suceessfal speaker, or teacher : 
and the opinion is advisedly expressed, that they will produce as great a revo- 
lution in regard to the promotion of health, the art of reading and speaking with 
science and effect, and the perfect development and cultivation of mind, voice, 
and ear, — as the discovery of the mariner's compass, or the invention of the 
steam engine, in navigation, manufacture, and travel ; — and, to be the medium 
of introducing such a system, by which so many thousands have been greatly 
benefited, and hundreds of lives saved, is the occasion of devout gratitude to the 
Infinite Author of all that is good and true. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by C P. Broksoit, 
In the Clerk's office for the District Court of Kentucky. 



x:)0(c>i:) 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTKODUCTION. 



1. E-feiv Art, and Science, has its Externals, 
and Its Internals, its Generals and Particulars; 
wliiclimust be understood Analytically, and Syn- 
thetically, if we would practice either successful- 
ly. The Internals of Elocution, are Thoughts 
aiw Feelings, and its Externals comprise all that 
ie tddressed to our five senses: its Generals are 
Mind and J3ody, with their various Languages, 
or modes of manifestation. Comparatively, Lan- 
guage — is the Tune, Body — the Instrument, and 
Mind — the Performer : hence, the necessity of 
becoming acquainted, theoretically and practi- 
cally, with their Natures, Relations and Uses. 

S. As the subjects of Mind and Language, 
are partially unfolded in the following work, in 
this part, something must be said of the Body, 
the harp of ten thousand strings : particularly in 
regard to structure, position, and the organs to be 
used for the production and modification of 
sounds, in Speech and Song : also of Gestures, 
or Actions; illustrated by appropriate Engravings, 
wli ch may be imitated by the Pupil, for the pur- 
pose of bringing the Body into subjection to the 
Mii.d; without, however, any reference to spe- 
cific Recitations, — lest he should become artifi- 
cia , instead of natural. 

3. The more we contemplate Man, the more 
•we see and feel the truth, that he is a Microgosm 
indeed ; a miniature-world,— an abstract of crea- 
tion,— an epitome of the universe,— a finite repre- 
eentation of the Infinitb Deity! Well sairh the 
heathen motto,'' Know thyself ! " and rhe poet— 

"The proper study op mankind— is Man." 
And it may truly be said, that there is nothing 
in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, 
that cannot be found, essentially, in the human 
body ; and nothing in the world of Mind, that is 
not shadowed forth in his spiritual nature : hence, 
the grandeur, the magnificence — of our subjects, 
and our objects. 

4. The three grand essentials of the Body pro- 
per, are the Osseus, or bony system, which fixes 
its form, and gives it stability : the Muscular, or 
fleshy system, which is designed to act on the 
Osseus ; and Nervous system, acting on the Mus- 
cular : while the Mind, acts on and throug-h the 
Nervous ; receiving its life and power from Ilim, 
who is emphatically " THE LIFE : " tlft8,we can 
look through Nature, up to Nature's God. Ob- 
serve, the Analytical course is from outermosts 
to innermosts, from effects to causes ; and the 
Synthetical progress from innermosts to outer- 
mosts ; or from causes to effects. 

5. Nerves op Odganic Life. Every thing 
must have a beginning : and nothing is made per- 
fect at once. Now in the body, there is a cer- 
tain portion, called Nerves of Organic Life ; be- 
cause they are the first formed, and constitute 
the grand medium, through which the soul builds 



up the Body, with the materials, fumishefl k j the 
external world. The Soul is the architect, *nd 
tlie body_ iw 
workmanship. 
Here is a good 
representation of 
tliis nervcm 
mass, which is a 
kind of brain, 
(or series of 
brain,) that pre- 
side* over those 
glands, or work- 
shops, that take 
charge of the 
food, digest it, 
and watch over 
its changes, till 
it is made into 
blood, and then 
appropriated to 
the body. The 
nervous centre, 
called Semilunar 
Ganglion and So 
lar Plexus, may 
be seen at a, a, a, 
a; it is situated 
under the dia- 
phragm ar.d part- 
ly behind the 
stomach : other 
subordinate cen- 
tres may be seen 
al e, e, e, e; also 
in other places, 
that need not be 
designated, as 
lliey are very 
numerous : these 
centres are like 
miner posts in a 
state, or king- 
dom. At », it 
seen a pair of 
chords, call d trisplanchnic nerves: and at o, o, 
are seen other nerves, with their little brains, oi 
centres, where they come togetJier, forming a line 
along the spir.e, from the bottom of the chest, tc 
the top of the neck. From this large collection 
of Organic Nerves, others proceed to every pan 
of the system, uniting in smaller centres, aud 
forming ganglions in the palms of the handsi, 
balls of the fingers, &c. Our Astronomical sys- 
tem is called the Solar System, because the Sun 
is its centre, watching over our planets ; so, of 
these nervous centres of the grand and smaller 
deparUnents of our miniature-universe. Owing 
to the intimate connection of these nerves with 




1^45830 



.PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



Iheir muilerolid fcenSras, -ari*', -witli the aepves of 
the whole body, they are sometimes called tlie 
Great S\Tnpathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- 
table Life. There are three orders of these 
Nerves : one going to llie blood-vessels and other 
parts of the vascular system ; one to the contrac- 
tle tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: 
and oxt to tlie nerves of organic sensation, con- 
veying the impressions made on the organs. 




6. I.T this view of the Nerves of Respiration, 

(or.ginating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an 
extension of the Cerebellum, (b,) or seat of Volmi- 
lary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat o{ 
Rationality,) may be seen tlie nerve (c.) that goes 
to the Diaphragm (i,) and is concerned in the office 
of breathing, which generally acts without the aid 
of the Will ; but yet is controllable by the Will, to 
a certain extent; for we may breathe fastor slow, 
Jong or short. Next above this, js the Spinal Ac- 
ieessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in 
respiration ; one of its fellow roots goes to the 
longue (d,) and is concerned in mastication, swal- 
lowing, speaking, &c. [Some nerves are thrown 
back, the better to be seen.] Next in order is the 
pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-slomach nerve (/, 
g, A,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la-^ 
rynx and wind-pipe, («,) aiso to the cardiac, or 
heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right 
« ig) ; a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, dec; 
Mher branches go to the face, to exhibit the feelings. 
All interweave, and bring the vocal organs into 
miportant relations with tlie heart and lungs, with 
feelings and thoughts; while the main body goes 
tie etomacl*, and unites witb the great ciiitre 



x)f organic life, or solar plexus Tlie roets of iiese 
nerves are in the cerebellum, ihe seat of motion, 
a receptacle of life. Now, we see why inten^Lty 
of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiraiioiv 
and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the 
proper co-operation with the nerves of organic 
life ; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption , 
hence, the painful mode of teaching children to 
read by a book : away with this false system, u.r»- 
less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising gen- 
eration on the altar of evil; let the etr. or righ. 
feeling predominate : please work out the whole ; 
for you can do it : a hint is sufficient for those who 
think. 




7. Here is an excellent representntion oi the 
Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, 
with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respira- 
tory Nerves, constitute the inmosls of the body; 
also, a posterior, or back view, of the two l)rains! 
which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of 
which, are Will and Understanding. The leitei 
c, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where 
the Understanding, Rationality, or thought ia 1». 
cated; and cv, the cerebellum, or little brain, 
under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRO! UCTION. 



Vli 



ntnionUl black line is: here is the seat of the 
WiJl, Affections, Passions or Emotions ; also the 
seat of the Motive power of the body ; and from 
these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped 
m three different membranes, lying in the hollow 
of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs 
of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications 
over every part of the body; pb, tlie brachial 
plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different 
nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; 
and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form 
the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, 
or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, 
the lerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots ; 
the front (anterior.) one serving for motion, and 
the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or 
sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the 
body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or 
working, there should be a perfect harmony and 
co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory 
Nerves, and Moiary Nerves; hence, the volun- 
:ary effort must be made from the abdomen, where 
13 the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connec- 
tion with those of Respiration. 

8. Here is a 
striking view 
of the Muscu- 
lar, or fleshy 
portions, that 
form the me- 
diimi of com- 
nunication 
between the 
Nerves and 
the Bones: 
there are sev- 
eral hundreds, 
acting on tlie 
'jones like 
ropes on the 
masts of ships: 
let them be 
trained in per- 
fect subjectioa 
to the Soui, 
through ths 
Mind; so than 
whatever is 
felt & thought, 
may be bodied 
forth to the life. 
Now Jet us put 
these three 
systems, the 
NerveSj Mus- 
cles and 
Bones, logeth- 
sr, and con- 
template the 
whole as a 
unit, bound up 
in the skin, 
and acting in 
obedience to its rightful owner, tlie Mind; while 
tbat mind is subscrvisit to the Creator of mind. 




9. We now descend to the hard parts »f the 
body, which have the least of Ufe in them. Tliis 
is a very correct representation of the Osseoua 
system, or the bony parts which may be aptly 




called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid 
temple we live in; which is three stories high; 
viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above 
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, 
the situation and attachment of the different bones 
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long 
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human 
frame, there are 350 bones: they afford us the 
means of locomotion. Do you see any a-ialogy 
between the body and Unguage? 

10. Zoology — (the doctrine or science of life,) 
is a necessary element of education. Whose cu- 
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable 
living beings, and things, with which we are sur- 
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their 
interiors, and see how they are made, and under- 
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, 
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their 
differences, in many respects, and their similan- 
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use. 
The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms 
of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral, 



nil 

is to emancipate the human mind from the dark- 
nesfl and slavery of ignorance, into the light and 
Hberty of rational humanity. The things of the 
Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior 
power; those of the Vegetal)le kingdom grow; 
and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or 
grow ; they simply exist. 

11* lliree objects are designed by this er^ra- 
ving : first, to show tlie body, clothed in its own 
beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the conti- 
aent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : 
Becond, to call attention to the fact, that it is full 
of pores, or little holes, through which passes out 
of our systems more than half of what we eat 



PHYSIOLOG. CAL INTRODUCTION. 




and drink, in the'form of what is called insensi- 
ble oerspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy 
mift, emanating from every part of the surface ; 
and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are 
renewed every seven years, and the skin being 
the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out 
particles of the system; the great importance 
of keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy 
condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, 
must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- 
ing the safety-valve of the body : and thirdly, to 
indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of 
a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- 
cordance with its state ; which is often perceived 
when certain persons are present; also when 
powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly 
wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts ; so as 
to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive 
Willi their tones and audible words, ruling im- 
mense audiences with absolute sway, and de- 
monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. 

Animals and Plants increase by nutrition: 
Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh 
but a few pounds : at adult age, we exceed one 
hundred pounds. "Whence, but from foreign sub- 
stances, are the materials of which our organs 
are composed ? In sickness, extreme emaciation 
proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their 
bulk, and give bat k to the world what was once 
Jtt own. Thus, coirpositid n and decomposition, 



constituting the nutritiv* fonct or of which liv.mj 
bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evi- 
dences too plain to be misunderstood : may we have 
power to apprfct-iite them, being assured that all 
truths are in perfect harmony with each other, 

la. Here iia a representauon of the Human 
Form clothed and e>igaged in some of the uses 
of Elocution. But it i« necessary to enter more 




into the particulars of our subject; which .8 5oiy» 
in the succeeding parts of this introduction: how- 
ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the out- 
lines of subjects are given in the book, designed 
for such as are determined to dig for truth and 
eternal principles, as for hidden treasures ; 
whose motto is " Press On." 

Animals and Plants endure for a time, and 
under specific forms, by making the exte-nal 
world a part of their own being ; i. e. they have 
the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, 
and when this outward supply ceases they die, 
having completed their term of duration : hence, 
death, to material existences, is a necessary cor.- 
sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they eX' 
ist so long as external forces do not destroy them ; 
and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo- 
sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is 
by the action of a force, or power, from with- 
out Has not every thing its circle? How in- 
teresting must be the history of all things, ani- 
mate and inanimate '. Oli that we had eyes to see, 
and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested 
around us, within us, and above us ! 

13. If we would have the Mind act on llvj 
Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an o*> 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



IX 



derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is 
necessary that the body be in a natural and up- 
right position. The following engraving repre- 
sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the 
Heart and Lungs ; and reason teaches, that no or- 
gans should b3 in the least infringed upon, either 
by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. 
The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which 
we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami- 
liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking 
analogy between it and tlie body, in the act of 
Fpeaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is 
.;ke its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab- 
dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of 
course, to blow with ease and power, one must 
take hold of the handles ; to speak and sing right, 
the lower muscles must be used ; for there is only 
one right way of doing anything. 

liarynx, ..... 

Wind-pipe, . . , 

Collar bone, . . 
Bronchia, . . 
Heart & Lungs, 

7 Lo?>g Ribs, . . 
Diaphragm, . . . 
5 Short Ribs, . , 
Dorsal and 
Abdominal 
Muscles 




14. This is a view of a well developed and 
naturally proportioned chest ; with space for the 
.ungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording 
ample room for the free action of the organs : it is 
the true model of the form of one who would live 
to a good old age. 

15. Tight Drkssins. No one can enjoy good 
health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or 
read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- 
ly compressed. It diminishes the capacity of th« 
lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air 
to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action 
of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows 
the alarming condition of the chest, when com- 
pressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hur- 
ried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of tliousands 
to a premature grave ; besides entailing upon the 
offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to 
coclemplate. What is the difference between 
Killing one's self in five minutes with a riizor, and 
doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other 
bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight 
as to prevent the air from coming between it and 
the body. 

16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or 
thorax of a female, showing the condition of the 
bones of the body, as they appear aAer death, in 
every one wlio has habitually worn stays and 
corsi 's, enforced by tight lacing. ' But,' says one, 

I do not lace too tight.' If you lace at all, you 
most certainly do, ani will, sooner or later, expe- 





rience the dreadful consequt.ncts. Observe, aH 
the short ribs, from the lower end of the breast- 
bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward 
the spine, so thai 
the liver, stomach, 
and other digestive 
organs in that vici 
lily, are pressed 

into such a small 
compass, that tbnir 
funci ious are grea.t~ 
ly interrupted, and 
all the vessels, 
bones and viscera are more or less distorted and 
enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. 

17. This engraving, 
of a bell-shaped glass, 

C, C, shows how the 
air gets into the lungs, 
and some of its effects. 
A head is placed on 
the cork, T, represent- 
ing the wind-pipe, and 
having a hole through 
XI. L, represents a 
bladder, lied to the 
lower end of the cork, 
to indicate a lung. At 

D, is seen the dia- 
phragm. The cavity 
of the bell repTesenls 

the Inside of the thorax, where the heart and lunji 
are : there is no communication with the external 
}iir, except through the hole in the cork ; air, en 
tering through that hole, can go only into the blad- 
der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm ia 
raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid 
of air ; but when it is dropped, to the situatiorj of 
the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be 
the consequence, which can be supplied with cir, 
only through the hole in the cork ; the air expand- 
ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the 
dotted circle, around L ; and when the diaphragm 
is elevated again, the air will be forced from the 
bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhaus- 
ted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, 
and of the contraction and elongation of the ab- 
dominal muscles ; hence, the comparison between 
the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, io 
distinctly seen. 

McscuLAR Action. These 
two engravings represent some 
muscular fibres in two states: 
the upper one at rest, with a re- 
laxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres, 
as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in 
a state of contraction, and the fi- 
brr s in zigzag lines, with a simi- 
lar nervous filament passing ovei 
them: apply the principle to all 
muscles. The subject might be greatly extended ; 
but for further infcrrr.at'on, see tlie Author's large 
work on Physiology and Psychology, which will 
be published as soon as convenient. 





K PHYSIOLOGICAL 

18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells 
£l the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. 
The body is formed by Blood, which consists of the 
nutritious portions 
of our food, and 
18 in the form of 
very sma.! glob- 
ules, or little 
round balls : a 
represeatation of 
which is here pre- 
sented as seen 
through a micro- 
scope, magnified 
one thousand 

• times. 
Every 
three 
or four 
minutes, as a gen- 
eral rule, the 
blood flo'w^s thro'- 
out the whole 
body ; and, of 
course, through 
the lungs, where 
it undergoes a purification : hence may be seen 
the importance of an upright position, and perfect 
inflation of the lungs ; no one can live out his 
days without them. 

19. Here are two attitudes, silting, and stand- 
ing, passive and active. Beware of too much 





stifTuess, and too much laxity, of the muscles ; be 
natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or 
forwards, to the right or left : and especially, of 
resting your head on your hand, witii the elbow 
on something else: by which practice, many 
have caused a projection of one shoulder, indu- 
ced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing 
that is improper : such as trying how much you 
can lift with one hand, &c. 

/80. Here follows a representation of the position 
of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, 
in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left 
engraving, represents the diaphragm in its great- 
est descent, when we draw in our brealli : 2, mus- 
cles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full 
extent, in inhaling : 1, in the right engraving, the 
diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, 
'Jic T>u8cl(.s of the abdomen in action, forcing the 



INTRODUCTION. 

viscera and diaphragm upwards tl>«. lungs co- 
operate with the diaphrigm and abdominal mus- 
cles ; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and mus. 
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and 
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are be- 
low the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a 
measure, for their actions. 




31. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly sur- 
rounded by the Lungs, with the different blood- 
vessels going to, and from them : these organs ar« 
shown partially separated ; tho' when in their nat- 
ural positions, they are quite compact together. 




and wholly fill up the cavity of the che.st : every 
one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of 
blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right 
auricle, that receives all the blood from every pari 
of the body, through the vena cava, or large veiii, 
which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, s; 
it thence passes into the right ventricle, t, thenca 
into both lungs, where it is purified; after which 
it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricla, 
then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcla- 
vian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of th2 body • 
returning every three or four minutes. 



ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES 



X] 



583. This engraving represents the larynx, or 
vocal box, at 1, near tlie top of the wind-pipe, 2; 
tlie bronchial 
tubes, or 

branches of 
the trachea, 
3, 4, going tt, 
each lung ; 
tht left lung -s 
vFJjoIe ; the 
si.')Stance of 
tiie right one 
is removed, to 
sliov the ra- 
mifications ot 
tMe bronchial 
twigs, termi- 
nating in the 
air-cells, 7, 7, 
6, like leaves 
on the trees. 
The bronchi- 
al tubes are 
the three 

branches of 
the wind- 
pil)e, and enter the lungs about one third of the 
distance from the upper end : hence, how foohsh 
for persons having a sore throat, or larynx, to sup- 
pose they have the bronchitis ; which consists in 
a diseased state of the bronchia ; generally brought 
on by an improper mode of breathing, or speak- 
ing, Sec, with exposure. The remedy may be 
found in the practice here recommended, with a 
free use of cold soft water over the whole body, 
and bandages wet with the same, placed about 
the chest and neck, to be removed every few 
uours, as they become dry. 





523. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis: 
A", F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected 
■ with the chordae vocales, (vocal cords, or hga- 
ments,) T, F, stretching across from the top of the 
arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage : 
tnese ecrds caai be elongated, and enlarged to pro- 
duce lower souriiis, and contracted and diminished 
fo' Jugher ones : and, at the same time, separated 
Irom each other, and allowing more conden- 
sed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought 
nearer together, to favor the latter : there are a 
great many muscles attached to the larynx, to 
give variety to the modifications oi voice in 
speech and song. 



34:. Here is a front view c the Vocal Organs . 

e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a 

little above d is the larj'nx, or vocal box, where 
all voice sounds are 
made : the two 
horns at the top, rep- 
resent the uppei ex- 
tremities of the th Y ■ 
<2^^HH^B ^^'^^ cartilage: the 

tubes up and down. 
and transverse, are 
l)lood-vessels : be- 
ware of having 
anythingtigh 
around the neck, 
also of bending the 

neck much, impeding the free circulation of the 

blood, and deterniiuinsr it to the head. 




ORATORICAL AND POETICAL ACTION. 

Positions of Feet and Hands. 










\n 



ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 




PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



17 



^^^N 




1. This system unfolds the true Philoso- 
pny of MixD and Voick, in accordance with 
the nature of Man, andthe.strwdMre of Lan- 
guage. 1 ho Elements are first presented; 
then, the common combinations, followed by 
the more difficult ones ; all of which are to be 
practiced in coricert, and individually, after 
the Teacher. These exercises essentially aid 
in cultivating the Voice and Ear, for all the 
objects of Speech and Song : while the Prin- 
ciples and Practice tend to develop and per- 
fect both mind and bodij, agreeably to the 
Laws, that should govern them. The Vowels 
mxisl first be mastered, then the Consonants ; 
and the exercises interspersed with reading, 
and rigid criticism on the Articulation and 
Pro7umciatio7i. 

N. B. The words printed in italics and CAPITALS, are more or 
.ess emphatic ; though otiicr words may be made so, according to 
tlia dei;red effect: the dash ( — ) indicates a pause for inhalation: 
connecting words are sometimes excepted. 

S. A lias fovu* regiilar sounds : First, 
Name sound, or long ; ALE ; 
ate, a-zure; rare a-pri-cots; 
scarce pa-tri-ots; fair brace- 
lets for Za-tent mus-to-ches; 
hai-ry ma-gi and sa-pi-ent lit- 
er-a-ti for pa-trons ; ?ia-tion-al 
fa-ter-er for r«-di-a-ted sta- 
mens, and sa-li-ent pas-try with the ^a-lo 
gra-tis ; the ra-tion-al plain-tiff tears the cam- 
bric, and dares the stairs for the sa-\or of 
rai-sins ; they drain the mne-brakes and take 
'he bears by the nape of tJie neck ; the may-or's 
oray-er to Mayn-ton Sayre is — to be-ware of 
he snares pre-par'd for the matron's shares: 
i-men has both syllables accented; but it 
should never be pronounced ah-men (2d a,) 
ftor aiv-men. 

JJ. Positioiu Sit. or stand erec^, with the 
slioulders thrown back, so as to expand the 
chest, prevent the body from bending, and 
facilitate fall and deep breathing. Open the 
mouth wide enough to admit two fingers, 
side-wise, between the teeth, and keep the 
lips free and limber, that the sounds may 
fiow with clearness and precision ; nor let 
there be too much, nor too little moisture in 
the mouth, A piece of hard wood, or ivory^ 
an inch, or an inch and a half long, of the 
size of a pipe stem, with a notch in each end, 
if placed between the teeth, perpendicularly, 
while practicing, will be found very useful in 
acquiring the habit of opening wide the mouth. 

4. E lias this sound in certain words; among 
which are the f6lIo\ving ere, ete-long ; feint 
lieirs; the Aei-nous Bey pm-veys a bo-quet; 
ibo-ka ;) they rein their prey in its ey-ry, and 
pay their freight by weifht ; heij-dey ! o-bey the 
eyre, and do o-&ei-sanc3 to the Dey ; they sit 
tete-a.~tate (ta-tah-tate,l at trey: also, there 
and where, in all their compounds,— there-a«, 
there-fry, there-fore, tl.ere-in, there -on, there- 
orfA, where-at, where-6y, wA«r«-fore, where- 

BRONSON. 2 



in, where-on, where-wilh, &.c. : also, in the con- 
traction of ewer and never, — as where-e'cr I ^c, 
where-e'er I am, I ne^er shall see thee more. 
"How blest is he, who ne'er consents, By ill ad- 
vice to walk." 

Anecdote. Ptaio — defines man — "An 
animal, having two legs, and «o feathersJ'* 
This very imperfect description attra'^.ted tlia 
ridicule of Di-og--e-nes ; who, wittily, and ia 
derision, introduced to his school — a. fowL, 
stripped of its feathers, and contemptubusli ~ 
asked, — " Is this Plato'' s man P* 

IVotes* 1. Don't caricature this sound of a and e b»for» 
r, by giving it andue stress and qumtity, in such words as — air 
(ay-ur,) pa-rent, (pae-rent,) dare, (day-ur,) chair, there, where, fcc, 
nor (five it a flat sound, as some do to e in bleat, pronouncing it 
blaat. To give this sound properly, separate the teeth an inch, 
project the Kps, and bring forward the corners of the mouth, like 
a funnel. 2. It would be jnst as proper in prose, to say, whe.re- 
ee-ver I go, where-ceuer I am, I neever shall see thee more ; as to 
say in poetry, where-tar I am, I near shall see thee more. 3. £ in ^ 

weight, whey, it, y, gh are silent,) and a in age, luhcdc, &c., are 
just alike in sound; and as this sound of e does not occur a^non; 
its natural, or regular sounds, as classed by our orthoepists, it is 
called "irregular ;^' i. e. it borrows this name sound of a; or it 
sounded like it. 4. Some tiy to make a distmction between a in 
fate, and a in fair, calling it a medial sound : which error is ow- 
ing to t being an abrupt element, and r, a prolonged one : but no 
one can make a good sound of it, either in speech or song, when 
thus situated, by giving it a sound unlike the name souad of o; be- 
ware of unjust prejudices and prepossessions. I say na-shun-iU, 
ra-shun-al, &c., for the same reason that I say no-tional and de-oo- 
tional ; because ol analogy and effect. 

Provei'l>s. 1. Accusing — is proving, whec 
malice and -power sit as judges. 2. Adversity — 
may make one wise, but not rich. . 3. Idle folks 
— take the most pains. 4. Every one is architect 
of his own fortune. 5. Fine feathers make fine 
birds. 6. Go into the country to hear the news 
of the town. 7. He is a good orator — who con- 
vinces himself. 8. If you cannot bite, never show 
your teeth. 9. Lawyers^ houses — are built on the 
heads of fools. 10. Little, and often, fill the purse. 
11. Much, would have more, and lost all. 12. 
Practice— makes perfect. 

The BiMe — ^requires, in its proper deliv- 
ery, the most extensive practical knowledge 
of the principles of elocution, and of all the 
compositions in the ivorld; a better impres- 
sion may be made, from its correct reading, 
than from the most luminous commentary. 

Varieties. 1 . Love what you ought to do> 
and you can easily doit; — oiled wheeJs run 
freely. 2. Cicero says, that Roscius, a Ro- 
man orator, could express a sentence in as 
many different ways, by his gestures, as W, 
himself could by his words. 3. Why is tlie 
letter A, like a honeysuckle 1 Because a B 
follows it. 4. Never speak unless you have 
something to say, and always stop when you 
have done. 5. The most essential rule in de- 
livery is — Be natural and in earnest 6. Our 
education should be adapted to the full de- 
velopment of body and mind. 7. Truth can 
never contradict itself; but is eternal and im. 
mutable — the same in ail ages : the states of 
men's reception of it — are as various as the 
pi-indples and subjects of natural c? eation. 

As good have no time, aa make bad use of it. 



18 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



5 £locutifin-is an Art, that teaches me how 
to manifest my feelings and thoughts to 
others, in such a way as to give them a trae 
idea, and expression of how, and what, I feel 
and think ,- and, in so doing, to make them 
feel and think, as / do. Its object is, to enable 
me to communicate to the hearers, the whole 
truth, just as it is ; in other words, to give me 
the ability, to do perfect justice to the subject, 
to them, and to myself: thus, involving the 
philosophy of end, cause, and effect,-ihQ cor- 
respondence of affection, thoughts and words. 

6. Tlie second soiuid of A is grave, 
or Itahan. Ah; alms, far; pa- 
pa calms ma -ma, and com- 
mands Charles to craunch the 
fl/-monds in the haun-\jedi paths ; 
his ma-ster de-man-ded a| \^^ 
haunch of par-tridge of fa- \ \^j^ 



ther; aunt taun-X&d. the laun- 



[A in FAR.] 



dress for salve from the 
na-na tree; Jar-vis farms sar-sa-pa-riWa in 
A-m€r-i-ca; ma-niWa balm is a charm to 
halve the qualms in Ra-yew-na ; he a.-bides in 
CAi-na, and vaunts to have saun-tered on 
the a-re-na, to guard the vil-la. hearths from 
Aarm-ful ef^^w-vi-a; they^wn-ted on theso- 
fe, ar-gu-ing for Quarles' psalms, and for-mu- 
ia for Jaun-^ce in Mec-ca or Me-rft-na; a 
caJf got the chol-e-Ta. in Cu-ba, and a-rose to 
run the gaunt-let for the ayes and noes in A- 
ceWa-ma. 

7, In making the vowel sounds, by expel- 
iing them, great care must be taken, to con- 
vert all the breath that is emitted, into pure 
sound, so as not to chafe the internal smrface 
of the throat, and produce a tickling, or 
hoarseness. The happier and freer from re- 
straint, the better: in laughing, the lower 
muscles are used involuntarily; hence the 
adage, ' laugh, and be fat.^ In breathing, 
reading, speaking, and singing, there should 
be Ttr rising of the shoulders, or heaving of 
the oosom ; both tend to error and ill health. 
Beware of using the lungs, as it is said; let 
them act, as they oxe acted upon by the lower 
muscles. 

Notes. I. Tan, strictly «peakin«, a the only natural 
jnind in ail linfuages, and it the esiieit made: it merely requiret 
the under jaw to be dropped, and a vocal sound to be produced : 
ail olfier vowels are derived from it; or, rather, are modificationf 
of It. 2. Wlien a is an article, i. e. when used by itself, it always 
baa this sound, but must not be accented ; as, "a man saw » h.rse 
4U<1 a sheep in a meadow:" except as contrasted with tht , as, "I 
«id the man, not a man." 3. When o forms an unaoLent«d syl- 
WDle, it has this sound : as, a-wake, a-bide, a-like, vware, a-tone, 
a-void, a-way, &c. 4. It ha« a similar sound it 'he end of words, 
^tther with, or without an A: as, No^, flim-nah, So-rah, Af-ri- 
ca. A-nur-i-ca, i-o-ta, dog-ma, &c. Beware ot saying, No-er, Sa- 
ry, &c. 6. It generally has this sound, when followed by a single 
in the same syllable: as, ar-son, ar-tist, &c. ; also in star-ry, (full 
CitUtn,) and tar-ry, (besmeared with tar.) 

Education. The derivati/m of this word 
—will assist us in imderstanding its mean- 
mg; it being composed of the Latin word 
e-du-ro, to lead or draw out All develop- 
ments, jott of matter and spirit, are from 



within — out; not from without — in. The 
beautiftd rose — does not grow by accretion, 
like the rocks ; its life flows into it through 
the nutriment, imbibed from the earth, the 
air, and the water, which are incorporated 
vnth the very life-hlood of the plant as a mt' 
dium : it is a manifestation of the Lif2 that 
fills all things, and flows into all things, ac- 
cording to their various/orms. The analogy 
holds good as it respects the human mind; ' 
tho' vegetables are matter, and mind — io 
spirit ; the farmer is of course much more 
confined than the latter. The powers of the 
mind — must be developed by a power from 
within, and abov& itself ; and that is the best 
education, which will accomphsh this most 
rapidly, and effectually, in accordance witli 
the laws of God, — ^which always have refer- 
ence to the greatest good and the most truth. 

Anecdote. A clergyman, whose turn it 
was to preach in a certain church, happening 
to get wet, was standing before the session- 
room fire, to dry his clothes ; and when his 
colleague came in, he asked him to preach for 
him ; as he was very wet. " No Sir, I thank 
you ;" was the prompt reply : ^^ preach your- 
self; you will be dry enough in the pulpit." 

Proverbs. 1. A burden that one chooses, in 
not felt. 2. A guilty conscience needs no accu- 
ser. 3. .Sfter-wii is every body's wit. 4. Enough 
—is as good as & feast. 5. All is but lip wisdom, 
that wants experience. 6. Better bend, than break 
7. Children and fools often speak the truth. 8 
Out of debt, out o{ danger. 9. Wade not in t;n. 
known waters. 10. Do what you ought, and lei 
come what will. 11. Empty vessels make tht 
greatest sound. 12. Pause, before yon futow ai. 
example. 

Natural and SpiAtual, feirce we are 
possessed of both body and soul, it is of the 
first importance that we make uhe of natural 
and spiritual means foi oLtahiing good; i.e. 
natural and spiritual truths. Our present 
and eternal destinies-should ever be kept in 
mind; and that, which is of the greatest mo- 
ment, recev/e the principal attention: and, 
since deaih-is only a continuation of life, oui 
education should be continuous : both states 
o*" jeing will be best attended to, when seen 
and attended to in connection. 

Varieties. 1. Horses will often do more 
for a ivhistle,tha.n a whip: as some yotith arc 
best governed by a rod of love. 2. Why is a 
bankrupt like a clock? Because he mufet 
either stop, or go on tick. 3. True reading 
is true exposition. 4. Conceive the inten- 
tions of the author, and enter into the charac- 
ter. 5. The sciences and mechanical arts are 
the ministers of wisdom, not the end. 6. Do 
we love our friends more when present, ot 
absent ? 7. All natural trutlis, which respcrt 
the worksof God in creation, are not oniy real 
natural truths, but the glasses antJ rortaining 
principles of spiritual ones. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



19 




8. The means to be used, thus to malce 
known my feelings and thoughts, are tones, 
wards, looks, actions, expression, and silence: 
whence it appears, that the body is the grand 
medium of communication between mytsclf 
and others ; for by and through the body, are 
tones, words, looks, and gestures produced. 
Thus I perceive, that the mind, is the active 
agent, and the body, the passive agent ; that 
ihis is the instrument, and that the perfor- 
mer : here I see the elements of mental and 
vocal philosophy. 

9. Tlie third sound of A is broad: 

ALL, wall, auc-tion, aus-pice ; 
his vaul-t'wg daugh-ter haul'd / 
the dau-phin in the sauce-ipan ; j 
the pal-try sauce-hox waltz'd / 
in the tea-san-cer ; al-&e-it, the \ 
muwk-ish au-ihor, dined on ^ 
7iau-se-on3 sau-sa-ges ; the au- [a in ah,.] 
burn pal-{rey draws Zaw-rel plait-dhs ; his 
naugh-Xy dwart got the groat through the 
fau-c\i ; he thwar-ted the /aZ-chion and sal- 
ted the shawl in false wa-ier ; the Zcw-Iess 
gaw-k.y got m-stalVd in the aw-tumn, and 
de-/raM-ded the green sward of its 6aZ-dric 
2w;7«-ing. 

10. CuuRAX, a celebrated /mA orator, pre- 
sents us with a signal instance, of what can 
be accomplished by assiduity and persever- 
ance : his enunciation was so lyredpitate and 
confused, that he was called "stuttering Jack 
Curran.''^ To overcome his numerous de- 
fects, he devoted a portion of every day to 
reading and reciting aloud, slowly, and dis- 
tinctly, some of the most eloquent extracts in 
our language ; and his success was so com- 
vlete, that among his excellencies as a speak- 
er, was the clearness of his articulation, and 
an appropriate intonation, that melodized 
every sentence. 

Notes* 1. To make \b\» »ound, drop and project the jaw, 
and Bhape the mouth as in the engraving : and when you wi»h to 
produce a very grave sound, in speech or song-, in addition to the 
above, swell the windpipe, (which will elongate and enlarge the 
vocal chords,) and form the voice as low as possible in the larynx; 
for the longer and larger these chords are, the graver will be the 
voice : also, practice making sounds, while exhaling aud inhaling, 
Jo deepen the tones. This sound is broader than the German a. 
2. soiuetiuies has this sound : I thought he caught the cough, 
when De oought the cloth ; he ^vrought, fought, and sought, but 
talked naught. 3. Beware ol adding an r after w, a« lawr, jawr, 
fawr, &c. 4. The italic a m the following, is broad, will were 
•p-palled at the thraldom of Wal-ter Ro-iejgh, who was al-mo«t 
*;a,ld-ed in the cal-dron of boiling wa-ter. 

Habits of tbougbt. Thinking is to the 
mind what digestion is to the body. We 
may hear, read, and talk, till we are gi^ay ,- 
but if we do not think, and analyze our sub- 
jects, and look at them in every aspect, and 
eee the ends, causes, and effects, they will be 
of httle use to us. In thinking, however, we 
must think clearly and without confusion, as 
we would examine objects of sight, in order 
to get a perfect idea of them. Thinking — is 
spiritually seeing,- and we should always 
think of things so particularly as to be able 



to describe them to others ;vith as mucn ac- 
curacy as we do any external objects, which 
we have seen with our material eyes. 

Anecdote. Wild Oats. After the first 
speech, made by the younger Pitt, in the House 
of Commons, an old member sarcastically re- 
marked,-"! apj9?'e^e/id that the young gentle- 
man has not yet sown all his vnld oats.^^ To 
which Mr. Pitt politely replied, in the course 
of an elaborate and eloquent rejoinder, "Age 
— has its privilege; and the gentleman him- 
self — affords an ample illustration, that I re- 
tain /oo(i enough for geese to joicfc." 

Proverbs. 1. A calumny, tho' knoion to be 
such, generally leaves a stain on the reputation- 
2. A blow from a frying' pan, tho' it does nol 
hurt, sullies. 3. Fair and softly, go sure and far. 
4. Keep your business and conscience well, and 
they will be sure to keep you well. 5. A man 
knows no more, to any purpose, than he practices. 
6. Bells call others to church, but enter not them- 
selves. 7. Revenge a wrong by forgiving it. 8. 
Venture not all you have at once. 9. Examine 
your accounts and your conduct every night. 10. 
Call me cousin, but don't cozen me. 11. Eagles- 
Ay alone, but sheep flock together. 12. U is good 
to begin well, but better to end well. 

Theology — includes all rehgions, both 
Iieathen and christian,- and comprehend? 
the study of the Divine Being, his laws 
and revelations, and our duty towards Him 
and our neighbor. It may be divided into 
four grand divisions ; viz. Paganism, Mahom- 
edanism, Judaism, and Christianity. The 
study of Theology is the highest and noblest 
in which we can be engaged: but a mere 
theoretical knowledge, like the sunbeam on 
tlie mountain glacier, may only dazzle — ^to 
blind,- for, unless the heart is wanned with 
love to God, and love to man, the coldness 
and barrenness of eternal death wUl reign in 
the sotd: hence, the all of Religion relates to 
life ,- and the life of Religion is — to do good 
— for the sake of good. 

Varieties. He, who studies books aJone, 
will know how thing-s ought to be ; and he 
who studies men, will know how things are.. 

2. If you would relish your food, labor for it; 
if you would enjoy your raiment, pay for it 
before you wear it; if you would sleep sound' 
ly, take a clear conscience to bed with yon, 

3. The more we follow nature, and obey her 
laws, the longer shall we live ,- and the far- 
ther we deviate from them, the sooner we 
shall die. 4. Always carry a few proverbs 
with you for constant use. 6. Let compul' 
sion be used when necessary ,- but deception 
— never. 6. In CAina, physicians are always 
under pay, except when their patrons are 
sick ,- then, their salaries are stopped till health 
is restored. 7. All things speak; note weJJ 
the language, and gather wisdom from it. 

JiTature—K but a name for an effect^ 
Whose cau8e~\s Ood. 



20 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



kXJ^ 




[A in AT.] 



11. Words, I see, are among the pri?icipal 
means used for these important purposes; 
and they are formed by the organs of voice : 
these two things, then, demand my first and 
particular attention, words and voice ; words 
are composed oi letters ; and the voice, is the 
effect of the proper actions of certain parts of 
the body, called vocal organs, converting air 
into sound ; which two mighty instruments, 
words and voice, must be examined analyti- 
Mlly, and synthetically ; without which p^o- 
:ess I cannot understand a7iy thing. 

I'H. Tlie foiirtli sound of A Is short : 
AT, aft, add ; I had rath-ex 
have a6ar-rel of as-j5ar-a-gus, 
than the en-am-el and ag--ate ; 
ihe ctL-haliox-hade the mal-e- 
fac-tOT his ap-par-e\-andjave- 
lin ; CAar-i-ty danc'd in the 
^ran-a-ry with Cap-ri-corn ; 
the mal-con-te7its pass'd thro^ Ath-ens in 
Feh-xn-ar-y ; his cam-els quaff'd the As- 
pAaZ-tic can-aZ with fa-ci7-i-ty ; plas-tex the 
/aZ- low-ground a/-ter Ja«-u-ar-y ; the ad- 
age an-swers on the com-rade''s staff; the 
plaid tassel is man-u-/ac-tur'd in France ; 
he n.i-tack'd the tar-itt with raiZ-le-ry, af- 
ter he had scath'd the block and tack-le with 
his ac-id pag-en-txy- 

13. The more perfect the medium, the 
better will it subserve the uses of communi- 
cation. Now, by analyzing the constituents 
of words and voice, I can ascertain whether 
they are in a condition, to answer the varied 
purposes for which they were given ; and 
fortunately for me, while I am thus analyz- 
mg the sounds, of which words are com- 
posed, I shall, at the same time, become 
acquainted with the organs of voice and 
hearing, and gradually occms^oot them to the 
performance of their appropriate duties. 

Notes. 1. To give the txact ioundB of any of the 
vowels, take words, in which they are found at the beginning, and 
proceed a« if you were going to pronounce the wftote word, but 
ttyp the instant you have produced the votoeZ sound ; and that is the 
true one. 2. Beware of clipping this, or any other sound, or 
thanging it : not, Tkn go, you'kn see, they'kn come ; but, I can go ; 
you can see ; they can come, 3. A, in ate, in verbi, is generally 
long ; but in other parts of speech of more than one syllable, it is 
usually short ; unless under some accent : as — intimate that to my 
intimate friend ; educate that delicate and obstinate child ; he calcu- 
lates to aggravate the case of his affectionate and unfortunate wife ; 
•he compassionate son meditates how he may alleviate the condition 
of his disconsolate mother; vindicate your consulate's honor ; depre- 
cate an unregenerate fleart, by importunate prayer ; the pre2-ate 
Mid primate calculate to regulate the ultimates immediately. 4. 
Ofiserve — that often the sounds of vowels are sometimes modified, 
•>-c/ian»ed, by letters immediately preceding or succeeding; which 
may be seen, as it respects a, for instance, In reji-e-gade, rriem-brane, 
-»7)-ro-tate, con-did-ate, po-ten-tate, night-in-gale, &c. : some hav- 
iiig a slight accent on the last syllable ; and others having the a 
preceded, or followed by a vocal consonant : see previous Note 3. 
5. A le»ter ii called 3hort, when it cannot be prolonged in Speech, 
(though it can in Song,) without altering its form ; and long, when 
It 0071 be prolonged without such change: therefore, we call a 
sound long, or thort, because it is sun and felt to be so : as, cold, 
hot ; pale, mat : in making a long sound the glottis is kept open in- 
de6nitely ; and in making a short one, it is closed suddenly, produ- 
ejng an abrupt sound, like some of the consonants, 

A.Hecdot«. Saving Fuel. Some time ago, 
when modern stoves were first introduced, 
and offered for sale in a certain city, the ven- 
der remarked, by way of: recommending them, 



that one stove would save half the fuel 

Mr. Y being present, replied, " Sir, I wii 

buy two of them, if you please, and then I 
shall save the whole.'* 

Proverbs. 1. All truths must not be told at 
all times. 2. A good servant makes a good mas- 
ter. 3. A man in distress, or despair, does ao 
much as ten. 4. Before you make a friend, eat 
a peck of salt -wiih him, 5. Passion — will master 
you, if you do not master your passion. 6. Fomi 
— is good, but not formality. 7. Every tub mual 
stand on its own bottom. 8. First come, first served 
Friendship — cannot stand all on one side. 10. 
Idleness — is the hot-bed of vice and ignorance 
II. He that will steal a pin, will steal a hettm 
thing. 12. If you lie upon roses when yaung, yea 
will lie upon thorns when old. 

Q,ualificatioiis of Teacliers. Inas 
much as the nature of no one thing can be 
understood, without a Jcnowledge of its origin, 
and the history of its formation, the qualifi- 
cations of teachers are seen and felt to be so 
great, as to induce the truly conscieiitious to 
exclaim, in view of his duties, " Who is suffi- 
cient for these things'!" How can we er/?;- 
cate the child in a way appropriate to his state 
and relations, without a knowledge of his 
mental and physical stiructure? Is not a 
knowledge of psychology and physiology as 
necessary to the educator, as the knowledge 
of mechanics is to the maker or repairer of 
a watcti ? Wfio would permit a man even 
to repair a watch, (much less hire a man to 
make one,) who had only seen its externals? 
Alas! how ;)oorZy qualified are xiixie-tcnths 
of our teachers for the stations they occupy / 
almost totally ignorant of the nature and ori- 
gin of the human mind, and the science of 
physiology, which teaches us tlie structure 
and uses of the body. But how little tliey 
understand their calling, when they supposH 
it to be merely a teaching of Z»oofc-knowledge : 
without any regard to the development of 
7nind and body. A teacher should possess a 
good moral character, and entire self-<;ontrol 
a fund of knowledge, and ability to commu- 
nicate it ; a uni^'orm temper, united with de- 
cision and firmness ; a mind to discriminate 
character, and tact to illustrate simply the 
studies of his pupils; he should be patient 
and forbearing ; pleasant and affectionate, and 
be capable of overcoming all difficulties, and 
showing the uses of knowledge. 

Varieties. 1. If one were as eloquent as 
an angel, he would please some folks, much 
more by listening, than by speaking. 2. An 
upright politician asks — what recommends a 
man ; a corrupt one — wfio recommends him. 
3. Is any law independent of its maker ? 4. 
Kind words — cost no more than unkind ones 
5. Is it not better to be ivise than rich ? 6 
The power of emphasis — depends on concen- 
tration. 7. Manifested wisdom — infers rte. 
sign. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



21 




[E in EEL.] 



1 1. 1 here are then, it appears, two kinds 
of language; an artificial, or conventional 
language, consisting of words; and a natu- 
ral language, consisting of tones, looks, ac- 
tions, expression, and silence ,• the former is 
addi-essed to the eye, by the book, and to the 
tar, by speech, and must thus be learned ; the 
latter — addresses itself to both eye and ear, at 
tb.8 same moment, and must be thus acquired, 
80 far as they can be acquired. To become 
an Elocniionist, I must learn both, these lan- 
guages ; that of art and science, and that of 
the passions, to be used according- to my sub- 
ject and object. 

15. K has two regular sounds ; first, 
Its name sound, or long: , 
EEL ; e-ra, e-vii ; nei-ther 
de-ceive nor in-vei-g\e the 
seam-stress ; the sleek ree-gro 
bleats like a sheep ; Cce-sar's 
e-dict pve-cedes the e-poch of 
tre-mors ; the sheik's beard 
streamed like a me-te-or ; the ea-gle shriek'd 
his pcB-nn on the lea ; the e-go-tist seemed 
pleas'd with his pZe-na-ry Ze?s-ure to see the 
co-te-rte ; ^-ne-as Leigh reads Mo-sheim 
on the e-dile's heath ; the peo-ple tre-pann'd 
the fiend for jeer-ing his prem-ier ; his liege, 
at the or-gies, gave ce-tZ-iads at my niece, 
who beat him with her 6e-som, like a cav- 
a-Zi'er in Greece. 

16. Since the body is the grand medium, 
for communicating feelings and thoughts, 
(as above mentioned,) I must see to it, that 
each part performs its proper office, without 
infringement, or encroachment. By observa- 
tion and experie?ice, I perceive that the 
miwl uses certain parts for specific pur- 
poses ; that the larynx is the place where 
vocal sounds are made, and that the power 
to produce them, is derived from the com- 
bined action of the abdominal and dorsal 
nmscles. Both body and mhid are rendered 
healthy and strong, by a proper use of all 
their organs and faculties. 

17. Ii'regular Sounds. I and Y often 
have this sound; as — d,\\-tique, ion-tine ,- the 
■po-lice of the bas-ZiZe seized the man-da-rin 
for his ca-price at the mag-a-zi/ie ,• the u- 
ni(2ue fi-nan-cicr, fa-tigued with his bom-ba- 
zine \a.-lise, in his re-treat from Mo-bile, lay 
by the ma-rines in the ra-vine, and ate ver- 
di-gris to re-lieve him of the cri-tique. • Sheri- 
dan, Walker and Perry say, yea yea, and nay 
nay, making the e long ,- but Johnson, En- 
tick, Jainieson and Webster, and the author, 
pronounce yea as if spelled yay. Words de- 
rived immediately from the French, accordhig 
to the genius of that language, are accented 
on the last syllables ; — cdi-price, fa.-tigue, po- 
lice, &c. 

Eorrow—lreads heavily, and leaves behind 
A deep impressiun, e'en wnen sne aeparts : 
While Jor/— trips by, with steps, as light as wind. 
And scarcely leaves a trace apon our hearts 
Of her faint /oo£-/aZ;5. 



18. That the body may be fne, to a-ci in 
accordance with the dictates of the mind, ai! 
unnatural compressiotis and contractions must 
be avoided; particularly, cravats and stocks 
so tight around the neck, as to interfere with 
the proper action of the vocal organs, ana 
the free circulation of the blood ; also, tigh 
waistcoats ; double suspenders, made tight- 
er with straps ; elevating the/eet to a point 
horizofital with, or above, the seat; and 
lacing, of a7t^ description, around the waist, 
impeding the freedom of breathing naturdU- 
ly and healtlifully. 

Anecdote. True Modesty. When Wash- 
ington had closed his career, in the French 
and English war, and become a member of 
the House of Burgesses, in Virginia, the 
Speaker was directed, by a vote of the house, 
to returrf thanks to him, for the distinguished 
services he had rendered the country. As 
soon as Washington took his seat, as a mem- 
ber. Speaker R jbinson proceeded to discharge 
the duty assigned him ; which he did in such 
a manner as to confound the young hero ; 
who rose to express his acknowledgments ; 
but sucli wiis his confusion, that he was 
speechless ; he blushed, stammered, and trem- 
bled for a short time ; when the Speaker re- 
lieved "'"m by saying — " Sit down, Mr. Wash- 
ington ; your modesty is equal to j'our valor ; 
and that — surpasses the power of any lan- 
guage that I possess." 

Proverbs. 1. A blythe heart makes a bloom- 
ing visage. 2. A deed done .las an end. 3. A 
great city, a great solitude 4. Desperate cuts — 
must have desperate cures. 5. .^U men are not 
men. 6. A stumble— may prevent a fall. 7. A fool 
always comes short of liis reckoning. 8. Beggars 
must not be choosers. 9. Belter late, than never. 
10. Birds of a feather flock together. 11. JVotking 
is lost in a good market. 12. All is well, that ends 
well. 13. Like priest, like people. 

Varieties. 1. Thetriximphs of truth — are 
the most glorious, because they are bloodless ,• 
deriving their highest lustre — from tlie num- 
ber of the saved, instead of the slain. 2. Wis- 
dom — consists in employing the best means, 
to accomplish the most important ends. 3. 
He, wlio would take you to a place of vice, or 
immoralUy, is not your real friend. 4. If 
gratitude — is due from man — to man., how 
much more, from man — to his Maker / b. 
Arbitrary power — no man can either give, or 
hold; even conquest cannot confer it: hence, 
law, and arbitrary power — are at eternal en- 
mity. 6. They who take no delight in vir- 
tue, cannot take any — either in the employ- 
ments, or the inhabitants of heaven. 7. Be- 
ware of violating the laws of Life, and you 
will always be met in mercy, and not in 
judgmerit. 

The calm of that old reverend Irow, the glow 
Of its thin silver locks, was like a flash 
Ot sunlight— m the pauses of a storm. 



22 



PEINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 






[E in ELL.] 



19. Having examined the structure of the 
hody, I see the necessity of standing, at 
first, on the left foot, and the right ioot a 
few inches from it, (where it will naturally 
fall, when raised up,) and pomtmg its heel 
toward the hollow of the left foot ; of throw- 
ing the shoulders back, so as to protrude the 
chest, that the air may have free ac-cess to 
the air cells of the lungs ; of havmg the 
upper part of the body quiescent, and the 
niind concentrated on the lower muscles, 
until they act voluntarily. 

ao, Tlie second sound of E is short : 
ELL; edge, en; the dem-o- 
crat's cq-m-p&ge was a leath- 
er eph-od ; the ea-qutre leaped 
from a pei-es-tal into a ket- 
tle of eggs ; a lep-er clench'd 
the epA-a, zeaZ-ous of the e6-on 
feath-er, and held it stead-y ; 
get the non-pa-ret/ weap-ons for the rec- 
on-dite Aer-o-ine ; the ap-pre»-tice for-^efs 
the shek-els lent the deal preZ-ate for his 
Aer-o-rne ; the clean-ly leg-ate held the tep- 
id mead-ow for a spe-cial /tome-stead ; ster- 
e-o-type the pref-a.ce to the ten-ets as a prel- 
ude to our ed-i-h\e re-tro-spec-tions ; yes- 
te'r-day I guess'd the fet-id yeast es-caped 
with an ep-i-sode from the ep-ic into the 
petals of^the sen-na ; the pres-age is im- 
press''d on his ret-i-na instead of the keg of 
phlegm. 

ai. In these pecuHar exercises of voice — 
are contained all the elements, or principles 
o( articulation, accent, emphasis and expres- 
sion ; and, by their aid, with but little ex- 
ertion, I shall be enabled to economize my 
breath, for protracted vocal efforts, and im- 
part all that animation, brilliancy and force, 
ihnt reading, speaking and singing ever re- 
quire. 

}43. Irregulars. A, I, U, and Y, some- 
times have this sound : as — an-y, or man-y 
pan-e-gi/r-ists of Mar-y-land said, — the bur- 
y-ing ground a-gainst the world; says the 
lan-cet to the ^rwm-pet — get out of my way 
a-gain, else the bicr-i-a\ ser-vice will be said 
over you in the black-ness of dark-ness ; there 
is ^fc-ness in the 6a.se-ment of our plan-et, 
from the use of as-sa-/cEZ-i-da, in-stead of her- 
rings: never say sus-pect for ex-pect, busi- 
niss for busi-ness, pay-mwnt for pay-ment, 
nor gar-munts for gar-ments. 

23. As much depends on the quality of 
which any thing is made, I must attend to 
the manner, in which these sounds are pro- 
duced, and see that they are made jitst right; 
each having its appropriate weight, form, 
and quantity. Taking the above position, 
and opening th^ mouth wide, turning my 
lips a little out all round, trumpet fashion, 
and keeping mv eyes on a horizonta-l level, 
and inhaling full breaths, I will expel these 
sixteen vowel sounds into the roof of my 
mouth, with a suddenness and force similar 
to the crack of a thong, or the sound of a gun. 
An ape— is an zpe, a varlet—^s a varlet. 
Let then> be cl nhed in silk, or scarlet. 



Notes. 1. I'o make this souna of h, ftrop 'a e zoitx p. m 
open thg mouth wide, as indicated by the engraving, « a» to pre- 
vent it from becoming in the least nusal. 2. E in eni, ence, aa4 
ess, generally hag this sound ; tho' «onietune8 it ilides into short 
u. 3. When e precedes two r's (it,) it should alway* have thw 
sound : as err, er-ror, mer-it, cher-ry, wher-ry : but alien follo«'e<J 
by only rnie r, it glides into short u, tho' the under jaw should be 
much depressed : as— the mer-chaiit ieard the clerk, calling on tj« 
»er-geant for mer-cy ; let the ter-ma-gant learn that the pearls were 
jerked from the rob-ber in the tav-ern, / it similarly situated in 
certain words : the girls and birds in a mh&^l ir-da, sang di*. 
ges to the virgin : see short u. 4. E is silent i^a tfej lui salable of— 
e-ven the shov-els are broken in the oven; a weasel opeu the nr?- 
cl, with a sick-ening sniv-el; driv-en by a deaf-cning ti-tle from 
heaven, he was of-ten taken and shaken till he was softened aod 
ri-pcned seven, e-leven or a doz-en times. 5. The long vowels ara 
open and ccmtinwnis ; the short ones are shui, abrupt, or iiacrO*, 
and end as soon as made. 

Anecdote. A lawyer, to avenge himself 
on an oppone7it, wrote ^'Rascal " in his hat. 
The oivner of the hat took it up, looked rue- 
fully into it, and turning to the Judge, ex- 
claimed, " I claim the protection of this hon- 
orable court ; — for the opposing counsel has 
written his name in my hat, and I have strong 
suspicion that he intends to make off with it.' ' 

Provertos. L Malte both ends rftee•^ 2. Fair 
play — is a jewel. 3. Proverbs existed before books. 
Ml blood is alike ancient. 5. Beauty— is only skin 
deep. 6. Handsome is, that handsome does. 7. 
One fool makes many. 8. Give every one his due. 
9, No rose without a thorn. 10. Always hare a 
few maxims on hand for change. 

Sublimity and Pathos. As weak lights 
— are obscured, when surrounded by the daz- 
zling rays of the sun, so, sublimity, poured 
around on every side, overshadows the arti- 
fices of rhetoric : the lilve of which occurs in 
painting; for, tho' the light and shade, lie 
near each other, on the same ground, yet; the 
light first strikes the eye, and not only ap- 
pears projecting, but much nearer Thus, 
too, in composition, the sublime and pathetic 
— ^being nearer our souls,on account of some 
'natural connection and superi ^r spleridor, are 
always more conspicuous than figures ; they 
conceal their art, and keep themselves veiled 
from our view. 

Sounds. 1. The whole sound made is not in 
the whole air only ; but the whole sound is in 
every particle of air : hence, all sound will enter a 
small cranny unconfused. 2. At too gre-at a dis- 
tance, one may hear sounds of the voice, but not 
the words. 3. One articulate sound confounds 
another ; as when many speak at once. 4. Ar- 
ticulation requires a mediocrity of loudness. 

Varieties. 1. See how we apples swim. 
2. He carries two faces. 3. Strain at a gate 
and swallow a saw-mill. 4, Who is tlie true 
gentleman? He whose actions make him 
such. 5. A sour countenance is a manifest 
sign o{ a froward disposition. 6. Speak — as 
you mean ,- do — as you profess, and perform 
what you promise. 7. To be as nothing, 13 
an exalted state: the omnipotence of the 
heavens— exists in the truly humbled heart 
Whatever way you wendf. 
Consider well the end. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



gd 




34. 1 observe thai there are three distinct 
• principles involved in oral words, which 
are their essences, or vowel sounds ; their 
forms, or the consonants attached to them, 
and their mea7iins, or uses. By a quick, 
combined action of the lower muscles upon 
their contents, the diaphragm is elevated so 
as to force the air, or breath, from the lungs 
into the windpipe, and through the larynx, 
where it is converted into vowel sounds; 
which, as they pass out through the mouth, 
the glott's, epiglottis, palate, tongue, teeth, 
lips, and noss, make into words. 

J85. I lias tAvo tegular sounds : First, 
its NAME sound, or long: ISLE ; 
ire, t-o-dine : 6re«-tUes o-blige / 
their wines to lie for sac-cha- / 
fine Zt-lacs to fx-pe-dite their/? 
line gibes; the oh-lique grind- \ 
etone lies le7igth-wise on the ho- 
ri-zon ; a ti-ny le-vi-a-tlian, on ^' '" ■'^^^■^ 
the heights of the en-t't-rons of ylr-gives, 
as-pires to sigh through the wii-cro-scope ; 
the e-dile likes spike-nard for his he-Zi-a- 
cal ti-a-ra; the mice, in tri-ads, hie from the 
aisle, si-ne di-e, by a vi-va. vo-ce vote ; the 
bi-u'd-ry di-gest of the chrys-ta-Zme ma-gi, 
was hir'd by the choir, as a si-ne-cure, lor 
a Zi-vre. 

86. These vocal gymnastics produce as- 
tonishing power and jlexihility of voice, 
making it strong, clear, liquid, musical and 
gover7iable ; and they are as healthful as 
they are useful and amusing. As there is 
only 07ie straight course to any point, so, 
there is but one right ivay of doing a7iy 
thing, and every thing. If I" wish to do any 
thing well, I must first learn hoto; and if I 
hegiti right, and keep so, every step will 
carry me forward in accomplishing my o&- 
jects. 

Notes. . F, in some word*, has this lound ; particularly, 
*-i.en accmted, and at the end of certain nouns and verht : the ly- 
ce-uni's 3.1-ly proph^-cy to the rfi,'-nas-ty to mag-m-fy olherU faults, 
but t7Mn-i-fy Its ovm. 2. This first dip-thongal sound begins 
nearly like 2d A, as the engraving indicates, and enis with the 
name souud of e (a^e.) 3. / is not used in any purely English word 
as a final letter; y being its representative in such a position. 4. 
When / commences a word, and is in a syllable by itself, if the re- 
cent be on the mcceeding syllable, it is generally long: as, i-de-a, 
'[■cUii-t\-(y, i-rfoZ-a-try, i-ras-ci-ble, i-roji-i-cal, i-toZ-ic, i-tm-e-rant, 
?:c. It is long in the first syllables of vi-toW-ty, di-am-e-ter, di-itr- 
rtal, di-/cm-ma, bi-en-ni-al, cri-«e-ri.on, chi-me-ra, bi-og--ra-pliy, !i- 
cf'i-tious, ?i-ga7i-tic, pri-rne-val, vi-4ra-tion, &e. 6. In words de- 
rived from the Greek and I^tin, the prefixes bi, (twice,) and tri, 
(tlirice,) the / is,generally long. 

Anecdote. Seeing a Wind. "I never 
saw such a wind in all my life ,•" said a man, 
during a severe storm, as he entered a tem- 
perance hotel. ^'Saw a wind/ " observed 
another,—" What did it Zoofe like]" "Like/" 
said the traveller, " why, like to have blown 
my hat off." 

On a Mommy. 
Why should this worthless tegument— endure. 

If its undying ^tist — be lost forever 1 
O let us keep the 3jul — embalmed and pure 

In living virtue ; .hat when hoth must sever. 
Although corruption — may our frame consume, 
Th' immortal «^m^— in the skies may bloo.a. 



Proverbs. 1. A crowd, is not t.ftnpany. 2. 
A drowning man will catch at a straw. 3. Half 
a loaf is better than no bread. 4. An ill work- 
man quarrels with his tools. 5. Better be alow 
than in bad company. 6. Count not your chick 
ens before they are hatched. 7. Every body 'a 
business, is nobodtfs business. 8. Fools—make 
feasts, and wise men eat them. 9. He that will 
not be counselled, cannot be helped. 10. If it were 
not for hope, the heart would break. 11. Kind' 
nesa will creep, when it cannot walk. 12. Oil and 
truth will get tippermost at last. — 

General Intelligence. It is a signal 
improvement of the present day, that the ac- 
tions and reaciio7is of 6oo/f-learning, and oi 
g-eneral inielligence — are so prompt, so in- 
tense, and so pervading all ranks of society. 
The moment a discovery is made, a principle 
demonstrated, or a proposition advanced, 
through the medium of the jwess, in every 
part of the world; it finds, immediately, a 
host, numberless as the sands of the sea, pre- 
pared to take it up, to canvass, confirm, re- 
fute, or pursue it. At every loaZer-fall, or 
the line of every canal and raiZ-road, in the 
coi^?iZmg--room oi every factory and mercan- 
tile establishment; on the quarter-deck, of 
every skip that navigates the high seas ; on 
the farm of every intelligent husbandtna\i f 
in the workshop of every skillful tnechanic ; 
at the desk of every cSc/iOoZ-master ; in the of- 
fice of the lawyer; in the study of the physi- 
cian and clergyma7i; at the fireside of everi 
man who has the elements eta good educa- 
ticm, not less than in the prcfessed retreats of 
learning, there is an intellect to seize, to 
weigh, and to app7-oj>riate the suggestions^ 
whether they belong to the world of science, 
of tenets, or of morals. 

Varieties. 1. Ought women be allowed 
to vote ? 2. Nothing is troublesome, that we 
do willingly. 3. There is a certain kind of 
pleasure in weeping ; grief— is soothed and 
alleviated, by tears. 4. Labor hard in the 
field of observation, and turn every thiiig to a 
good account. 5. What is a more lovely sight, 
than that of a youth, growing up under the 
heavenly influence of goodness and truth P 

6. To speak ill, from knoiu ledge, shows a 
want of character ,• to speak ill — upon sus' 
picion, shows a want of honest pnncijde 

7. To be*perfectly resigned in the whole l.fe 
and in its every desire, to the ivill and govern^ 
ance of the Divine Providence, is a worship 
most pleasing in the sight of the Lord. 

To me, tho' bath'd in sorrow's dew, 

The dearer, far, art thou : 
I lov^d thee, when thy woes were few 

And can I alter— note ? 
That face, in jot/s bright hour, was fair , 
More beauteous, since grief is there ; 

Tho' somewhat pale thy brow ; 
And be it mi7ie, to soothe the pain, 
Thus pressing on thy heart and brain. 



24 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



^tnr 




at, Articulatio7i is the cutting out and 
shaping, in a perfectly distinct and appro- 
priate manner, with the organs of speech, 
all the simple and compound sounds which 
our twenty-six letters represent. It is to 
the ear what a fair hand-writing is to the 
eye, and relates, of course, to the sounds, 
not to the names, of both vowels and conso- 
nants. It depends on the exact positions 
and correct operations, of the vocal powers, 
and on the ability to vary them with rapid- 
ity, precision and effect: thus, articulation 
is purely an intellectual act, and belongs 
not to any of the brute creation. 

S8. Tlie second sound of I is short : 
ILli; inn, imp; the ser-vile 
spir-it of a rep-tile Zi6-er-tine is 
hos-tile to fem-i-nine fi-del-i- / 
ty; the pu-er-ile dis-ci-i^ine I 
of mer-can-tile chi-ca«e-ry, is \ 
the ar-<?/-i-cer of mi7-i-ta-ry 
rfes-po-tism ; the fer-tile eg- f' '" ^^^ 
Ian-tine is tZes-tin'd for aju-ve-nile gift ; the 
g-e?i-u-ine pro-file of Cao-tain White-field is 
the an-ftp-o-des of in-di-vi-si-5iZ-i-ty ; the 
wind, in the vi-czw-i-ty of mount Lib-a-nns, 
is a n\e-di-ci-na[ for the con-spir-a-cy of the 
ir?^-and; the pris-tine /o7/7t-tains of the 
ad-a-ma«-tine spring is s?^Z-Iied with the 
guil-Xy gm\-o-tine ; man is an ea:-quis-ite 
e-pi^o-me of the z«-fi-nite Di-vw-i-ty, and 
should be stud-led as def-l-m\e-ly as pos- 
si-ble. 

89. Two grand objects are, to correct had 
nabits, and form good ones ; which may be 
done by the practice of analysis and syn- 
tltesis : that is, taking compound sounds, 
s'/fluhles, words, and sentences into pieces; 
or, resolving them into their component 
parts, and then recombining, or putting them 
together again. Error must be eradicated, 
or truth cannot be received ; we must cease 
to do evil, and learn to do well : what is 
true can be received only in proportion as 
its opposite false is removed. 

30. Irregulars. ^, E, O, U, and Y, in a 
few words, have this sound : as-the horn-age 
ffiv-en to pret-ty woni-en has been the rich-est 
bus-'ness of pet-ty tyr-an-ny, since the English 
proph-e-cy of Py-<Aa^-o-rus ; the styg-i-an fur- 
nace of bus-y Wal-Iace, in Hon-ey al-ley, is a 
werf-ley of pyr-i-tes, and the treb-\e cyn-o-sure 
of cy;o--nets, Ar^s-sop, and syn-o-nyms. 

Notes. I. Beware of Mr. Walker's error, in giving the 
•rjnd of long E to the final unaccented /and K of syllables and 
trsrdj, which is always short: as,— as-per-ee-tee, for as^er-i-ty, 
(Dce-uor-ee-lee, for mi-rwr-i-ty; char-ee-tee for cAar-i-ty; pos-see- 
* 1-ee-tee, for pos-si-Wi-i-ty, &c. 2. Some give the short sound oS 
t\oA ifl the unaccented syllables of— ad-age, cofc-bage, pos-tage, 
/«jt-dage, u-sage, &c., which is agreeable to the authorities, and to 
5ive the a as in ai, savors of affectation. 3. / is silent in evil, de- 
»«i, cousin, basin, &c 4. /, in final unaccented syllables, not 
n%d»ns a word, is generally shoH; ji-ma-i-tude, fi-deZ-i-ty mi 
fc)r-i-ty 

A bark, at midnight, sent alone — 

To drift upon a moonless sea, — 
A lute, whose leading chord — is gone, 
A wounded bird, that has but one 
Imperfect wing — to soar upon, — 
Is like what /am— wi hout thee. 



Anecdote. Accommodating. A fkjfti- 
dan — advertised, that at the request of nis 
ft'iefids, he had moved near the church-ynTd; 
and trusted that his removal would accom- 
modate many of his patients. No doubt of it. 

Proverbs. 1. A thousand probabilities will 
not make one truth. 2. A Aand-saw is a goo<J 
thing, but not to shave with. 3. Gentility, with- 
out ability, is worse than beggary. 4. A man 
may talk like a wise man, and yet act like a fool, 
5, If we would «Mcceed in any thing, we must Me« 
the proper means. 6. A liar should have a good 
memory. 7. Charity begins at home, but doea 
not end there. 8. An ounce of mother wit is 
v/otih 9. pound oi learning. 9. Short reckonings 
make long friends. 10. Custom is the plague of 
wise men, and the idol of fools. 11. Every one 
knows best where his own shoe pinches Afamt 
heart never won a fair lady. 

Freedom. V7lier\. freedom is spoken of 
every one has an idea of what is meant ; for 
every one has known what it is to live in 
freedom, and also what it is to five, and act 
under restraint. But then it is obvious, 
that different persons feel in freedom, ac 
cording to circumstances ; things which re- 
strain and infringe upon the freedom of 
some, have no sucn effect upon others. So 
that in the same situation in which one 
would feel free, another would feel himself 
in bondage. Hence, it is evident that tho' 
all have a general idea of what freedom is, 
yet all have not the same idea of it. For 
as different persons would not ail be free in 
the same circumstances, it follows, that free- 
dom itself is not the same thing to all. Of 
course, the kinds of freedom are as many 
and various as the kinds of love are by which 
we are all governed: and our freedom is 
genuine or not genuine, according as our 
ruling love is good or evil. 

Varieties. 1. Did you ever consider how 
many millions of people — live, and die, igno- 
rant of themselves and the world ? 2. Stin- 
giness soon becomes a confirmed hxihit, and 
increases with our years. 3. The man, who 
is just, and firm ui his purpose, cannot be 
shaken in liis detennined mind, eitlier by 
threats or promises. 4. By continually scol- 
ding children and domestics, for small faults, 
they finally become accustomed to it, and de- 
spise the reproof, b. Good books — are nirt 
only ^.nourishment to the mind, but they eji- 
lighten and expand it. 6. Why do we turri 
from those livmg in this world, to those who 
have left it, for the evidences of genuine love ? 
7. All principles love their neaiest relatives, 
and seek fellowship and conjunction wtli 
them. 
There are some bosoms — dark and dre^ir 
Which an unwater'd desert are ; 
Yet there, a curious eye, may trace 
Some smiling spot, some verdant place. 
Where little flowers, the tceeds between 
Spend their sofl fragrance— ^[\ unseen. 




PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



25 



^v:' 




31, The organs of speech are, the dorsal 
and abdominal muscles, the diaphragm and 
intercostal muscles, the thorax or chest, 
the lungs, the trachea or wind-pipe, the 
larynx, (composed of five elastic cartilages, 
the ipper one being the epiglottis,) the glot- 
tis, palate, tongue, teeth, lips and nose : 
but, in all efforts, we must use the whole 
body. All vowel sounds are made in the 
larynx, or vocal box, and all the consonant 
sounds above this organ. 

33. O lias tliree regular souxtds : first, 
its NAME sound, or long: OLD ; 
the sloth-ixA doge copes with the 
/o-rist before Pfta-raoh, and 
sows oK-ly yeZ-low oats and o- 
sier ; the home-\y por-trait of the 
a-fru-cious gold-sxmih. is the yeo- 
man-ry's j9t7-lovv ; Job won't go [OmOLJ.] 
to Rome and pour <aZ-low o-ver the broach 
of the pre-co-cious wid-ow Gross; the 
whole corps of for-gevs tore the iro-phy 
from the /eZ-low's nose, and told him to 
store it under the po-ten-tate's so-fa, where 
the de-co-rus pa-<roZ pour'd the lioa-ry min- 
nows. 

33, A correct and pure articulation, is 
indispensable to the public speaker, and es- 
sential in private conversation : every one, 
therefore, should make himself master of it. 
All, who are resolved to acquire such an 
articulation, and faithfully use the means, 
(which are here furnished in abundance,) 
will most certainly succeed, though opposed 
by slight organic defects ; for the mind may 
obtam supreme control over the whole body. 

34. Irregulars. Au, Eau, and Ew, have 
this sound in a few words : The beau Ros- 
geau, with mourn-fn\. hau-^ewr, stole the haut- 
boy, bu-reau, cha-teau and flam-beaua:, and 
poked them into his port-manteau, before the 
belle sowed his toe to the har-row, for strew- 
ing the .s^eio-bread on the plat-eai*. 

Anecdote. A Narrow Escape. A pedan- 
tic English traveler, boasting that he had been 
so fortimate, as to escape Mr. Jefferson's ce- 
lebrated non-importation laiv, was told by a 
Yankee lady, " he was a very lucky man : for 
she understood that the non-importation law 
prohibited the importing of goods, of which 
brass — was the chief composition.^' 

Proverbs. 1. Jiffairs, like salt-fish, should 
b-i a long time soaking'. 2. A fooPs tongue, like 
a .nonkey's tail, designates the animal. 3. Jill 
are not thiexes that dogs bark at. 4. An ant may 
work its heart out, but it can never make honey. 
5. Better go around, than fall into the ditch. 6. 
Church work generally goes on slowly. 7. Those, 
whom guilt contaminates, it renders equal. 8. 
Force, without forecast, is little worth. 9. Gen- 
tility, without ability, is worse than plain beg- 
crary. 10. Invite, rather than avoid labor. 11. 
He'll go to law, at the wagging of a straw. 12. 
Uj' ton^s choice, — that, or none. 

'Tis not, indeed, my talent— to engage 
In lofty triflrs ; or, to swell my puge— 
With wind, and noise. 



Natural Pliilosopliy — mclude.i a/l sub- 
stances that affect our five senses, — heanng, 
seeing, tasting, smc'Mng and feeling; whicli 
substances are called matter, and exist in 
three states, or conditions, — solid, when the 
particles cohere together, so as not to be easily 
separated ,- as recks, icood, trees, &c. : liquid, 
when they cohere slightly, and separate 
freely ,• as water : and gaseous, or aenform 
state, when they not only separate freely^ 
but tend to recede from each other, as far as 
the space they occupy, or their pressure wiir 
permit, — as air, &c. 

Educators, and Education. Wo all 
must servo an apprenticeship to the five 
senses ; and, at every step, we need assist- 
ance in learning our trade : gentleness, pa- 
tience, and love — are almost every thing in 
education : they constitute a niild and bless- 
ed atmosphere, which enters into a child's 
soul, like sunshine into the rosebud, slowly, 
but surely expaading it into vigor and 
beauty. Parents and Teachers must govern 
their own feelings, and keep their hearts 
and consciences pure, following principle, 
instead of impulse. The cultivation of the 
affections and the development of the ftotZy'.-i 
senses, begin together. The first effort of 
intellect is to associate the frames of objects 
with the sight of them ; hence, the neces- 
sity of early habits of observation — of pay- 
ing attention to surrounding things and 
events ; and enquiring the whys and where- 
fores of every thing; this will lead to the qual- 
ities, shapes, and states of inanimate sub- 
stances ; such as hard, soft, round, square, 
hot, cold, swift, slow, &c. ; then of vegsta^ 
bles, afterwards of xnimals ; and finally, of 
men, angeh, and God. In forming the 
human character we must not proceed as 
the sculptor does, in the formation of a sta- 
tue, working sometimes on one part, then 
on another ; but as nature does in forming 
a flower, or any other production ; throwing 
out altogether the whole system of being, 
and all the rudiments of every part. 

Varieties. 1. The just man will flourish 
in spite of envy. 2. Disappointment and 
suffering, are the school of wisdom.. 3. Is 
corporeal punishment necessary in the school, 
army and navy ? 4. Every thing within the 
scope of human power, can be accomplished 
by well-directed efforts. 5. W<)MATir — the 
morning-^tar of our youth, the ti^y-star of 
our manhood, and the evening-pXdiT oionxage. 
6. When Newton wns asked — by wh-^t means 
he made his discoveries in science ,- he .-^plied, 
"by thinking." 7. Infinity — can nev<}r be 
received fully — by any recipient, eitb«r In 
heaven, or on earth. 
The silver eel, in shining volumes roll'd, 
The yellow carp, in scales bedropp'd with g«.Id} 
Round broken columns, clasping ivy twin'd, 
And o'er the rwiTis— stalk'd the Btately hind. 

O cursed thirst of gold I when, for thy sake. 
The /ooZ— throw? up his iuterest in bolh worlds; 
Firsl,starv'din ch's.lhan, {amn'd— in that to com*. 




•46 

3». Attend to the quantity and quality of 
the sounds, which you and others make; 
that is, the volume and purity of voice, the 
fnne occupied, and the manner of enuncia- 
ting letters, words, and seritences : also, 
learn their differences and distitictlons, and 
j-iake your voice produce, and your ear 06- 
»«rwe them. Get clear and distinct ideas 
and concej>tio7is of fAm^s and principles, 
both as respects «piri<, and matter ; or you 
w ill grope in darhiess. 

36. Tlie second soiuid of O is cloise : 
OOZE; do stoop, and choose 
to ac-foM-tre the ^o«r-mand , ^, 
ar.d trou-ba-(foMr, with boots ' /^^/j;:;i^\^ 
and shoes ; the soot-y coM-ri-er 
broods n youth-i\\\ boor to gam- '—- ' y 
hoge the goose for a dou-ceur ; ^ ;^ qq^e.] 
Brougham, (Broom,) proves the 
.lucouth dva-<ro«7t to be a wound-ed fou-rist 
ny his droop-'mg snr-tout ; it he-hoves the 
W-by to shoot his bou-sy 7ioo-dle soon, 
lest, huo-yant with soup, the fool moor his 
poor ca-7toe to the roof of the moon. 

37. The dUFerence between expulsion 
and explosion fc, that the latter calls into 
use, principally, the lungs, or thorax : i. e. 
the effort is made too much above the dia- 
phragm : the former requires the combined 
action of the muscles below the midriff; this 
is favorable to voice and health ; that is de- 
leterious, generally, to both: many a one has 
injured his voice, by this unnatural process, 
and others have exploded their health, and 
3;:me their life ; beware of it. 

Wotes. 1. Au, inaoiM: Praick words, have this sound ; 
14— chef-d'eau-vre, (slie-docvr, a. master stroke ;) also, Eu ; as — ma- 
nai-vre; coup-d'mil, {coo-dale, first, or slight view;) c!njp-de- 
tiuiin, (a sudden attack O and conp-ile-grac£, (coo-de-grcw, the fin- 
Bhing stroke). 2. Bewsjreof Walker's erroneous notation in j.»g- 
nouncing oo in hook, cook, took, look, &c., like the second sound ct o, 
f.< in borni, pool, tocih, &c. In these first examples, the oo is like u in 
pull ; and in the Ktter the o is close. In the word to, in the following, 
when it conptitutea a jart of the verb, the o is close : as — " in the 
examples alltded to;" "attend t' the exceptions." 3. In concert 
practice, macy will let out their voices, who would read so low as 
uot to be heard, if reading individually. 

Proverl?s. 1. A fog— cannot be dispelled 
with a fan. 2. A good tale— is often marr'd in 
telling. 3. Diligence— ma.V.GS all things appear 
easy. 4. A good name — is better than riches. 5. 
A man may even say his prayers out of time. 6. 
A-peZ-les — was not a painter in a day. 7. A plas- 
trr is a pinall amends for a broken head. 8. All 
a.'e not saints tiiat go to church. 9. A man may 
live upon little, but he cannot live upon nothing 
ax all. 10. A rolling fifo7ie gathers no muss. 11. 
Patience — is a bitter seed; but it yields sweet 
fruit. 12. The longest life Hiust have an end. 

There iis a pleasure — in the pathless woods, 
There is a rapture — on the lonely shore, 
There is society, where none intrudes, 
By the deep Sea, and music — in its roar : 
I love not Man — the less, but JSTature — more, 
From these our interviews, in which I steal 
From all 1 may be, or have been befor',. 
To mingle — with the Universe, and feel — 
What I can ne^erei press, yet cannot all conceal. 



PRINCIPLES OF EL(X>UTIO^. 

Causes of Greek Perfection. All Greek 
Philologists have failed to account satisfac- 
torily, for the form, harmony, power, and 
superiority of that language. The reason 
seems to be, that they have sought for a tiling 
where it is not to be found; they havelook'd 
into books, to see — what was never written 
in books ; but which alone could be heard.. 
They learned to read by ear, and not by let- 
ters; and, instead of having vianuscripts he- 
fore them, they memorized their contents, and 
made the thoughts their own, by actual appro- 
priation. When an author wished to have 
his work published, he used the living voice 
of himself, or of a public orator, for the prin- 
ter and bookseller : and the public speaker, 
who was the best qualified for the task, would 
get the most business : the greater effect they 
produced, the higher their reputation. The 
human voice, being the grand instrument, 
was developed, cultivated, and tuned to the 
highest perfection. Beware of dead hook 
knowledge, and seek for iiving, moving na- 
ture : touch the letter — 6nly to make it alive 
with the eternal soul. 

Anecdote. / liold a wolf by the ears : 
which is similar to the phrase — catching 
a Tartar ; supposed to have arisen from a 
trooper, meeting a Tarter in the woods, 
and exclaiming, that he had caught one : to 
which his companion replied, — " Bring him 
along, then;" — he answered, "I ca'-A't ;'' 
"Then come yomself;'''' — "He won't let 
me." The meaning of which is, to repre- 
sent a man grappling with such difficulties, 
that he knows not how to advance or recede. 
Varieties. 1. 1^ it not strange, that 
such beautiful flowers — should spring from 
the dust, on which we tread? 2. Pcttient, 
persevering thought — has done more to en- 
lighten and improve mankind, than all the 
sudden and brilliant efforts of genius. 3. It 
is astonisldng, how much a little added to a 
little, will, in time, amount to. 4. The hap- 
piest state of man — is — that of doing good, 
for its oivn sake. 5. It is much safer, to 
think — what w^e say, than to say — what we 
think. 6. In affairs of the heart, the 07ily 
trafic is — love for love; and the exchwrge — 
all for all. 7. There are as many orders of 
truth, as there are of created objects of ordof 
in the world ; and as many orders of good- 
proper to such truth. 

There is a spell— m every flower, 
A sweetness — in each spray. 

And every simple bird—hath power- 
To please me, with its lay. 

And there is music — on the breett, 
Th't sports along the glade. 

The crystal dezo-Aropa — on the trcea, 
Are gems — by fancy made. 

O, there is jo?/ and happiness — 
In every thing I see, 

Which bids m/ soul rise up, and blosa 
The Ood, th'v blesses me. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



2'> 




[0 in ON.] 



3S. Oratory — in all its refinement, and 
necessary circumstances, belongs to no par- 
ticular people, to the exclusion of others; 
nor is it the gift of nature alone ; but, like 
other acquirements, it is the reward of ardu- 
us efforts, under the guidance of consummate 
skill. Perfection, in this art, as well as in all 
others, is the work of time and labor, prompt- 
ed by true feeling, and guided by correct 
tJcought. 

39. Tlie tliird sound of O is short 
ON ; /ore-head, pro^-uce ; the 
JoZ-o-rous coZZ-ier trode on th 
bronz'd o6-e-lisk, and his sol- 
ace was a co/n-bat for om-lets 
made of g-or-geous cor-als ; the 
vol-a-tiie pro-cess of making 
ros-in j^/o6-ules o( trop-'\-ca\ mon-Kdes is ex- 
f raor-di-na-ry ; the doc-i\e George for-fi-o^ 
tUe_;oc-und copse in his som-bre prog-ress 
to the moss broth in yo7t-der trough of 
A:;zoi«Z-edge ; beyond the jlor-xd frosts of 
morn-ing are the sop-o-r//'-ic prod-ucls of 
the /ioZ-y-days. 

40. Dean Kirwan, a celebrated pulpit ora- 
tor, was so thoroughly convinced of the im- 
portance of manner, as an instrument of do- 
ing good, that he carefully studied all his 
tones and gestures ; and his well modulated 
and commanding voice, his striking attitudes, 
and his varied emphatic action, greatly aided 
his wing-ed words, in instructing, melting, 
inflaming, terrifying and overwhelming his 
auditors. 

41. Irregulars. A sometimes has this 
si)und : For what was the wad-dling swan 
9Mar-rel-ing with the wasp wan-der-ing and 
wab-h\ing in the swamp ? it was in a qua7i- 
da-ry for the qua7i-ti-ty of wars be-tween 
the squash and wash-tuh, I war- rant you. 

N^OteS. L The in 7ior is like o in on and or : and the rea- 
son why it appeal! to be diiTerent, is that the letter r, when smooth, 
beine formed the lowest in the throat of any of the consonants, 
partakes more of the properties of the vmvd than the rest. 2. 
is silent in the final syllables of pris-on, bi-son, dam-son, ma-son, 
par-son, sex-ton, ar-son, bla-zon, glut-ton, par-don, but-ton, rea-son, 
niut-ton, ba-con, trea-son, reck-on, sea-son, u-ni-son, he-ri-zon, crim- 
son, les-son, per-son, Mil-ton, John-son, Thomp-son, &c. 

Proverbs. 1. A man of gladness— se\dom 
falls into madness. 2. A new broom sweeps 
clean- 3. A whetstone — can't itself cut, yet it 
makes tools cut. 4. Better go around, than fall 
into the ditch. 5. Religion — is an excellent ar- 
mor, but a bad cloke. 6. The early bird — catches 
tbe worin. 7. Everrj one's faults are not written 
in Iheir fore -heads. 8. Fire and water— are ex- 
cellent servants, but bad masters. 9. Fools and 
obstinate people, make lawyers rich. 10. Good 
counsel — has no price. 11. Great barkers — are 
no biters. 12. Regard the interests of others, as 
well as your own. 
'Tis liberty, alone, that gives the flower 
Of fleeting life its lustre, and perfume ; 
And we are weeds without it. 
Man's soul— in a perpetual motion flows, 
And to no outward cause — that motion owes. 



Analogies. Light— is used in all lan- 
guages, as the representative of tnJh m ita 
power of illustrating the understanding. 
Sheep, lambs, doves, &c., are analogous to, 
or represent certain principles and ajfectiom 
of the mind, which are pure and innscent, 
and hence, we select them as fit representu ■ 
lives of sucli affections : while, on the other 
hand, bears, wolves, sei-pents,*nnd the like, 
are thought to represent their like afTections. 
In patjiting and sculpture it is the artist's 
great aim, to represent, by sensible colon ^ 
and to embody under material forms, cer- 
tain ideas, or principles, which belong to the 
mind, and give form to his conceptions on 
canvass, or on 'marble : and, if his execu- 
tion be equal to his conception, there will 
be a perfect correspondence, or analogy, be- 
tween his picture, or statue, and the ideas, 
which he had endeavorsd therein to express. 
The works of the greatest masters in poe- 
try, and those which wih live the longest, 
contain the most of pure correspondences ; 
for genuine poetry is identical with truth; 
and it is the truth, in such works, which is 
their living prijiciple, and the so"vce of their 
power over the mind. 

Anecdote. Ready Wit. A boy, having 
been praised for his quickness of reply, a 
gentleman observed, — " When children are 
so keen in their youth, they are generally 
stupid when they become advanced in 
years.''"' " What a very sensible boy y.-'t 
must have been, sir,"— replied the lad. 

Varieties. 1. Why is a thinking perso. 
like a mirror ? because he reflects. 2. Selj 
sufficiency — is a rock, on which thousand 
perish ; while diffidence, with a proper sens 
of our strength, and worthiness, generallf 
ensures success. 3. Industry — is the law o. 
our being ; it is the demand of nature, cfrea 
son, and of God. 4. The generality of man 
Idnd — spend the early part of their lives ii 
contributing- to render the latter part misera- 
hie. 5. When we do wrong, being convinc- 
ed of it — is the fir^st step towards amend- 
ment. 6. The style of writing, adopted by 
persons of equal education and intelligence, 
is the criterion of correct language. 7. To 
go against reason and its dictates, when pure^ 
is to go against God'- such reason — is the di- 
vine governor of man's life: it is the very 
voice of God. 

THE EVENING BELLS. 

Those evening hells, those evening bells » 
How many a tale — their music tells 
Of youth, and home, and native clime. 
When I last heard their soothing chime. 
Those pleasant '^ours have passed awayt 
And many p heart, that then was gay. 
Within tl> Uivib -now darkly dwells. 
And heai-» n-- luore those evenmg bells. 
And so it win he when /am gone; 
That tuneful pc«Z— will still ring on, 
When other bards— shall walk these dellH 
And sing your praise, sweet evening bells. 



«8 



PRINCIPLES OF LLOCUTION 



4^ . Yield implicit obedience to all rules 
and principles, that are founded in nature 
and science; hecanse, ease, gracefulness, and 
effii iency, always follow accuracy ; but rules 
may be dispensed with, when you have be- 
come divested of bad habits, and have per- 
j'ecten yourself in this useful art. Do not, 
howe\ er, dest«oy the scaffold, until you have 
erected the building; and do not raise the 
6uper-s/rttr^ure, till you have dug deep, and 
laid i\s foundation stones upon urock. 

43. U lias tlirce regvilai- sounds : first, 
SAME sound, OX long : MUTE; ,s^_^.Lj 
June re-/w-ses osrtute Ju-ly the / ^-^ \ 
juice due to cu-cum-ber; tiiis feu- / J^^\ 
dal con-nois-si€wr is a suil-a.-ble i " x^^^^ ) 

co-ad-yif-tor for the c«-ri-ous ^ \ / 

?;ia7i-tua-ma-ker; the a-gue and [U in mute.] 
/e-ver is a si?i-gu-lar nuisance to the a-ct^- 
men of the nm-lat-to; the c^^-rate cal-cn- 
lates to ed-u-cate this lieu-/e?2-ant for the tri- 
6u-nal of the Duke'syu-di-cat-ure. 

44. Elocution, is reading, and speaking, 
with science, and effect. It consists of two 
parts : the Science, or its true principles, and 
the Art, or the method of presenting them. 
Science is the knowledge of Art, and Art 
IS the practice af Science. By science, or 
knowledge, we know how to do a thing ; and 
the doing of it is the art. Or, science is the 
parent, and art is the offspring ; or, science 
is the seed, and art the plant. 

45. Irregulars. Ew, has sometimes this 
diphthongal sound, which is made by com- 
rjjencing with a conformation of organs much 
hke that required in short e, as in ell, termi- 
nating with the sound of o, in ooze ; see the 
engraving. Re-uiety the deiv-y Jew a.-new, 
while the cat mews for the stew. In pro- 
nouncing the si7igle sounds, the mouth is in 
one condition ; but, in giving the diphthong, 
or double sound, it changes in conformity to 
them. 

IVoleS. I. U, when long, at the beginning of a word, or 
lyllaLile, is preceded by the consonant sound of y : i. e. it has this 
coiLsmuitit and its own vowel sound : as ; u-ni-verse, (yu-ni-verse,) 
pen-u-ry, (pen-yu-ry,) slat-u-a-ry, (stat-yu-a-ry,) ewe, (yu,) vol-umt, 
(vol-yume,) na-ture, (nat-yure,) &c.: but not in coJ-umn, oZ-uui, 
kc, where the u is short 2. Never pronounce duty, dooty ; tune, 
toon; news, noo«; blue, Woo; slew, sloo; dews, doos; Jews,Joos; 
Tuesday, T-joi Liy ; gratitude, gratitoode, kc. 3. Sound all the 
syllables full, for a time, regardless of sense, ant) make every let- 
ter tliat it not silent, tell truly and fully on the ear : there is no 
danger that you will net clip them enough in practice. 

Anecdote. A Dear Wife. A certain ex- 
travagant spe(ulatnr, who failed soon after, 
informed a relation one evening, that he 
had that day purchased an elegant set of 
jewels for his dear wife, which cost him 
two thousand dollars. " She is a dear wife, 
indeed,'''' — was the laconic reply. 

Knowledge— dwells 
»n heads, replete with thoughts oi other men ; 
Vi.sDOM. in minds attentive to their own. 



Proverbs. I. Fuols — viake fashions, and 
other people follow them. 2. From nothing 
nothing can come. 3. Give but rope enough, arj'^ 
he will hang himself. 4. Punishment— may he 
tardij, but it is sure to overtake the guilty. 5. 
He that plants trees, loves others, besides him- 
self. 6. If a fool have success, it always ruins 
him. 7. It is more easy to threaten, than to do. 
8. Learning — makes a man fit company for him- 
self, as well as others. 9 Little strokes (e £-'cat 
oaks. 10. Make the best of a bad bargain. 11. 
The more we have,the more we desire. 12. dn- 
teel societj' — is not always good society. 

Tlie Innocent and Gnllty. If those, 
only, who sow to the wi?id — reap the whirl' 
wind, it would be well : but the mischief 
is — that the blindness of bigot?:]/, the mad. 
ness of ambition, and the miscalculation of 
diplomacy — seelc their victims, principally, 
amongst the innocent and itnoffending. 
The cottage — is sure to suffer, for every er- 
ror of the court, the cabinet, or the camp. 
When error — sits in the seat of power and 
authority, and is generated in high places, 
it may be compared to that torrent, which 
originates indeed, in the mountain, but 
commits its devastation in the vale below. 

Sternal Joy. The delight of the sow? — 
is derived from love and wisdom from the 
Lord ; and because love is efl'ective through 
wisdom, they are both fixed in the effect, 
which is use : this delight from the Lord 
flows into the soul, and descends through 
the superiors and inferiors of the mind — in- 
to all the senses of the body, nnd fulfills it. 
self in them ; and thence jo/y — becomes joy, 
and also eternal— from the Eternal. 

Varieties. I. Gaming, like quicksand^ 
may swallow up a man in a moment. 2. 
Real independence — is Hving within our 
means. 3. Envy — has slain its thousands ; 
but neglect, its tens of thousands. 4. Is not 
a sectarian spirit — the deviPs wedge — to sep- 
arate christians from each other? 5. That 
man is little to be envied, whose pa/rio/wvu— 
would not gain force on the plains of Mara- 
thon ; or whose piety would not grow warm- 
er among the ruins of Io7iia. G. Rational 
evidence — is stronger than any miracle 
whenever it convinces the understanding; 
which miracles do not. 7. Man, in his sal- 
vatio7i, has the power of an omnipotent Gof^ 
to fight for him ; but in his damnation, he 
must fight against it, as being ever in the ci 
fort to save him. 

THE SEASONS. 

These, as they change, Almighty Father! thcsfe 
Are but the varied God. The rolling year 
Is ftdl of thee. Forth in the pleasing spring 
Thy beauty walks, thy tenderness and love. 
Wide flush the fields ; the sofl'ning air is balm , 
Echo the mountains round ; Ihe forest smiles^ 
And ev'ry sense, and ev'ry heart is joy. 

Even from the body''s purity— the mind- 
Receives a secrwt, sympathetic aid 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



21» 



46. By As'ALTsis — sounds, syllables, 
words, and sentences are resolved into their 
constituent parts ; to each is given its own 
peculiar sound, force, quality, and meaning,- 
and thus, every shade of vocal coloring, of 
thought and feeling, may be seen and felt. 
By Synthesis, these parts are again re-uni- 
ted, and presented in all their beautiful and 
harmonious combinutions, exhibiting all the 
varieties oi perception, thought, and emotion, 
tliat can 'be produced by the human mind. 

47. Tlie second sotuid of U is short : 
UP ; an z/7-tra numh-skuW is a s^i,,Lj 
mur-ky scwZ-lion; she urged / /-E-TX 
her cawr-te-ous hus-hand to / /J^^\\ \ 
coup-\e himself to a ire-men- ( "wcj^l 

dous iur-i\e ; the coun-try ur- \ ^ ^ / 

chin pwr-chased a bunch of [UinUP.] 
mush and fwr-nips, w^ith an ei-ful-geni duc- 
at, and burst with the bulk of fun, because 
the wm-pire de-mwrr-ed at the swc-co-tash. 

4:8. Lord Ma7is field, when quite young, 
used to recite the orations of Demosthenes, 
on his native mountains ; he also practised 
before Mr. Pnj)e, the poet, for the benefit of 
his criticis7ns ; and the consequence was, his 
melodious voice and graceful diction, made 
as deep an impression, as the beauties of his 
!.iyle and the excellence of his matter; 
which obtained for him the appellation of 
" the silver-toned Murray."" 

49. Irregulars. A, E, I, O, and Y, 
occasionally have this sound : the wo-man's 
AjAS-band's clerk whirled his com-rade into a 
bloody flood for mirth and mon-ey ; sir 
8quir-re\ does noth-ing but shove on-ions up 
the coZ-lan-der ; the sov-reign monk has just 
come to the coZ-ored mo7t-key, quoth my 
won-dex'vag mother; this sur-geon bumbs 
the 7irtr-ror-stricken 5e(i-lam-ites, and cov- 
ets the com-pa-ny of mar-tyrs and ro6-bers, 
to ^/M7i-der some tons of co«s-ins ot their 
gloves, coOT-fort, and hon-ey ; the bird en- 
vfZ-ops some worms and pome-gran- ates 
in its s«ow-ach, Si-hove the myr-t\e, in front 
of the ^au-ern, thus, fres-pass ing on the 
foy-er-ed vi-ands ; the wa?i-ton sex-ton en- 
co/n- pass-es the earth with g-i-ant whirl- 
winds, and plun-ges its sons into the bot- 
lom-less o-cean with his s7ioj;-el. 

Notes. 1. E and U, final, are sileiit in such words as, 
hopw, va^uc, eclogue, synagogue, plague, catalogue, rogue, denia- 
goffue. &r, 2. Do justice to every letter and word, and as soon 
think ot itepping backward and forward in walking, as to repro- 
liourxe your words in reading: nor should you call the words in- 
MtTbctiy, any sooner than you would put on your shoes for your 
"uU. or your liomut for your s'tawl. 3. When e or t precedes one 
T. in the same syllable, it generally has this sound : berth, n.irth, 
barn), vir-gin,&c..seciV. p. aa. 4. Sometimes r is double m sound, 
tiouifli written single. 

Could we — with ink — the ocean fill, 
Were earth — of parchment made ; 
Were every single stick — a quill, 

Each man — a scribe by trade ; 
To write the tricks— of half the sex. 

Would drink the ocean dry : — 
Gallants, heioare, look sharp, take care, 
The WJ7»d— eat many a fly. 
C 



Proverl>s. 1. Like the doff in the maxger , 
he will neither do, nor let do. 2. Many a slip be- 
tween the cup and lip. 3. No great loss, 1 u» 
there is some small gain. 4. Nothing ventiire, 
nothing have. 5. One half the world knows no* 
how the other half lives. 6. One story is good 
till another is told. 7. Pride— goes before, and 
sAamc— follows after. 8. Saying and doing, are 
two things. 9. Some— are wise, and some — arf 
otherwise. 10. That is but an empty purse, that 
is full of other folk's money. 11. Ccmmon /awM_ 
is generally considered a liar. 12. No weapon^ 
but truth ; no law, but love. 

Anecdote. Lawyer's Mistake When the 
regulations of West Boston bridge were drawn 
up, by two famous lawyers, — one section, it 
is said, was written, accepted, and now stands 
thus: "And the said proprietors shall meet 
annually, on the first Twes-day of June; 
provided,the same does not fall on Sunday." 

Habits. If parents — only exercised the 
same forethought, ond judgment, about the 
education of their children, as they do in 
reference to their shoemaker, carpenter , join- 
er, or even gardener, it would be much bet • 
ter for these precious ones. In all cases, 
what is learned, should be learned well : to 
do which, good teachers — shouM be preferred 
to cheap ones. Bad habits, once learned, 
are not easily corrected : it is better to learn 
one thing well, and thoroughly, than ma7iy 
things wrong, or imperfectly. 

Varieties. 1. Is pride — an indication ot 
talent? 2. A handsome woman — please? 
the eye ) but a good woman the heart : the 
former — is di jewel; the latter — a living trea 
sure. 3. An ass — is the gravest beast; an 
owl — ^the gravest bird. 4. What a pity it is, 
when we are speaking of one who is beauti- 
ful and gifted, that we cannot add, tliat he 
or she is good, happy, and innocent! 5. 
Don't rely too much on the torches of others ; 
light one of your own. 6. Ignorance- is 
like a blank sheet of paper, on which we may 
write ; but error — is like a scHbbled one. 7. 
All that the natural sun is to the natural 
world, that — is the Lord — to his spiritual 
creation and world, in which are our minds — 
and hence, he enlightens every man, that 
cometh into the world. 

Our birth— is but a sleep, and a forgetting ; 

The soul, th't rises witli us, our life's star, 

Hath had elsewhere — its setting, 

And cometh from afar; 

Not in entire forgetfulness. 

And not in utter nakedness. 

But trailing clouds of glory— do we come 

From Ood, who is our hoine. 

And 'tis remarkable, that they 

Talk most, that have the least to say. 

Pity — is the virtue of the law. 

And none but t7jrants--use it cruelly. 

'Tis the ^rst sanction, nature gave to tnna, 

Each other to assist, in what they can. 
r2 



30 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



50. It is not the quantity read, but the 
ma?iner of reading, and the acquisition of 
correct and efficient rules, with the abihty 
TO apply them, accurately, gracefully , and 
involuntarily, that indicate progress in these 
arts : therefore, take ofie principle, or com- 
bination of principles, at a time, and prac- 
tice it till the object is accomplished : in tfiis 
way, you may obtain a perfect mastery over 
your vocal powers, and all the elements of 
language. 

61. The tlilrd sound of U Is Fnlli 
PULL ; crw-el Bru-tns rued the I 

crude fruit bruised for the pud- ^^^r\ 
ding ; thepru-dent rw-ler wound- I /^X 
ed this youth-i\x\ cuck-oo, he- j <y~-^\ 
cause he would, could, or should I ^^^ ) 
not im-6r«e his hands in Ruth's \ / 

gru-el, pre-par'd for a faith-ful [U in full.] 
dru-id ; the butch-er's bul-let push-ed poor 
puss on the sm-ful cush-ion, and grace- 
ful-ly put this tru-ant Prussian into the 
p?iZ-pit for cru-ci-^a:-ion. 

52, Avoid rapidity and indistinctness 
of utterance ; also, a drawling, mincing, 
harsh, mouthing, artificial, rumbling, mo- 
notonous, whining, stately, pompous, un- 
varied, wavering, sleepy, boisterous, labor- 
ed, formal, faltering, trembling, heavy, 
theatrical, affected, and self-complacent 
manner ; and read, speak, sing, in such a 
clear, strong, melodious, flexible, winning, 
bold, sonorous, forcible, round, full, open, 
brilliant, natural, agreeable, or mellow tone, 
as the sentiment requires ; which contains 
in itself so sweet a charm, that it* almost 
atones for the absence of argument, sense, 
dind fancy. 

53. Irregulars. Ew, 0, and Oo, occa- 
sionally have this sound: the shrewd wo- 
man es-chewed the wolf, which stood pul- 
ling Ruth's looZ-sey, and shook Tru-man 
Wor-ces-ter's crook, while the brew-er and 
his bul-\y crew huz-za'd for all ; you say it 
is your truth, and / say it is my truth ; you 
may take care of yo7ir-se\i, and / will take 
care of my-sclf. 

^Otes. I. Beware of omitting vowel* occurring between 
c.insonantf in unaccented syllables : as histVy, for his-to-ry; lit'ral 
for lit-e-ral: vot'ry, torvo-torry; pasfral, for pas-to-rcU; numb'ring, 
for num-ler-ing ; cori)'ral, for cor^o-raX; gen'ral, for gen-e-ral; 
meni'r)', for mem-o-ry, kc. Do not pronounce this tound of u 
like 00 in boon, nor like u in mute ; but like u in fuU: as, chew, 
not choo, &C. 2. The design of the practice on the forty-four lounds 
of our letters, each in its turn, is, besides developing and training 
Uie voice and ear for all their duties, to exhibit the general iaws 
«nJ analogies of pronunciation, showing how a large number of 
» caIb should be pronr>unced, which are often spoken incorrectly. 

Anecdote. Sf.upidifi/. Said a testy law- 
yer, — " I believe the Jury have been inocula- 
fed for stupidity.'' " That may be," replied 
lus opponent; "but the bar, and the cotcrt, 
are of opinion, that you had it the natural 
way." 
<) there are hours, aye moments, that contain 

Feelings, that years may pass, and never bring. 

The soul's dark c:ttage, battered, and decayed. 
Rtil'i lets in iw7u,thro' rkinks, ih^t «iot« has made. 



Proverbs. I. Jlway goes the devh when the 
door is shut against him. 2. A liar is not to be 
believed when he speaks the truth. 3. Never 
speak ill of your neighbors. 4. Constant occu- 
pation, prevents temptation. 5. Courage — ought 
to have eyes, as well as ears. 6. Experience- 
keeps a dear school , but fools will learn in no 
other. 7. Follow the wise few, rather than the 
foolish many. 8. Good actions are the best sacri- 
fice. 9. He who avoids the temptation, avoids 
the sin. 10. Knowledge — directs practice, yet 
practice increases knowledge. 

Duties. Never cease to avaL yo?ureelf of 
information: you must observe closely — 
read attentively and digest what you read,— • 
converse extensively with high, and low, ricfi 
and poor, noble and ignoble, bond and free, — 
meditate closely and intensely on all the 
knowledge you acquire, and have it at per- 
fect command. Obtain just conceptions of 
all you utter — and communicate every thing 
in its proper order, and clothe it in the most 
agreeable ajid effective language. Avoid all 
redundancy of expression; be neither too' 
close, nor too diffuse, — and, especially, be as:^ 
perfect as possible, in that branch of oratory, 
which Demosthenes declared to be thej^rs/,; 
second, and third parts of the science, — a^ 
tion, — god-like actio]s^, — which relates to 
every thing seen and heard in the orator. 
Elocution, — enables you, at all times, to 
command attention : its effect will be electric, 
and strike from heart to heart ; and he must 
be a mere declaimer, who does not feel hiDt 
self inspired — by the fostering meed of such 
approbation as mute attention, — and the re 
turn of his sentiments, fraught with the sym 
pathy of his audience. 

Varieties. 1. Have steamboats — been 
the occasion of more evil, than good? 2. 
Those that are idle, are generally troublesome 
to such as are industrious. 3. Plato saye— 
God is t7-uth, and light — is his shadow. 4. 
MaZ-information — is more hopeless than non- 
information; for eiTor — is always more diffi- 
cult to overcome than ignorance. 5. h«, 
that will not reason, is a bigot ; he, tliat can 
not reason, is a fool; and he, who dares nt)t 
reason, is a slave. 6. There is a great ditier- 
ence between a well-spoken man and an oror 
tor. 7. The Word of God — is divine, and, 
in its principles, infinite : no part can really 
contradict another part, or have a meaning 
opposite — ^to what it asserts as true ; although 
it may appear so in the letter: for the lettet 
killeth ; but the spirit — giveth life. 

They are sleepingl Who are sleeping 1 
PatLse a moment, softly tread ; 

Anxious /rtends — are fondly keeping 
Vigils — by the sleepei-^s bed I 

Other hopes have all forsaken,— 
One remains,— that slumber deepf 

Speak not, lest the slumberer waken 
From that sweety that saving sleep. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



SI 




54. A Diphtho?ig, or double sound, is the 
union of two vowel sounds in one syllable, 
pronounced by a single continuous effort of 
the voice. There are four diphthongal 
sounds, in our language ; long i as in isle ; 
oi, in oil ; the pure, or long sound of u in 
lure, and ou in our ; which include the same 
sounds under the forms of long y in rhyme; 
of oy in coy; of ew in pew;; and ow in how. 
These diphthongs are called pure, because 
they are . all heard ; and in speaking and 
singing, only the radical, (or opening full- 
ness of the sound,) should be prolonged, or 
gung. 

55. Diplitlioiigs. 0?" and Oy : OIL, 

broil the joint of loin in poison \ \^ 

and omf-ment ; spoil not the oys- , jTuT \ 

ters for the hoy-den ; the boy / 

pitch-es quoits VL-droit-ly on the 

soil, and suh-joins the joists to \ 

the pur-loins, and em-ploys the rQiinOiL.] 

de-8troy''d toi-let to soil the res- 

er-voir, lest he be cloy'd with his me-moirs. 

58. The late Mr. Fitt, (Lord Chatham,) 
was taught to declaim, when a mere hoy ; 
and was, even the7i, much admired for his 
talent in recitation : the resiclt of which 
was, that his ease, grace, power, self-pos- 
session, and imposing digidty, on his first 
appearance in the British Parliament, "drew 
audience and attentio7i, still as night ;" and 
the irresistible force of his actio?i, and the 
power of his eye, carrried conviction with 
nis arguments. 

Notes. 1. The radical, or root of this diphthong, com- 
mences nearly with 3d a, as in all, and its vanish, or terminating 
point, with the name sound of e, as in eel ; the first of which is in- 
dicated by the engraving above. 2. Avoid tlie vulgar pronuncia- 
tion of He, for oil ; jice, for joist ; pint, for point ; bile, for boil ; 
ynt, for jovit ; hist, for hoist ; spile, for spoil ; quate, for quoit ; 
jjtir line, for pur-io'in ; pt-zen, for pot-son; brile, for broil; Clyde, 
for cloyed, &c.: this sound, especially, when given with the jaw 
riiuch dropped, and rounded lips, has in it a captivating nobleness; 
but beware of extremes. 3. The general rule for pronouncing the 
vowels is — they are open, continuous, or long, when final in ac- 
cented words and syllables; as a-ble,/a-ther, ato-ful,me-tre,i»:-b'e, 
noble, »noo-ted, tw-mult, fcrtt-tal, pot-son, ow-ter-most; but they 
are shut, discrete, or short, when followed in the same syllable by 
1 consonant ; as, ap-ple, sew-er, lit-i\e, poWer, but-ion, sym-pa-thy. 
Examples of exceptions — ale, are, all, file, note, tune, &c. 4. An- 
other general rule is — a vowel followed by two consonants, that 
are repeated in the pronunciation, is short : as, master, ped-far, 
<t( ter, but-ler, &c. 

Anecdote. The hinges evil. A student 
of medici7ie, while attending medical lec- 
tares in London, and the subject of this evil 
being on hand, observed — " that the king's 
cinl had been but little known in the Utiit- 
ed States, since the Revolution. 

They are sleeping ! Who are sleeping 1 

Misers, by their hoarded ffold ; 
And, in fancy— now are heaping 

Gems and pearls — of price untold. 
Oolden chains— their limbs encumber, 

Diamonds — seem before them strown ; 
But they waken from their slumber, 

And the splendid dream — is flown. 
Compare each phrase, examine every line. 
Weigh every word, and every thought refine. 



Proverbs. 1. Home is home, if it be ever so 
homely. 2. It is too late to complain when a thing 
is done. 3. In a thousand pounds of law, there is 
not an ounce of love. 4. Many a true word is 
spoken in jest. 5. One man's meat is another 
man's poison, fx Pride, perceiving humility — 
HONORABLE, Often borrows her cloke. 7. Say- 
well— is good; but do-well— is better. 8. The 
eye, that sees all things, sees not itself. 9 Th« 
crow — thinks her own birds the whitest. 10. Ttte 
tears of the congregation are the praises of thw 
minister. 11. Evil to him that evil thinks. iQi 
Do good, if you expect to receive good. 

Our Food. The laws of man's const (u- 
Hon and relation evidently show us, that th^ 
plainer, simpler and more natural our food 
is, the more pefectlf these laws will be fulr- 
filled, and the more healthy, vigorous, and 
long-lived our bodies will be, and consequent- 
ly the more perfect our senses will be, and 
the more active and powerful may the intel- 
lectual and moral faculties be rendered by 
cultivation. By this, is not meant that we 
should eat grass, like the ox, or confine our- 
selves to any one article of food : by simple 
food, is meant that which is not compo mined , 
and complicated, and dressed with pungent 
stimulants, seasoning, or condiments ,• such 
kind of food as the Creator designed for us, 
and in such condition as is best adapted to 
our anatomical and physiolog-ical powers. 
Some kinds of food are better than others, 
and adapted to sustain us in every condition ; 
and such, whatever they may be, (and we 
should ascertain what they are,) should con- 
stitute our susteiiance: thus shall we the 
more perfectly fulfil the laws of our being, 
and secure our best interests. 

Varieties. 1. Was Eve, literally, made 
out of Adam'^s rib? 2. He — is doubly a 
conqueror, who, when a conqueror, can con- 
quer /timseZ/". 3. People may be borne down 
by oppressioii for a time ; but, in the end, 
vengeance will surely overtake their oppres- 
sors. 4. It is a great misfortune — not to be 
able to speak well ; and a still greater one. 
not to know when to be silent. 5. In the 
hours of study, acquire knowledge that will 
be useful in after life. 6. Nature — reflects 
the light of revelation, as the moon does 
that of the sun. 7. Religion — is to be a? 
much like God, as men ca7i be like him : 
hence, there is nothing ni«yre contrary to 
religion, than angry disputes and conlen 
tions about it. 
The pilgrim /a<Acrs— where are they 1 

The waves, that brought them o'er, 
SttZZ'roll in tlie bay, and throw their spraij, 

As they break along the shore : — 
Still roll in the bay, as they roll'd that day. 

When the May Flower moor'd below ; 
When the sea around, was black with starves. 

And white the sAore— with snow. 

By reason, man — a Oodhead can discern : 
But how he should be worshiped, car not Isam 



32 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



57. There are no impure diphthongs or 
triphthongs, in which Uoo or three vowels 
re-present, or unite, in one sound ; for all are 
sileni except one ; as in air, awnt, ar«l, pia?a, 
steal, lead, curtain, soar, good, your, co«gh, 
feu-dal, dun-geon, beau-ty, a-dieu, view-ing. 
These silent letters, in connection with the 
vocals, should be called di-graphs and tri- 
graphs ; that is, doubly and triply written : 
they sometimes merely indicate the sound 
of the accompanying vowel, and the deriva- 
tion of the word. Let me beware of believ- 
ing anything, unless I can see that it is true: 
and for the evidence of truth, I will look at 
the truth itself. 

58. Diphthongs; Om, and Ow : OUR; 
Mr. Brown wound an ounce ot ,^L> 
sound ti-ro2i7id a cloud, and / '^'^X^X 
drowned a mouse iii •-: oound of / y^^N\\ 
sour chow-der; a "^row-sy Vi^~~~z j 
mouse de-vour''d a hovjao and I v^?v / 
howl'd a po£0- wow a-bout the j-yy in our] 
»io?i7i- tains ; the gou-ty oM 
crouched in his tow-ex, and tlirP scowjZ-ing 
cow bowed down de-i;o«<-ly in hor how-ex ; 
the giour'(jower) en-shro^id-edi in pow-ex, 
en-dow-eA the count's prow;-ess with a re- 
nown^d trow-e\, and found him with a stout 
gown in the coun-ty town. 

59. Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, 
paid many thousa?ids to a teacher in Elocu- 
tion ; and Cicero, the Roman orator, after 
having completed his education, in other 
respects, spent two whole years in recitation, 
under one of the most celebrated tragedi- 
ans of antiqvxty. Brutus declared, that he 
vyould prefer the honor, of being esteemed 
the master of Roman eloquence, to the glo- 
ly of many triumphs. 

GO. Notes. 1. Ou and 0M> are the only representatives 
if this dipththongaJ sound ; the former generally in the niiddU 
>l wordt, and the latter at the end : in itoio, shvw, and low, w 
H silent. 2. There are 12 jno7io-thongal vowels, or stngrZe voice 
5'mnds, and 4 d»/(A-thongal vowels, or dcmhlt voice sounds : these 
ips heard in is/e, time, oil and out. 5. There is a very incorrtct 
ill J offaisive sound given by some to this diphthong, particularly 
ID the Norlliem stales, in consequence of drawing the comers of 
the rnoutli back, and keeping the teeth too close, while pronouncing 
if; it fliay be called 3. flat, ncual sound: in song it is worse 
tlan in sjieecli. It may be represented as follows — heou, 7ieou, 
""nin, fieoixr, deotin, keounty, theower, ^c. Good natured, 
UiH^lans pe/jpje, living in colddimaf«, where they wish to keep 
tlie inouih nearly closed, when talking;, are often guilty of this vul- 
(pirily. It may be avoided by opening the mouth wide, projecting 
tlie under jaw and making the sound d-iep in the throat. 

Aitecdote. Woman as she should be. A 
young woman went into a public library, in 
a certain towfi, and asked for "Man as he is." 
" That is ouf. Miss," said the librarian ; " but 
we have 'Woman as she should &e,'" She 
took the boiik and the hint too. 
Where are the heroes of the ages past : [bnes 
Where the brave chieftains — where the mighty 
Who flourish'd in the infancy of days 1 
.All to th-; ^rave gone down!— On their fall'n /ame, 
Etultant, mocking at the pride of man, 
!*ils grim Forg-et fulness. The warrior's arm 
Lies nerveless on the pillow of its shame : 
t/ush^d IS his« storm'-' voice, and quenched the blaze 
or his red eue-ba'l. 



Proverbs. L As you make your bed, so raust 
you lie in it. 2. Be the character you would bo 
called. 3. Choose a calling, th't is adapted to your 
inclination, and natural abilities. 4. Live — an<J 
let live ; i. e. do as you would be done by. 5 
Character — is the measure of the man. 6. Zeal» 
ously keep down little expenses, and you will 
not be likely to incur large ones. 7. Every one 
knows how to find fault. 8. Fair words and 
foul play cheat both young and old. 9. Give a 
dog an ill name, and he will soon be shot 1 >. He 
knows best what is good, who has endured enl. 
H. Great ;)ai7»5 and little ^aiTw, soon niaKe umu 
weary. 12. The fairest rose will wither at tost. 

Cause and Effect. The evils, which 
afflict the country, are the joint productiona 
of all parties and all classes. They have 
been produced by ovei-hanktng, o\ex-trad- 
tng, o\ex-spendi7ig, ovex-dashing, ovex-dri- 
ving, ovex-reaching, ovex -borrowing, over- 
eating, ovex -drinking, ovex -thinking, over- 
playing, ovex-riding, and ovex-acting ot 
every kind and description, except over 
working' Industry is the foundation of so 
ciety, and the cor7ier-stone of civilization. 

Recipients. We receive according to our 
states of mind and life : if we are in the love 
and practice of goodness and truth, we be- 
come the receivers of them in that propor 
tion ; but if otherwise, we form receptacles 
of their opposites,— /aZsi/?/ and evil. When 
we are under heavenly influences, we know 
that all thing-s shall work together for our 
happiness ; and when under infernal influ 
ences, they will work together for our inis- 
ery. Let us then choose, this day, whom we 
will serve ; and then shall we know — ivhere 
in consists the art of happiness, and the art 
of misery. 

Varieties. 1. Is not the single /ad, that 
the human mind has thought of another 
world, good proof that there is one 1 2. Tol- 
eration — is good for all, or it is good for 
none. 3. He who swallows up the sub- 
stance of the poor, will, in the end, find that 
it contains a bone, which will choke him. 4. 
The greatest share of happiness is enjoyed 
by those, who possess affluence, without su 
peifiuity, and can command the comforts ol 
life, without plunging into its luxuries. 5. Do 
not suppose that everi/ thing is gold, which 
glitters,- biiiid not your hopes on a sandy 
foundation. 6. Tlie world seems divided 
into two great classes, agitators SiXid the non- 
agitators: why should those, who are estab 
lished on the immutable rock of truth, feat 
agitation] 7. True humiliation — is a pear, 
of great price; for where there is no resist- 
ance, or obstacle, thei-e, — heaven, and itsm* 
Huences must enter, enlighten, teach, purify^ 
create and support. 

The only prison, th't enslaves the suul. 
Is the dark habitation, where she dwells. 
As in a noisome dun^reon. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



33 



59. Reading — by voivel sounds only, is 
analagous to singing by note, instead of by 
word. This is an exceedingly interesting 
and important exercise : it is done, simply, 
by omitting the consonants, and pronounc- 
ing the vowels, the same as in their respec- 
tive words First, r -onounce one or more 
words, and then re-pronounce them, and 
leave otf the consonants. The towels con- 
stitute the EssKxcK of words, and the conso- 
NANTS give that material the proper form. 

60 All the vowel sounds, thrice told, — 
James Parr; Hall Mann ; Eve Prest ; Ike Sill; 
Old Pool Forbs; Luke Munn Bull; Hoyle 
Trout — ate palms walnuts apples, peaches 
melons, ripe figs, cocoas goosberries hops, 
cucumbers prunes, and boiled sour-crout, to 
their entire satisfaction. Ale, ah, aU> at; 
eel, ell; isle, ill; old, ooze, on; mute, 
up, full ; oil, ounce. Now repeat all these 
vowel sounds consecutively, : A, A, A, A ; 
E, E; I, I; O, O, 0; U,U,U; Oi. Ou. 

61. Elocution — comprehends Expulsion of 
Sound, Articulation, Force, Time, Pronunci- 
ation, Accent, Pauses, Measure and Melody 
of Speech, Rhythm, Emphasis,- the Eight 
Notes, Intonation, Pitch, Inflexions, Circum- 
flexes. Cadences, Dynamics, Modulation, 
Style, the Passions, and Rhetorical Action. 
Reading and Speaking are inseparably con- 
nected with music ; hence, every step taken 
in the /ormer, according to this system, will 
aavancc one equally in the latter : for Music 
is but an elegant and refined species of Elo- 
cution. 

6a. CeRTATX vowels to be PROJfOXTJfCED 

KEPATiATELT. In reading the following, be 
very deliberate, so as to shape the sounds per- 
fectlj/, and give each syllable clearly and dis- 
tinctly ; and in all the ex-am-ples, here and 
elsewhere, make those sounds, that are ob- 
jects of attention, very prominent. Ba-a], 
the o-ri-ent «-e-ro-naut and cham-]}\-on offi- 
er-y scor-pi-ons, took his a-e-ri-al flight into 
the ge-o-me^-ri-cal em-py-re-an, and drop- 
ped a heau-W-fnl z;i-o-let into the ^jo-pi-i Fo- 
rum, where they sung hy-me-ne-al re-qui- 
ems ; Be-eZ-ze-bub ri-o-lent-ly rent the va-ri- 
e-ga-ted rfi-a-dem from his zo-o-Zog--i-cal cra- 
ni-um, and placed it on the Eu-ro-jpe-an ge- 
ni-i, to 77ie-li-o-rate their in-cho-ate i-de-a. of 
cM-ring the ^iZ-e-ous m-val-ids of Maw-tu-a 
and Pom-pe-i, with the tri-ew-ni-al pan-a-ce-a 
of no-oZ-o-gy, or the Zm-e-a-ment of «-ri-es. 

Notes, 1. The constituent diphthongal sounds of /are near. 
W 3d o, and Iste; those of «, approach to 2d e, and 2d o; those of 
at, to 3d a, and 2d i ; and those of ou to 3d o, and 2d o ; make and 
Riialyze tliem , and obsen-e the fusael shape of the lips, which 
sliaoge with tlie changing sounds in passing from the radicals to 
thtir vanishes. 2. Prevewtives and curativea of incipient disease, 
ray be found in these principles, pwitioni and exercises. 

Loveliness — 
Needs not the aid oi fcreign ornament ; 
But is. when ^^7^adorned adorned the most. 
BR0N80N. 3 



Proverbs. 1. A iraaa Ja n« \etter for liking 
himself, if nobody elae likes him. 2. A ichitf 
glove often conceali a dirty hand. 3. Bettf r pass 
at once, than to b'j always in danger. 4. Misun- 
derstandings— vlxq often lest prevented, by jien 
and ink. 5. Knowledge is treasiire, and memory 
is the treasury. 6. Crosses— are ladders, lead- 
ing to heaven. 7. Faint praise, is disparagemeni 
8. Deliver me from a person, who can talk onh' 
on one subject. 9. He who peeps throgh a key- 
hole may see what will re him. 10. If shreu'd_ 
men play the fool, they do it with a vengeance. 
11. Physicians rarely take medicines. 12. Curses, 
like chickens, generally come home to roost. 

Anecdote. A get-off. Henry the Fourth 
was instigated to propose war against the 
Protestants, by the importunity of his Par- 
liament ; whereupon, he declared that he 
would make every member a caftain of a 
company in the army : the proposal was 
then unanimously negatived. 

Contrasts. Our fair ladies laugh at tlie 
Chinese ladies, for depriving themselves 
of the use of their feet, by tight shoes and 
bandages, and whose character would be 
ruined in the estimation of their associates, 
if they were even suspected of being able 
to walk : — while they, by the more danger- 
ous and destructive habits of tight-lacing, 
destroy functions of the body far more im- 
portant, not only to themselves, but to their 
offspring ; and whole troops of dandies, 
quite as fo7?er-waisted, and almost as mas- 
culine as their mothers, are the natural re- 
sults of such a gross absurdity. If to be 
admired — is the motive of such a custom, it 
is a most paradoxical mode of accomplish- 
ing this end ; for that which is destructive 
o( health, must be more destructive of beau- 
ty — that beauty, in a vain effort to preserve 
which, the victims of this fashion have de- 
voted themselves to a joyless youth, and a 
premature decrepitude, 

Varieties. 1 . Is it best to divulge the truth 
to all, whatever may be their state of mind 
and life 1 2. A good tale — is never the worse 
for being twice fold. 3. Those who do not 
love any thing, rarely experience great enjoy- 
ments ; those who do love, often suffer deep 
griefs. 4. The way to heaven is delightful 
to those who love to walk in it ; and the diffi- 
culties we meet with in endeavoring to keep 
it, do not spring from the nature of the way, 
but from the state of the traveler. 5. He, 
who wishes nothing, will gain nothing. 6. It 
is good to know a great deal ; but it is better 
to make a good use of what we do know. 7. 
Every daij — brings forth something for tlie 
mind to be exercised on, either of a mental 
or external character ; and to be faithful in 
it, and acquit ourselves with the advantage 
denved thereby, is both wisdom and duty 
Whether he knew things, or no. 
His tongue eternally would go ; • 
For he had impudence— a.t will. 



34 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



03. Elocution and Music being insepar- 
able in their nature, every one, ot common 
organization, whe»;her aware of it, or not, 
uses all the elements of Music in his daily 
intercourse with society. When we call to 
one at a distance, we raise the voice to the 
upper pitches: when to one near by, we 
drop it to the lower pitches ; and when at a 
medium distance, we raise it to the middle 
pitches : that is, in the first case, the voice 
is on, or about the eighth note : in the sec- 
ond, on, or about the first note : and in the 
last place, on, or about the third or fifth 
note. In commencing to read or speak in 

Eublic, one should never commence above 
is fifith note, or below his thirdjiiote : and, 
to ascertain on what particular pitch the 
lowest natural note of the voice is, pro- 
nounce the w'»rd awe, by prolonging it, 
without feeling ; and to get the wpper one, 
sound eel, strongly. 

64r. Vocal Music. In the vowel sounds 
of our language, are involved all the ele- 
ments of music; hence, every one who 
wishes, can learn to sing. These eight 
vowels, when naturally sounded, by a de- 
veloped voice, will give the intonations of 
the notes in the scale, as follows , com- 
mencing at the bottom. 

lit e in eel, 8 — O— C note O-S-la-High. 

Half tone. 
1st 1 in Isle, 7 — O— B note- 



Sdoinooze,6 

1ft o in old, 5 

4tA a in at, 4 
lit a in ale, 3 



Zd 



^a 



— o- 



— o— 

-O- 



Tone. 



A note- 



Tone. 

Gnote O-S-la-Jlfedittm. 



Tone. 



P note — 

Half tone. 

E note O-3-Ia-Jlifediwm. 

Tone. 



D note- 
Tonei 



3d a in aU, 1 — O— C note O-l-la-Zotc. 

65. This Diatonic Scale of eight notes, 
(though there are but seven, the eighth being 
a repetition of the first,) comprehends five 
whole tones, and two semi, or lialf tones. 
An erect ladder, with seven rounds, is a 
good representation 3f it ; it stands on the 
ground, or floor, which is the tonic, or first 
note ; the first round is the second note, or 
Bupertonic ; the second round is the third 
note, or mediant; the third round, is the 
fourth note, or suhdominant ; between 
which, and the second round, there is a 
temitone ; ihe fourth round is Xhe fifth note, 
or dominant ; the fifth round is the sixth 
note, or submediant ; the sixth round is the 
teventh note, or suUonic ; and the seventh 
round is the eighth note, or octave. 

Keep one consistent plan— \xom end—Xo end. 



Notes. 1. In Song, as well as in Speech, tLe ArticukUvyr^ 
Pitch, Force, and Time, must be attended to ; i. e. in both art*, mas- 
ter the right form of the elements, the degree of elevation and de- 
pression of the TOice, the kind and degree of loudness of soijida, 
and tiieir duration : there is nothing in tinging that may not bt 
found in speaking. 

Anecdote. Musical Pun. A young Mu- 
sician, remarkable fa his modesty and sin- 
cerity, on his first appearance before the pub- 
lic, finding that he could not give the trills, 
effectively, assured the audience, by way of 
apology, " that he trembled so, that he could 
not shake. 

Proverbs. 1. A word— is enough to the teise, 
2. It is easier to resist our bad passions at first, 
than afte indulgence. 3. Jokes — are bad coin 
to all but the jocular. 4. You may find yotir 
worst enemy, or best friend — in yourself. 5. Ev- 
ery one has his hobby. 6. Fools— hRve liberty to 
say what they please. 7. Give every one his diu. 
8. He who wants content, cannot find it in an 
easy chair. 9. /«-will never spoke well. 10. 
Lawyer's gowns are lined with the wilfulness of 
their clients. 11. Hun/rer — is an excellent «omci'. 
12. I confide, and am at rest. 

True Wisdom. All have the faculty 
given them of growing wise, but not equal- 
ly w^ise : by which facuhy is not meant the 
ability to reason about trttth and goodness 
from the sciences, and thus of co?ifinni?ig 
whatever any one pleases ; but that of dis- 
cerning what is true, choosing what is suit- 
able, and applying it to the various uses of 
life. He is not the richest man, who is able 
to comprehend all about making money, and 
can count millions of dollars ; but he, who 
is in possession of millions, and makes a 
proper use of them. 

Varieties. 1. Does not life — beget life, 
and death — generate death? 2. The man, 
who is always complaining, and bewailinc; 
his misfortunes, not only feeds his ownjnjs- 
ery, but wearies and disgusts others. 3. 
We are apt to regulate our mode of living — 
more by the example of others, than by the 
dictates of reason and common sense. 4. 
Frequent recourse to artifice and cunning — 
is a proof of a want of capacity, as well as 
of an illiberal mind. 5. Every one, who 
does not grow better, as he grows older, is a 
s-^endthrtft of that lime, which is more pre- 
cious than gold. 6. Do what you Itnow, 
and you will Itiiow what to do. 7. As is 
the reception of truths, such is the yfercep- 
tion of them in all minds. 8. Do you see 
more than your brother? then be more 
humble and thankful ; luirt not him with 
thy meat, and strong food : when a man, he 
will be as able to eat it as yourself, and, 
perhaps, mx>re so. 

Walk with thy fellow creatures : note the Aw«» 
And whisperings amongst them. Not a spring 
Or leaf— hut hath his morning hymn ; each busk 
And oaA— doth know I am. Canst thou not sing ? 
O leave thy cares amd follies I go this way, 
And thou art sure to prosper— all the day. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



35 



66. Th.c t-wentj'-eiglit consonant 
sounds. For the purpose of still farther 
developing and training the voice, and ear, 
for reading, speaking, and singing, a system- 
atic, and thorough practice, on the twenty- 
eight consonants, is absolutely essential : in 
which exercises, it is of the, first importance, 
to make the effort properly, and observe the 
exact positions of the organs^ These conso- 
nants are either single, double, or triple; 
»r;d some of them are vocal sounds, [sub-ton- 
ics, or sub-vowels,) others, merely aspirates, 
breath sounds or atonies : let them be analy- 
zed and presented according to their natures, 
and uses. 

67. B lias liut one sound, wlileli is 
its name sound: B A ; baa, vA^l^y 
ball, bat; be, beg; bide, bid; /. (, \ 
bode, boon, boss ; bute, buss, ((|*^^^^\ 

br ute ; boil , bound ; a ro6- in im- ^ ^ ' 

bibed hlub-hers from a 6o6-bin, [b in ba.] 
and o-o6-bled forcai-bage; theroft-ber blab- 
bed 6ar-ba-rous-ly, and bam-&oo-zled the 
«a6-by 7ia-bob ; Ja-cob dab-h\ed in rib- 
bons, and played hob-nob with a co^-ler ; 
the bab-0074 6a-by gab-hied its g-i6-ber-ish, 
and made a hub-huh for its bib and black- 
ber-ries ; the ra6-ble's hob-hy is, to brow- 
heat the 6ram-ble bushes for 6iZ-ber-ries, and 
bribe the 6oo-by of his bom-?;as-tic black- 
bird. 

68. By obtaining correct ideas of the 
sounds of our letters, and their influences 
over each other ; of the meaning and pro- 
Kunciatio7i of words, and their power over 
the understanding and will of man, when 
properly arranged into sentences, teeming 
with correct thought and genuine feeling, 
I may, with proper application and exercise, 
become a good reader, speaker, and writer. 

Notes. 1. To get the vocal sound of b, tpeak its name, 
be, and then make a strong effort to pronounce it again, compreaj- 
ing the lip« closely; and the moment you give thesouTidol be, 
when you get to e, stop, and you vrill have the right sound ; or, 
pronounce ub, in flie usual way, then, vrith th« teeth sliut, and the 
lips very close, prolonging the last sound ; and, in both cases, let 
none of the sound of b, come into the mouth, or pass through the 
nose. 2. It was in analyzing and practicing the sounds of the let- 
ters, and the different pitches and qualities of voice, that the author 
became acquainted with the principles of VENTRILOQUISM, (or 
vocal ffiodiilatim, ai it should be called,) which art ii perfectly 
simple, and can be acquired and practiced by almost any one of 
"Common organization. Begin by swallowing the sound, suppresa- 
ing and dep-essing it. 3. B is silent in dett, suit-le, douit, lamt, 
s?mA, dum2i, thumi, liml, crumi, suit-le-ty, suc-cumt, MeJl-inm, 

Anecdote. A beautiful Enghsh countess 
said, that the most agreeable compliment she 
ever had paid her, was from a sailor in the 
sheet; who looked at her, as if fascinated, 
and exclaimed, ^^ Bless me ! let me light my 
pipe at your eyes.'^ 
We rise— in glorij, as we sink— in pride ; 
Where boasting-— ends, there dignity— begins. 
The true, and only friend— is he, 
'Who, like the Arhor-vitts true, 
Will bear our image — on his heart. 
Whatever is excellent, in art, proceeds 
From labor and enduranc*. 



Proverbs. 1. Gentiaty, sent Ic market, ■will 
not buy even a peck of corn. 2 He, that is 
warm, thinks others so. 3. A true friend — should 
venture, sometimes, to be a little offensive. 4. It 
is easy to take a man's part ; but the difficulty is 
to maintain it. 5. Misfortunes — seldom come 
alone. 6. Never quit certainty — for hope. 7. Ona 
—beats the bush, and anotfter— catches the bird. 
8. Plough, or not plough, — you must ;ay your 
rent. 9. Rome — was not built in a day. 10. Saeh 
till youfind, and you will not lose yocr labor. 
11. An oa&— is not felled by one stroke. 12. A 
display of courage — often causes real cowardica. 

Party Spirit. The spirit of party — ^un- 
questionably, has its source in some of the 
native passions of the heart ; and free gov- 
ernments naturally furnish more of its alv^ 
ment, than those under which liberty of 
speech, and of the press is restrained, by the 
strong arm of power. But so naturally does 
party run into extremes ,• so unjust, cruelj 
and remorseless is it in its excess ; so ruthless 
is the war which it wages against private 
character ; so unscrupulous in the choice 
of means for the attainment of selfish ends ; 
so sure is it, eventually, to dig the grave of 
those free institutions of which it pretends 
to be the necessary accompaniments ; so inety 
itably does it end in military despotism, and 
unmitigated tyrany ; that I do not know 
how the voice and influence of a good man 
could, with more propriety, be exerted, than 
in the effort to assuage its violence. 

Varieties. 1. Are our ideas innate, or ac- 
quired ? 2. The mind that is conscious of 
its own rectitude, disregards the lies of com- 
mon report. 3. Some — are very liber alt 
even to profuseness, when they can be so at 
the expense of others. 4. There are pure 
loves, else, there were no white lilies. 5. The 
glory of wealth and external beauty — is 
transitory ; but virtue — is everlasting. 6. 
We soon acquire the habits and practices, of 
those we live with ; hence the importance of 
associating with the best company, and of 
carefully avoiding such as may corrupt and 
debase us. 1- The present state is totally 
different from what men suppose, and make, 
of it; the reason of our existence — is our 
growth in the life of heaven ,- and all things 
are moved and conspire unto it ; and great 
might be the produce, if we were faithful to 
the ordinances of heaven. 

In eastern lands, they talk injlower's. 
And they tell, in a garland, their love and cares ; 

Each blossom,th't blooms in their garden bow- 
ers. 
On its leaves, a mystic language bears ; 

Then gather a wreath from the garden bowers. 

And tell the wish of thy heart— in flowers. 

Praise, from a friend, or censure, from a POB, 

Is lost— on hearers th't our merits know. 
As full as an egg is of meat. 



36 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



69. These arts, like all others, are made 
up of many little things; if I look well to 
them, all difficulties will vanish, or be easily 
overcome. Every youth ought to blush at 
fhe thought, of remainin& ignorant, of the 
first principles of his native language. I 
can do almost any thing, if I only think so, 
and try ; therefore, let me not say 1 can't ; 

but I WILL. 

70. C lias four regular sounds : nrst, 
name sound, or that of s, be- ^""y^A 
fore e, i, andy ; cede, ci-on, cy- ///Q^\\ 
press; rec-i-pe for ceZ-i-ba-cy (r yS^y SM 

in the cit-y of Cin-cin-na-ti is \\ „, /' 

a/as-ci-nat-ing soZ-ace for civ-i\ [C in cede.] 
flo-ct-e-ty; Cjc-e-ro and Ce-ciZ-i-as, with 
tac-'\i re-ci-proc-i-ty di-Zac-er-ate the a-cid 
p«m-ice with the jTa-cile ^m-cers of the 
vice-ffe-rency ; the a-ces-cen-cy of the cit- 
rons in the pZa-cid ceZ-lar, and the im-6ec-ile 
Z/c-o-rice on the cor-nice of the prec-i-pice 
ex-cj'Ze the tZis-ci-pline of the doc-\\e di-oc- 
e-san. 

71. Lisping — is caused by permitting the 
tongue to come against, or between the front 
teeth, when it should not ; thus, substituting 
/he breath sound of th for that of s or sh. 
This bad habii may be avoided or overcome 
by practicing the above and similar com- 
binations, with the teeth closely and firmly 
set not allowing the tongue to press against 
the teeth, nor making the effort too near the 
front part of the mouth. The object to be 
attained is worthy of great efforts : many 
can be taught to do a thing, in a proper 
manner, which they would never find out 
of themselves. 

72. Irregulars. 5 often has this sound ; 
rise and pro-gress. The pre-me Sal-lust, 
starts on stilts, and assists the earths in the 
u-ni- verse for con-science' sake : he spits 
base brass and subsists on stripes ; the 
ma-g-ts-trates sought ; So-lus boasts he 
twists the texts and suits the several 
sects ; the strong masts stood still in the fi- 
nest streets of Syr-a-cwse ; Se-sos-tris, still 
strutting, persists the Swiss ship is sunk, 
while sweetness sits smiling on tke lips. 
Suia?i swam over the sea ; well swum 
swan ; swan swam back again ; well swum 
swan, Sam Slick sawed six sleek slim 
slippery saplings. Amidst the mists he 
tnrusts his fists against the posts, and in- 
sists he sees the ghosts in Sixth street. 

9foteS. 1. S has the above sound, at the beginning of 
w H-Js, and other situations, when preceded or followed by an 
diirujit, or a breath consonant. 2. To niake this aspirate, place 
the orguu as in the engravni;;, and begin to whisper the word stc; 
cut five none of the sound of e. Never permit sounds to coalesce, 
that ouf^ht to be heard distinctly ; hosti, costs, &c. 4. Don't let 
Kw teeth remain together an instant, after the sound is niade ; 
rattier not bring them quite together. 5. C is silent in the follow- 
ing: Czar, arbuscles, victuals, Czarina, ( t long c,) muscle, iudicta- 
•le, and second c in Connecticut. 

Hear, then, my argument ; confess we mast, 

A Ood there is — siipremehj just ; 

M io, however tnmgs affect our sight, 

( As sings the bard, ) " whatever is— is right.'^ 

As the wind blows, you must sot your sail. 

Oood measure, pressed do«*and running ocer. 



Proverbs. 1. Building' Ab a. sveet impo 
erishing. 2. Unmanliness — is not so impolite, as 
over- politeness. 3. Death — is deaf, and hears 
no denial. 4. Every good scholar is not a good 
schoolmaster. 5. Fair words break no bunes ; 
but foul words many a one. 6. He, who has 
not bread to spare, should not keep a dog. 7. If 
you had fewer pretended friends, and more ene- 
mies, you would have been a better mart. S. 
Lean liberty — is better than fat slavery. 9. 
Much coin — much care; much Tftca^— much wa^ 
ady. 10. The submitting to one wrong— often 
brings another. 11. Consult your purse, before 
you do fancrj. 12. Do what you ought, come 
what will 

Anecdote. The Psalter. The Rev. Mr. 
]V/— , paid his devoirs to a lady, who was pre- 
possessed in favor of a Mr. Psalter : her par- 
tiality being very evident, the former took 
occasion to ask, (in a room full of company,) 
" Pray Miss, how far have you got in your 
Psalter ? " The lady archly replied, — As far 
as " Blessed is the ma?!.'" 

Book Keeping — is the art of keeping 
accounts by the way of debt and credit. It 
teaches us all business transactions, in an 
exact manner, so that, at any time, the true 
state of our dealings may be easily known. 
Its principles are simple, its conclusions nat- 
ural and certain, and the proportion of its 
parts complete. The person, who buys or 
receives, is Br. {Debtor,) the one who sells, or 
parts with any thing, is Cr. {Credit m- :) that 
is, Br. means your charges against the per 
son ; and Cr. his against you : therefore, when 
you sell an article, in charging it, say, " To 
so and so," ( mentioning the article, weight, 
quantity, number, amount, &c. ) " so much :" 
but when you buy, ox receive any thing, in 
giving credit for it, say, By so and so ; men 
tioning particulars as before. A knowledge 
of Book-keeping is important to every one 
who is engaged in any kind of business ; 
and it must be evident, that for the want of 
it — many losses have been sustained, great 
injustice done, and many law-suits entailed. 
Varieties. 1. Ought Zo//m«s to be abol- 
ished] 2. Carking cares, and anxious ajy 
prehensix)ns are injurious to body and mind, 
3. A good education — is a young man's best 
capital. 4. He, that is slow to ivroth, is better 
than the mighty. 5. Three difficult things 
are — to keep a secret, to forget an injury, 
and make good use of leisure hours. 6. If 
one speaks from an evil affection, he may 
influence, but not enlighten ,- he may cause 
blind acquiescence, but not acthm from a 
conscious sense of right. 7. Men have just 
so much of life in them, as they have of pure 
truth and its good — implanted and growing 
in them. 

Would you live an avgeVs days ? 
Be honest, just, and wise, always. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



37 




[C in CAR.] 

croak-ing 



73. A perfect knowledge of these ele- 
mentary and combined sounds, is essential to 
my becoming a good elocutionist, and is an 
excellent preparation for studying any of 
the modern languages : I must master 
them, or I cannot succeed in acquiring a 
distinct, appropriate, graceful and effective 
enunciation ; but resolution, self-exertion 
and perseverance are almost omnipotent : I 
will try them and see. 

T*. The second sotutd of C, is liard, 
or hke k, before a, o, u, k, I, r, 
t ; and generally at the end of 
words and syllables. Came, car, 
call, cap ; cove, coon, cot ; cute 
cut, crude; coil, cloud; Clark 
comes to catch clams, crabs and 
cm?/j-fish to cram his cow ; the 
scep-tic, in rac-coo7i moc-a-sins, snc-cumbs 
to the a?-c-tic spec-iSL-cle, and ac-cowi-mo- 
dates his ac-counts to the oc-cult stuc-co of 
the e-clip-iic ; the crowd claims the clocks, 
and climbs the cliffs to clutch the crows that 
craunched the bu-coZ-ics of the mi-cro-cosm. 

T5. The chest should be comparatively 
(quiescent, in breathing, speaking and sing- 
ing ; and the dorsal and abdomi?tal muscles 
be principally used for these purposes. All 
children are naturally right, in this particu- 
lar ; but they become perverted, during 
their primary education : hence., the author 
introduces an entirely 7iew mode of learning 
the letters, of spelling, and of teaching to 
read without a book, and then with a book ; 
the same as we learn to talk. The effort — 
to produce soujids, and to breathe, must be 
made from the lower muscles, above alluded 
to : thus by the practice of expelling, ( not 
exjiloding ) the vowel sounds, we return to 
truth and nature. 

7G. Irregiudars. Ch often have this 
sound ; (the h is silent ; ) also q and k — always 
when not silent; the queer co -quette kicks 
the chi-?ner-i-cal ar-chi-tect, for cat-e-chi- 
sing the cnY-i-cal choir about the cliar- 
ac-ter of the chro-ma^ic cho-rns ; Tich-i- 
cus Schenck, the quid-nunc me-c?ia7i-'ic of 
Mu-nich, qui-ei-ly quits the ar-chieves 
of the Tus-can mosque, on ac-count of the 
ca-chex-y of mc-o-tech-ny ; the piq-uant 
crit-\c quaked at the quilt-'mg, and asked 
^Mes-tions of the quorum of quil-ters. 

77. The expression of affection is the 
legitimate function of sound, which is an el- 
ement prior to, and within language. The 
affections produce the varieties of sound, 
whether of joy or of grief ; and sound, in 
speech, manifests both the quality and quan- 
tity of the afTection : hence, all the music is 
in the vowel sounds : because, all music is 
from the affectuous part of the mind, and 
vowels are its only mediums of manifesta- 
tion. As music proceeds from affection and 
is aidressed to the affection, a person does 
not truly sing, unless he sings from affec- 
tiori ; nor does a person truly listen, and 
derive the greatest enjoyment from the mu- 
sic, unless he yields hirnself/wZZy to the af- 
fectioTL, which the music inspires. 



Notes- 1. Tff produce thit guKerai aspirate, '.vhisi*! the 
imaginary word hut,(u short ; ) or the word book, in a whisper- 
ing voice, and the Uut sound is the one required : the postenor, or 
root of the tongue being pressed against the uvula, or veil of the 
palate. 2. Observe the difference between the names of .etters 
and their peculiar sounds. In giving the names of conM>uant), 
we use one, or more vowels, which make no part of the consoiant 
sound ; thus, we call the letter C by the name see ; but the ee 
make no part of its sound, which is simply a hiss, made by forc- 
ing the air from the lungs, through the teeth, when they zxe shut, 
as indicated by the engraving ; similar facts attend the other conso- 
nants. 3. H, is silent before n ; — as the fcnavieh toight toudlleJ 
and taeeled to the biit toobs of the ftnees' toick-JUiacks, &c. ; 
Gh have this sound in lough, ( lock, a lake j Irish ; ) bough, ( fixK 
joint of a hind leg of a bea&t. ) 

Proverbs. 1. Every do o- has his day, and 
every man his hour. 2. Forbid a fool a thing, 
and he'll do it. 3. He must rise betimes, that 
would please euery body. 4. It is a long^ lane 
that has no turning'. 5. Judge not of a ship, 
as she lies on the stocks. 6. Let them laugh 
that win. 7. No great loss but there is some 
small gain. 8. Never too old to learn. 9. No 
condition so low, but may have hopes ; and none 
so high, but may have fears. 10. The wise mar 
thinks he knows hut little; the /ooi!— thinks he 
knows all. H. Idleness— is the mother of vice. 
12. When liquor is in, sense — is out. 

Anecdote. William Penn — and Thomas 
Story, on the approach of a shower, took 
shelter in a tobacco -house ; the owner of 
which — happened to be within : he said to 
the traveler, — "You enter without leave,- — 
do you know ivho I am ? I am a Justice of 
the Peace." To which Mr. Story replied — 
"My friend here — makes such things as 
thee ; — he is Governor of Pennsylvania.''^ 

Elternal Progress. It is not only com- 
forting, but encouraging, to think that 
mind — is awaking ; that there is universal 
progress. Men are borne o?tu;arfZ,— wheth- 
er they will or not. It does not matter, 
whether they believe that it is an impulse 
from within, or above, that impels them for- 
ward ; or, whether i hey acknowledge that 
it is the onward tendency of things, con- 
trolled by Divine Providence : onward they 
mustg-o ; and, in time, they will be blessed 
with a clearness of visio?/,, that will leave 
them at no loss for the whys and the where 
fores. 

"Varieties. 1. To pay great attention to 
trifles, is a sure sign of a little mind. 2. 
Which is worse, a bad education, or 7io edu- 
cation 1 3. The mind must be occasionally 
indulged with relaxaticm, that it may reiarn 
to study and reflection with increased vigor. 

4. Love, and love only, is tl^e Zoan for love. 

5. To reform measures, there must be a 
change of men. 6. Sudden and violent 
changes — are not often productive of advan' 
tage—io either church, state or individual 
7. True and sound reason — must ever ac- 
cord with scripture : he who appeals to one, 
must appeal to the other; for the word 
within us, and the word without us— are 
07ie, and bear testimony to each other. 



38 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



78. Thtse pimciples must be faithfully 
studied and practiced, with a particular refer- 
ence to the expulsion of the short vowel 
sounds, and the prolongation of the long 
ones ; which exhibit quantity in its elementa- 
ry state. I must exercise my voice and mind, 
m every useful way, and labor to attain an 
intimate kjiowledge of my vocal and mental 
opacity ; then I shall be able to see any de- 
fects, and govern myself accordingly. 

70. Tile tlilrd sound of C, is like tbat 
of Z : suffice; the discemer at v*l^/ 
sice, dis-ccm-i-bly dis-cerns dis- /. ^S~^ \ 
cerw-i-ble things with dis-cern-ing [ ('*^^^, ) 

dis-cer?z-ment, and dis-cem-i-ble- *^ - /' 

ness; the aac-ri-fi-cer, in sac-ri-fi- LC in sice.] 
cing, 5ac-ri-fi-ces the soc-ri-fice on the altar 
of soc-ri-fice, and suf-fi-ceth the law of sac- 
ri-fice. These are nearly all the words in 
our language, in which c, sounds like z. 

80. Vowels — are the mediums of convey- 
mg the affections, which impart life and 
warmth to speech ; and consonants, of the 
thoughts, which give light and form to it ; 
hence, all letters that are not silent, should 
be gi\en fully and distinctly. The reason — 
why the brute creation cannot speak, is, be- 
cause they have no understanding, as men 
have; consequently, no thoughts, and of 
course, no articulating organs: therefore, 
they merely sound their affections, instead 
of speaking them ; being guided and influ- 
enced by instinct, which is a power given 
them for their preservation and continuance. 
81. Irregulars. S, Z, andZ, sometimes 
are thus pronounced ; as, the pres-i-dent re- 
sisiis his w-o-la-ted houses, and absolves the 
greasy hus-sars of I* -lam-ism ; the puz-zler 
piiz-z\es his brains with wa-sal pains, buz-zes 
about the trees as much as he pleases, and 
resumes the zig--zag giz-zavds of Xerx-es 
with dis-soZ-ving huz-zas ; Xan-thxis and 
ATew-o-phon dis-band the jois-mires, which 
dis-da.m to dis-guise their dis-mal phiz-es 
with their gv-is-ly beards ; Zion'szeal breathes 
zeph-yrs upon the paths of truths, where re- 
sides the soul, which loves the tones of mu- 
6jp coming up from Nat-me's res-o-nant 
tein-itles. 

Notes. 1. This vocal diphthongal sound is made by clos- 
ing the teeth, as in making the name sound of C, and producing 
the Zd sound of a in the larynx, ending with a hissing sound ; or it 
may be made by drawing out the sound of 2 in z- - -est. 2. S, 
lollowiag a vocal consonant, generally sounds like Z: tubs, adds ; 
efga ; needs ; pens; cars,*&c ; but following an aspirate, or breath 
xn»nant, it sounds like c hx cent, facts, tips, mutTs, crafks, &c 

Would you taste ihe tranquil scene ? 
Be sure— your bosom be serene : 
Devoid of hate, devoid of strife. 
Devoid of all, th't poisons life. 
And much it 'vails you — in their place, 
To graft the love of hurr.an race. 

Be al ways as merry as ever you can, 

For Kc oat ielights in a smrowftd m.•^n. 



8a. The perfection of music, as well aa 
of speech, depends upon giving tlie full and 
free expression of our thoughts and aflec 
tions, so as to produce corresponding ones in 
the minds of others. This is not the work of 
a day, a month, or a year ,• but of a life ; for 
it implies the full development of mind and 
body. The present age presents only a fain 
idea, of what music and oratory are capable 
of becoming ; for we are surrounded, and 
loaded, with almost as many bad habits 
(which prevent the perfect cultivation of hu- 
manity,) as an Egyptian mummy is of folds 
of linen. Let the axe of truth, of principle, 
be laid at the root of every tree that does not 
bring forth good fruit. Which do we like 
better — error, or truth ? 

Proverbs. 1. A man maybe strong, and 
not mow well. 2. It is easier to keep out a bad 
associate, than to get rid of him, after he has 
been admitted. 3. Consider well what you do, 
whence you cowe, and whither yon go. 4. Ev- 
ery fool can find faults, that a great many wise 
men cannot mend. 5. He who follows his own 
advice, must take the consequences. 6. In giv- 
ing, and taking, it is easy mistaking. 7. Letters 
do not blush. 8. Murdei — will out. 9. Nothing 
that is violent — is permanent. 10. Old foxes want 
no tutors. 11. The first chapter of fools is, to 
esteem themselves wise. 12. Ood — tempers th« 
wind — to the shorn lamb. 

Anecdote. Doctor-*em. A physician, 
having been out gaming, but without swcccsa-, 
his servant said, he would go into the next 
field, and if the birds were there, he would 
' doctor-'' em. ^ " Doctor- 'em, — what do you 
mean by thatl" inquired his master: 
" Why, kill 'em, to be-sure," — replied the 
servant. 

Varieties. 1. Which has caused most 
evil, intemperance, war, or famine ? 2. 
Power, acquired by guilty means, never 
was, and never will be exercised — to pro 
mote g-ood ends. 3. By applying ourselves 
diligently to any art, science, trade, or pro- 
fession, we become expert in it. 4. To be 
fond of a great variety of dishes — is a sure 
proof of a perverted stomach. 5. Prosperity 
— often leads persons to give way to their 
passions, and causes them to forget whence 
.they cm.ie, what they are, and whither they 
are goi7ig. 6. Evil persons — asperse the 
characters of the good, by malicious talca 
7. Every man and woman have a good-^ 
proper to them, which they are to perfeeS 
and fill up. To do this— is all that is re 
quired of them ; they need not seek to be 
in the state of another. 

In pleasure's dream, or sorrow's hour, 
In crowded hall, or lonely bow'r. 
The bus'ness of my soul—shzW be— 
Forever — to remember thee. 

VvTio more than he is worth doth rptni, 
Ev'n makes a rope—bXt life to etui. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



39 



83. Elocution or vocal delivery, relates 
to the propriety of utterance, and is exhib- 
ited by a proper enunciation, inflection and 
emphasis; and signifies — the manner of de- 
livery. It is divided into two parts ; the cor- 
rect, Vi^hich respects the meaning of what is 
read or spoken ; that is, such a clear and ac- 
curate pronunciation of the words, as will 
render them perfectly intelligible ; and the 
rhetorical, which supposes feeling ; whose 
object is fully to convey, and enforce, the 
entire sense, with all the variety, strength, 
and beauty, that taste and emotion demand. 

84. Tlie foiirtli soTuad of C is SH j 
after the accent, followed by ea, \AAj 
ia.ie eo,eou,^ndiou ; 0-CEAN; / VlL^ 
ju-itVious Fho-ci-on, te-raa-cious / r^^^^M 
of his lu»-cions spe-cies, ap-pre-\S^ — ^ )/ 
ci-ates his con-sci-e«-tious as-so- [CkciA.] 
ci-ate, who e-7iu7i-ci-ates his sap-o-wa-cious 
p/-e-science : a Gre-cian pro-^-cient, with 
ca-pa-cious sw-per-fi-cies and 7iaZ-cy-on pro- 
nun-ci-a-tion, de-pre-ci-ates the fe-ro-cious 
g-Za-ciers, and ra-pa-cious pro-vm-cial-isms 
of Cap-a-(Zo-cia. 

85. The business of training: youth in 
Elocution, should begin in childhood, before 
the contraction of bad habits, and while the 
character is in the rapid process o{ formation. 
The first school is the nursery : here, at 
'east, may be formed a clear and distinct ar- 

iculation ; which is the jirst requisite for 
^ood reading f »peaking and singing: nor can 
ease and gra,ce, in eloquence and music, be 
separated from ease and grace in private life, 
and in the social circle. 

86. Irregulars. iS*, t, and ch, in many 
words, are thus pronounced : the lus-cious 
tto-tion of Cham-pagne and prec-ious su- 
gar, in re-uer-sion for pa-tients, is suf-^- 
2ient for the ex-pwZ-sion of tTan-sient ir-ra- 
cion-aZ-i-ty from the ju-rft-cial chev-a-Ziers 
of iV/icft- i-gan, in Chi-ca-go; (She-cau)-go,) 
the 7«aM-se-a-ting ra-ci-oc-i-wa-tions of sen- 
su-al cZtar-la-tans to pro-p?-ti-ate the pas- 
sion-ate Trmr-chion-ess of Che-mung, are 
mi-nw-ti-a for ra-tion-al fis-nres to make 
E-gyp-iian op-a"-cians of. 

IVoteS. 1. This aspirate dijihthongal sound may be made, 
by prolonging the letters sh, in a whisper, sh—ow. See engraving. 
2. Beware of prolonging this sound too much. 3. Exercise all the 
muscular, or fleshy parts of the body, and let your efforts be made 
from the dorsal region; i.e. the small of the back; thus girdingup the 
loins of the mind 4. If you do not feel refreshed and invigorated 
by these exercises, after an hour's praciice, rest assured you are not 
in natiire's path: if you meet with difficulty, be particular to in- 
form your teacher, who will point out the cause and the remedy, 
6. C il silent in Czar, indict, Cne-us, Ctes-i-phon, science, muscle, 
Bene, sceptre, &c.: Sf do. in isle, vis-count, island, &c.: Ch, in 
ehism, yacM, (yot,) drac/im. 

True love's the gift, which Ood has given 

To man alone, beneath the heaven. 

It is the secret sympathy. 

The silver chord, the silken tie. 

Which, heart — to heart, and mind — to mind^ 

In body, and in soul— c&n bind. 

Pleasant the sun, 
When first on this delightful land he spreads 
His orient bean j. 



Proverbs. 1. He who sows brambles,' nmaK 
not go barefoot. 2. It is better to do well, than 
to say well. 3. Look before yo^i leap. 4. JVot*»- 
ing is so bad as not to be gc^ for Kome-thing. 5. 
One fool in a house is enough. 6. Put off your 
armor, and then show your courage. 7. A right 
choice is half the battle. 8. The fox— is very 
cunning; but he is more cunning, that catchea 
him. 9. When a person is in /ear, he is in no 
state for enjoyment. 10. When rogues fall out 
honestmen get their dwe. 11. Reward — is certai* 
to the faithful. 12. Z>ecei«— shows a little »rf»i. - 

Anecdote. A gentleman, who had lis 
tened attentively to a long, diffuse and htgh' 
ly ornamented prayer, was asked, by one 
of the members, " if he did not think their 
minister was very gifted in prayer.' 
" Yes ;" he replied, " I 'think il as good e 
prayer as was ever offered to a cjngrega 
tioii.'''' 

Our Persons. If our knowledge of the 
outlines, proportions, and symmetry of the 
human form, and of natural attitudes and 
appropriate gestures were as general as it 
ought to be, our exercises would be deter 
mined by considerations of health, grace 
and vurity of miiid ; the subject of clothing 
would be studied in reference to its true 
purposes — protection against what is with- 
out, and a tasteful adornment of the person ; 
decency would no longer be determined by 
fashion, nor the approved costumes of the 
day be at variance with personal comfort 
and ease of carriage ; and in the place of 
fantastic figures, caWed fashtonahly dres&ed 
persons, moving in a constrained and artifi- 
cial manner, we would be arrayed in vest- 
ments adapted to our size, shape, and undu- 
lating outline oi form, and with drapery 
flowing in graceful folds, adding to the 
elasticity of our steps, and to the varied 
movements of the whole body. 

Varieties. 1. The true statesman will 
never^affer the people ; he will leave that 
for those, who mean to betray them. 2. 
Will dying for principles — prove any thing 
more than the sincerity of the martyr? 3. 
Which is ihe stronger passion, love, or a7^. 
ger ? 4. Public speakers — ought to live 
longer, and enjoy better health, than others ; 
and they will, if ihey speak right. 5. 
Mere imitation — is always fruitless ; what 
we get from others, must be inborn in us, 
to produce the designed effects. 6. Times 
of general calamity, and revolution, have 
ever been productive of the greatest minds. 
7. All mere external worship, in which the 
senses hear, and the mouth speaks, but in 
which the life — is unconcerned, is perfectly 
dead, and profiteth nothing. 
Habitual evils— change not on a sudden ; 
But many days, and many sorrows. 
Conscious remor&e, and anguish— must be felt^ 
To curb desire, to break the stubborn with 
And work a second nature in the soui, 
Ere virtue— can resume the place she lott: 
Let the ' «nor of my life— speak for me. 



40 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTIOIS 




ST. Good reading and speaking is mu- 
tic ; and he who can sit unmoved by their 
cnarms, is a stranger to correct taste, oxid 
lost in insensibility. A single exhibition 
of natural eloquence, may kindle a love of 
the art, in the bosom of an aspiring youth, 
which, in after life, will impel and ani- 
mate him — through a long career of useful- 
ness. Self-made men are the glory of the 
vuorld. 

88. D lias two soxundsi first, its name 
icund ; DAME ; dart, dawn, 
dab ; deed, dead; die, did ; dole, 
do, dog ; duke, duck, druid ; 
doit, doubt ; a dan-dy de-fraud- 
ed his dad-dy of his sec-ond- 
hand-ed sad-die, and dubbed the f ^ '" °o- ^ 
had-dok a Za-dy-bird ; the doub-\e kead-ed 
■pad-dy, »o<f-ding at noo?i-day, de-«er-mined 
to rid-dle ted-ded hay in the fields till dooms- 
day ; the dog-ged dry-ads ad-dict-ed to dep- 
re-da-tions, robbed the day-dawn, of its 
dread-ed di-a-dem, and erred, and strayed a 
good deal the down-ward road to ad-en- 
dum. 

89. 1 must give all the sounds, particularly 
the final ones, with great care, and never 
run the words together, making one, out of 
three. And — is pronounced six different 
ways ; only one of which is right. Some 
call it an, or en ; others, un, ''nd. or « ; 
and a few — and; thus good-an-bad caus- 
en effect ; loaves-en-fishes, hills-un groves; 
pen un-ink, you-nd I, or youn-I ; an-de- 
said ; hooks-en-eyes, wor-sen-worse, pleas- 
ure-un-pain ; cakes-n-beer, to-un-the ; roun- 
d'n-round, ol-d'n-young, voice-n-ear ; bread- 
en-butter ; vir-tu-n-vice ; Jame-zen-John : 
solem-un-sub-Hme, up-'n-down, pies' -n- 
cakes. I will avoid such glaring faults, and 
give to each letter its appropriate sound. 

Notes. 1. Here tlie delicate ear may perceive the aspirate 
ifter the vocal part of d, as after b, and some other letters. The 
vocal is made, (see engraving, ) by pressing the tongue against the 
gamso^ fne upper fore-teeth, (the incisors,) and the roof of the 
mouth, beginning to say d, without the e sound ; and the aspirated 
part, by removing the tongue, and the organs taking their natural 
positions ; but avoid giving the aspirate of the vocal consonants, 
any vocality. Z By whispering the vocal consonants, the asi)i- 
rafe only is heard 3. X) is silent in /laiid-sel, tond-saw, hand- 
some, /land-ker-chiiif, and the first d in Wednes-day, stadt-holder, 
and in Dnie-per, ( Aee-per, ) and Dnies-ter, ( Nees-ter ). 4. Uo not 
give the sound of j to d in any word; as— grand -eur, soldAer, 
verd-ore, ed-u-caK-, ob-dn-rate, cred-u-lous, mod-u-late, &c. ; but 
speak them as thpugh written grand-yur, sold-yur, &c. ; the same 
analogy prevails in na-ture, fort-une, &c. 5. The following parti- 
cipials and adjectives, should be pronounced without abridgment j 
a l.less.ed man gives unfeign-ed thanks to his leam-ed friend, and 
o*lo#-ed lady ; some wing-ed animals are curs-ed things ; you say 
he curs'd and bless'd him, for he feign'd that he had 'learn'd his 
leswon. 6. Pronounce words in the Bible, the nme as in other 
Dooki. 

Anecdote. Blushing. A certain fash- 
ionable and dissipated youth, more famed 
for his red nose, than for his wit, on ap- 
proaching a female, who was highly rouged, 
said; "Miss; you blush from modesty.'''' 
" Pardon me Sir,' — she replied, " I blush 
from reflection.^'' 

Kindness^in wonnTJ, not their beauteous looks 
SbaU will my love. 



•«0O. As practiv'ir.g on the gutterals very 
much improves the voicji, by giving it depth 
of tone, and imparting to it smoothness and 
strength, I will repeat the following, with 
force and energy, and at the same time con- 
vert all the breath into sound : the dis-car- 
ded hands dread-ed the sounds of the muf- 
fled drums, that broke on the sad-den'd 
rfream-er's ears, marf-dened by des-pair ; 
the blood ebb'd and flowed from their d-oub- 
le dy'd shields, and worlds on worlds, and 
friends on friends by thousands roU'd. 

Proverbs. 1. An irritable and passionate 
man— is a downright drunkard. 2. Better go to 
keaven in rags, than to hell, in embroidery. 3. 
Common sense— is the growth of all countries, 
but very rare. 4v Death has nothing terrible in 
it, but what life has made so. 5, Every vice 
fights against nature. 6. Folly — is never long 
pleased with itself. 7. Ouilt— is always jesiloas . 
8. He that shows his passion, tells his enemy 
where to hit him. 9. It is pride, not nature, that 
craves much. 10. Keep out of broils, and you 
will neither be a principal nor a witness. 11. 
One dog barking, another soon joins him. 12. 
Money— is a good servant, but a bad master. 

Changes. We see that all material ob- 
jects around us are changing ; their colors 
change just as the particles are disturbed in 
their relations. This result is not owing to 
any natural cause, but to the Divine Power. 
And are there not higher influences more po- 
tent, tho' invisible, acting on man's moral 
nature, pervading the deepest abysses of his 
affection, and the darkest recesses of his 
thoughts ; to purify the one, and enlighten 
the other, and from the chaos of both — to 
educe order, beauty and happiness ? And 
why is it not changed ? Shall we deny to 
his moral nature, the powers and capacities 
which we assign to stocks and sto?ies ? Or, 
is the Almighty less inclined to bring the 
most highly endowed of his creatures into 
the harmony and blessedness of his own Di- 
vine Order? To affirm either would be 
the grossest reflection on the character of 
God, and the nature of his works. If ma7t, 
then, be ?iot changed, so as to reflect the 
likeness and imnge of his Creator and Re- 
deemer, it must be in consequence of hia 
own depraved will, and blinded understaiid 
ing. 

Varieties. 1. Why is the letter D like 
a sailor 1 because it follows, the C. 2. 
Books, ( says Lord Bacon, ) should have no 
natrons, but truth and reason. 3. Who fol- 
lows not virtue in youth, cannot fly vice in 
old age. 4. Never buy — what you do not 
want, because it is cheap ; it will be a dear 
article to you in the e?id. 5. Those— bear 
disappointments the best, who have bee'* 
most Mse(Z to them. 6. Confidence— produces 
more conversation than either wit or talerJ, 
7. Attend well to all that is said ; for noih- 
ing — exists in vain, either xn outward Gie- 
ation, in the mind, in the speech, or in the 
actions. 

Authors, before they write, should read. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



4J 




91. Do not hurry your enunciation of 
words, precipitating syllable over syllable, 
and wordovexword ; nor melt them together 
into a mass of confusion, in pronouncing 
them ; do not abridge or prolo?ig them too 
much, nor swallow nor force them ; but de- 
hver them from your vocal and articulating 
organs, as golden coins from the mint, ac- 
curately impressed, \)eri'ect\y finished, neatly 
and elegantly struck, disliuct, in due suc- 
cession, and of full weight. 

92. Tlie second sound of D, is tliat 
of Tj when at the end of words, 
after c, f, ss, p, q, a, x, ch, and / 
sh, with silent e, under the ac-A 
cent; FAC'D : he curs'd his 
stufF'd shoe, and dipp'd it in [d. in facd.] 
poach'd eggs, that escap'd from the vex'd 
cook, who watch 'd the spic'd food with 
arch'd brow, tripp'd his crisp'd feet, and 
dash'd them on the mash'd hearth ; she pip'd 
and wisp'd a tune for the watch'd thief who 
jump'd into the sack'd pan, and scratched 
his blanch'd face, which eclipsed the chaf 'd 
horse, that was attach'd and wrapp'd for a 
t£ix'd scape-grace. 

93. To read and speak with ease, accu- 
racy, and effect, are great accomplishments ; 
as elegant and dignified as they are useful, 
and important. Islany covet the art, but 
few are willing to make the necessary ap- 
plication: and this ravL^es good readers and 
speakers, so very rare. Success depends, 
principally, on the student's own exertions, 
uniting correct theory with faithful practice. 

94. Irregulars. T— generally has this 
sound ; the lit-tle tot-lex tit-Xexedi at the 
taste-{\x\ <ea-pot, and caught a tempt-mg 
far- tar by his sa-«i-e-ty ; the stout Ti-Xtm 
took a /e?Z-tale <er-ma-gant and thrust her 
against the fof-ter-ing tow-ers, for twist-\ng 
the frit-texs ; Ti-tus takes the pet-n-lent 
out-casts, and tos-ses them into na-ture's 
pas-tnxes with the tiir-tles ; the guests of 
the hosts at-tract a great deal of at-<era-tion, 
and swft-sti-tute their pre-texts for tem- 
pests ; the cow-et-ous part-nex, rfes-ti-tute of 
fort-une, states that when the steed is stol- 
en, he shuts the sta-ble door, lest the grav- 
i-ty of his xo-tuU'di-ty tip his tac-tica into 
non-e7t-ti-ty. 

When a twister, a twisting, will twist him a twist, 
For twisting his twist, he three twines doth intwist ; 
But if one of the twines of the twist do untwist, 
l~he twine that untwisteth untwisteth the twist. 

iVotes. 1. This dento-Iingual sound may be made by 
y ^i(ipering the imaginarj' word tuh, (short u) the tongue being 

I'ossed against the upper front teeth, and then suddenly removed, 
ss indicated by the engraving. 2. T is silent when preceded by 
6, and followed by the abbreviated terminations en, le. Aposile, 
?)isten, fasten, epistle, often, castle, pestle, soften, whio/le, chasten, 
Ojstle, christen; in eclat, bil-let-doux, debut, haut-boy, currants, 

le-pot, hostler, mortga{,e, Christmas, rmolus, and the first t, in 
ohesJ-nut and mi»-tle-toe. 3. The adjectives, blessed, cursed, &c. 
are exceptions to the rule for pronouncing d. 4. Consonants are 
sometimes double in their pronunciation, although not found in 
Iho name spelling; pit-ied, (pit-led,) river, (riv-var,) mon.«y 
(mou-ney,) etc. Beware of chewing your words, as vir-chii, 
na-chur«, etc. 

Se'f—a\one, in nature rooted fast, 
AUendB ns—Jlrst, and leaves us— last 



Proverbs. 1. A'one of yo.i know where thp 
shoe pinches. 2. One may live and learn. 3. 
Remember the reckoning. 4. Such as the tree i», 
such is ihe fruit. 5. The biggest horses axe not 
the best travelers. 6. What cannot be cured, 
must be endured. 7. You cannot catch old !:ird3 
with chaff. 8. Argument — seldom convincee any 
one, contrary to his inclinations. 0. A horee — is 
neither better, nor worse, for his trappings. 10. 
Content— is the philosopher's stone, thatturnii a'l 
it touches into gold. IL Never sport, with the 
opinions of others. 12. Be prompt in every tbtng. 

Anecdote. President Harrison, in hia 
last out-door exercise, was assisting thegaid* 
ner in adjusting some grape-vines. The gard- 
ner remarked, that there would be but little 
use in trailing the vines, so far as any fruit 
was concerned ; for the boys would come on 
Sunday, while the family was at church, and 
steal all the grapes; and suggested to tlie 
general, as a guard against such a loss, thait 
he should purchase an active watch-dog. 
Said the general, " Better employ an active 
Sa&&G^^-school teacher ; a dog may take care 
of the grapes, but a good Sa&bath-school 
teacher will take care of the grapes and the 
boys too." 

Home. Wherever we roam, in whatever 
climate or land we are cast, by the accidents 
of human life, beyond the mountaiyis or be- 
yond the ocean, in the legislative halls of the 
Capitol, or in the retreats and shades of pri- 
vate life, our hearts turn, with an irresistible 
instinct, to the cherished spot, which ushered 
us into existeftce. And we dwell, with de- 
lightful associations, on the recollection of 
the streams, in which, during our boyish 
days, we bathed, the fountains at which we 
drank, the pineyjfieZtfe, the hills and the val- 
leys where we sported, and the friends, who 
shared these enjoyments with us. 

Varieties. 1. If we do well, shall we n.jt 
be accepted ? 2. A guilty conscience — ^para- 
lyzes the energies of the boldest mind, and 
enfeebles the stoutest heart. 3. Persons in 
love, generally resolve— first, and reason af- 
terward. 4. All contingencies have a Prov- 
idence in them. 5. If these principles of El- 
ocution be correct, practicing them as here 
taught, will not make one formal and ar- 
tificial, but natural and effectuous. 6. Be 
above the opinion of the world, and act from 
your own sense of right and wrong. 7. All 
christians believe the soul of man to be im- 
mortal : if, then, the souls of all, who have 
departed out of the body from this world, are 
in the spiritual world, what millions of in- 
habitants must exist therein ! 
The man, who consecrates his powers, 
By vigorous effort, and an honest aim. 
At once, he draws the sting of life, and death ; 
He walks with J\rature ; and her paths — aro 
peace. 



D2 



42 



PRL>CIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



93. Let the position be erect, and the body- 
balanced on the foot upon which you stand: 
banish all care and anxiety from the mind ; 
let the forehead be perfectly smooth, the 
lungs entirely quiescent, and make every ef- 
fort from the abdominal region. To expand 
the thorax and become straight, strike the 
PALMS of tlie hands together before, and the 
backs of thein behind, turning the thumbs 
upward : do all with a united action of the 
bo6y and mind, the center of exertion being 
in the small of tlie back ; be in earnest, but 
Iiusband your breath and strength; breathe 
often, and be perfectly ^iree, ea»y, indepen- 
dent, and natural. 

96. F has two sounds: first, name 
sound: VIYE.; off with the scarf ^ , 
from the calf's head ; the a/-fa- yTi^^ 
ble b\ii-faon,faiih-fxi\ to its gaf- L^^^^^^y^ 
fer, Ufts his wife's /a-ther from -- 

the co/-fin, and puts in the fret- t f in fife- 1 
ful CM/-fy ; /ear-ftil of the ef-fects, the fright- 
ful f el-low prof -fers his hand^ker-chief to flre 
oft the ^Z«?i-druff from the^Z-ful fool's of/en- 
si ve fowl-'mg-ii iece. 

97. If you read and speak sloiv, and ar- 
ticulate well, you will always be heard with 
attention ,- although your delivery, in other 
respects, may be very faulty : and remem- 
ber, that it is not necessary to speak very 
loud, in order to be understood, but very dis- 
tinctly, and, of course, deliberately. The 
sweeter, and more musical your voice is, the 
better, and the farther you ftiay be heard, 
the more accurate will be your pronuncia- 
tion, and with the more pleasure and profit 
will you be listened to. 

98. Irregulars, GA and P^ frequently 
have this sound; P^iZ-ip Brough, laugh'd 
enough at the phantoms of the bei-maph-ro- 
dite phi-Zo5-o-phy, to make the nymph Saph- 
i-ra have a phthis-i-cdl Aic-cough ; the ser- 
aph's draiaght of the proph-e-cy was lith-o- 
graph'd for an eph-Si of phos-pho-res-ent 
naph-tha., and a sp^r-i-cal trough of tough 
phyt ic. 

Notes- 1. To make this dento-labial aspirate, press the 
snierap a§»itist the upper foreteeth, as seen in the engraving, 

lod Uow out tlie first sound of the word / ire ! 2. Gh, are 

pi«-t in dmugM, burroagh, mgfi, high, brought, dcig/i, Right, 
etc.; anJ Ph and h in pAtAis-i-cal. 3. The difliculty of applying 
■vUn, to tlie pronunciation of our language, may be illustrated by 
(tri two following lines, where ough is pronounced in ditferent 
wa.?» ; aj o, uff, off, ow, oo, and ock. Though the tough cough 
md hiccough plough me through, O'er life's dark lough my course 
I will pursue. 

Anecdote. Natural Death. An old man, 
who had been a close observer all his life, 
when dangerously sick, was urg-ed by his 
friends, to take advice of a quack; but objec- 
ted, saying, — "I wish to die a natural 
dcatli." 

The pathnt mind, by yielding — overcomes. 



Proverbs. 1. Hope— is u good breakfast, liiti 
a bad supper. 2. It is right to put every thing to 
its proper use. 3. Open confession— is ffood for 
the soul. 4. Pride — must have a fall. 5. The 
lower mill-stone— grinds as well as the upper 
one. 6. Venture not all in one vessel. 7. What 
one ardently desires, he easily believes. 8. Yield- 
ing—is sometimes the best way of succeeding. 
9. A man that breaks his word, bids othero bo 
false to him. 10. Amendment — is repentance. 11. 
There is nothing useless to a person of sense 
12. The hand of the diligent— ma.keth rich. 

Patience and Perseverance. Let any 

one coHsider, with attention, the structure 
of a common engine to raise water. Let 
him observe the intricacy o{ \\\e machinery, 
and behold in what vast quantities one of 
the heaviest elements is forced out of its 
course ; and then let him reflect how many 
experiments must have been tried in vain, 
how many obstacles overcome, before a frame 
of such wonderful variety in its parts, couia 
have been successfully put together : aftc 
which consideration let him pursue his en- 
terprise with hope of success, supporting 
the spirit of industry, by thinking how much 
may be done by patience and perseverance. 

Varieties. Was the last war with Eng- 
laml—^'ustifiable? 2. In every tiling you 
undertake, have some definite object in mind. 

3. Persons of either sex — may captivate, by 
assuming a feigned character,- but when the 
deception is found out, disgrace and unhap- 
piness will be the consequences of the fraud. 

4. All truths — are the forms of heavenly 
loves,- and all falsities — are the forms of m- 
fernal loves. 5. While we co-operate with 
Nature, we cannot labor too much — for the 
development and perfection of body and 
mind ,- but when we force or contradict her, 
so far from mending and improving "the 
human form divine," we actually degrade 
it below the brute. 6. How ridiculous some 
people make themselves appear, by giving 
their opinions for or against a thing, with 
which they are unacquainted ! 7. The law 
of God is divine and eternal, and no person 
has a right to alter, add, or diminish, one 
word : it must speak for itself, and stand by 
itself. 

Who ne«ds a teacher — to admonish him, [mist 1 
That flesh— is grass? That eartAZi/ things— are 
What are our joys— but dreams ? and what our 
But goodly shadows in the summer cloud 1 [hopes. 
There's not a wind that blows, but bears with it 
Some rainbow promise. Not a moment flies. 
But puts its sickle— in the fields of life, [cares. 
And mows its thousands, with their joys and 

Our early days ! — How often — back 
We turn— on Life's bewildering track, 
To where, o'er hill, and valley, plays 
The sunlight of our early days .' 

A monkey, to reform the times. 
Resolved to visit foreign elimes 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



43 



99. He who attempts to make an inroad 
on the existing state of things, though evi- 
dently ibr the better, will find a few to en- 
courage and assist him, in effecting a use- 
ful reform ; and many who will treat his 
honest exertions with resentment an i con- 
tempt, and cling to their old errors with a 
fonder pertinacity, the more vigorous is the 
eflbrt to tear them from their arms. There 
18 more hope of a fool, than of one wise in 
his own conceit. 

100. Tlic second sound of F, is that 
of V: OF; (?tej;er off, noxuv;) 
there-of here-of, v)here-o{; the 
only words in our language, in 
which JP, has this sound: r. 
piece of cake, not a piece-u 
cake, nor a piece-ur-cake. 



w_ji»^, 



[ F in OF. ] 



101. Muscle Breakers. Thou waft'd'st 
the rickety skiff over the mountain height 
cliffs, and clearly saw'st the full orb'd moon, 
in whose silvery and effulgent light, thou 
reef'd'st the haggled sails of the ship- wreck- 
ed vessel, on the rock-bound coast of Kam- 
scat-kB.. He was an unamiable, disrespect- 
ful, incomm?<nicative, dising-e?iU0us, formi- 
dable, unwia7tageable, intolerable and pusi- 
Zanimous old bachelor. Get the ktest 
amended edition of Charles Smith's Thu- 
cyd-i-des, and study the colonist's best in- 
terests. 

103. Irregulars. V has this vocal aspi- 
rate ; also Ph in a few words ; my vain neph- 
ew, Ste-phen Fa?i-de-ver, he-lieves Fe-nus 
a t;es-tal vir-g\n, who mv-i-fies his shiv-er- 
ed liv-er, and im-proves his vel-yet voice, 
so as to speak with viv-id viv-ac-i-ty ; the 
brave chev-a-Zier he-haves like a voZ-a-tile 
con-ser-va-tive, and says, he loves white 
wine vi7i-e-gar with veal ric^-uals every 
warm day in the ro-cal vales of Vu-co-var. 

103. Faults in articulation, early con- 
tracted, are suffered to gain strength by hab- 
it, and grow so inveterate by time, as to be 
almost incurable. Hence, parents should 
assist their children to pronounce correctly, 
in their first attempts to speak, instead of 
permitting them to pronounce in a faulty 
manner : but some, so far from endeavoring 
to correct them, encourage them to go on in 
their baby talk ; thus cultivating a vicious 
mode of articulation. Has wisdom fled from 
men ; or was she driven away ? 

Notes. 1. This rftpW/KWig-aZ sound, is made like that of /, 
ititii the addition of a voice sound m the larynx : see engraving. 2. 
A modification oHhis sound, with the upper lip over-lapping the un- 
Jer ooe, and blowing down on the chin, gives a very good imita- 
lioB of the huniljle-bee. 3. Avoid saying gim me some, for give 
me some ; I Jiaint got any, for I have not got any ; I don't luff to 
^; for, I don't love, (like rather,) to go; you'll fta^to do it; for 
you will /utve to do it. 

What is a man, 
f his chief good and market of his tivie. 
Be but to sleep and feed ? A beast, no more. Sure, 
He, th't -larfe us, with such large discourse, 
Looliing before, and after, gave us not 
That ca,pability—anA ^o-od-like reason. 
To rust in us — unused. 



Proverbs. 1. A g-o)d caise makes a sicut 
heart, and a strong arvi. 2. Better teji guilty 
persons' escape, than one innocentlij suffer. 3 
Criminals— are punished, that crime may be pre- 
vented. 4. Drunkenness— inxns a man out of 
himself, and leaves a beatt '.n his room. 5. He 
that goes to church, with an evil intention, g(»ea 
on the dcrir* errand. 6. Most things have han- 
dles ; and a wise man talces hold of the be»t. 7. 
Our flatterers— are our most dangerous enetiiea , 
yet they are often in our own bosom. 8. Pcver. 
fy— makes a man acquainted with strange bed^ 
fellows. 9. Make yourself all honey, and tr*C 
flies will be sure to devour you. 10. Many talk 
hke philosophers, and live like fools. ll.Astitcb 
in (me— saves nine. 12. The idle man's head, id 
the devil's workshop. 

Anecdote. School master and piipiL A 
school master — asked a boy, one very cold 
winter morning, what was the Latin — for 
the word cold: at which the boy hesitated, 
— saying, I have it at my finger'' s ends. 

Oiirselves and Otliers. That man — 
deserves the thanks of his country, who con- 
nects with his own — the good of others. 
The philosopher— enYxghiens the wouLn ; 
the manufacturer — employs the needy ; and 
the merchant — gratifies the rich, by procu- 
ring the varieties of every clime. The mi- 
ser, altho' he may be no burden on society, 
yet, thinking only of himself, affords no one 
else — either profit, or pleasure. As it is not 
of any one — to have a very large share of 
happiness, that man will, of course, have the 
largest portion, who makes himself — a part- 
ner in the happiness of others. The benev- 
olent — are sharers in every one^s Joys, 

Varieties. 1. Ought not the study of car 
language be made part of our education ? 

2. He who is slowest in making a promise, is 
generally the most faithful in performing it. 

3. They who are governed by reason, need 
no other motive than the goodness of a thing, 
to induce them to practice it. 4. A reading 
people — will become a thinking people ; and 
then they are capable of becoming a ration- 
al and a great people. 5. The happiness of 
every one — depends more on the state of his 
own mind, than on any external circum 
stance; nay, more than all external things 
put together. 6, There is no one so despica- 
ble, but may be able, in some way, and at 
some time, to revenge our impositio7is. 7 
Desire — seeks an end : the nature of the de 
sire, love and life, may be known by its end 
When lowly Merit- /eels misfortune's blow. 
And seeks relief from penury and wo, 

Hope fills with rapture— every generous heart, 
To share its treasures, and its liopes impart ; 
As, rising o'er the sordid lust oi gold. 
It shows the impress— of a heavenly mould ! 

Whose nature is— bo far from doing harni^ 

That he suspects none 



-RINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




44 

104. In all schools, one leading object 
should be, to teach the sci£7ice and art of 
reading and speaking with (ffed: they ought, 
indeed, to occury seven-fold more tune than 
at present. Teachers should strive to improve 
themselves, as well as their pupils, and feel, 
that to them are committed the future orators 
of our country. A first-rate reader is much 
more useful than a first-rate performer on a 
jnanu, oi any other artificial instrument. 
Nor is tlie voice of song sweeter than the 
voice of eloquence: there may be eloquent 
readers, as well as eloquent speakers. 

105. G lias tlivec sowixUsi first, name 
sound, or that of J, before e, i, 
and y, generally : GP:M ; Gen-er- 
ol Ghent, of g-i-ant g-e-nius, sug- 
gests that the o-ng--i-nal mag-ic 
of the /mg--ile gip-sey has gen- ^^.^^^^ 
er-a-ted the gen-e-oi-o-g-y of Gear- 
gi-um Si-dus ; the g-eor-gics of George Ger- 
man are ex-ag-er-a-ted by the pan-e-g-i/r-ics 
of the Zog--i-cal ser-geant ; %-dro-gen, og--y- 
gen and g-mg--seng, g-er-min-ate gen-teel gin- 
ger-bread for tlie o-rig-i-nal ab-o-rig--i-n6s of 
Ge-ne-va. 

1 06. It is of the first importance, that the 
reader, speaker and siiiger he free and um^e- 
straintd in his manner ; so as to avoid using 
the chest as much as possible, and also of 
being monotonous in the flow of his words : 
thus, there will be perfect correspondence — 
of the feelings, thoughts and actions. Look 
out upon Nature; all is free, varied, and ex- 
pressive : such should be our delivery. Na- 
ture — abhors monotony, as much as she does 
a vacuum. 

107. Irregulars. J generally has this 
sound. The ]e-june judge Just-ly Jeal-ous 
of /u-lia's joy, joined her toyu-ba James in 
June or July; thej'u-Tyjus-ti-fy the joke, in 
jerk-'ms the yat;e-lin of Ja-pi-ter from the 
j'ol-ly Jes-u-it, and yam-ming it into the Jov- 
i-al Jew, to the Jeop-ar-dy of the Jeer-'mg 
jock-ey. 

Ilfotes. 1. This triphthongal sound, as are mort of the other 
vocal consonants, is composed of a vocal and aspirate. To make 
it, compress the teeth, and begin to pronounce the word judge, 
very loud ; and when you have made a sound, e. i. got to the m, 
itoi insttntly, and you will perceive the proper sound ; or be- 
pin TO pronounce the letter g, but put no e to it : see engraving. 
2. The three sounds, of which this is composed, are that of the 
coxae sound of d, and those of e, and h, combined. 3. Breath as 
well as coice sounds, may be arrested, or allowed to escape, ac- 
cording to the nature of the sound to be produced. 

Aji«cdote. A pedlar — overtook another 
of his tribe on the road, and thus accosted 
him: ^^ Hallo, friend, what do you carry?" 
" Rum and Whisky," — was the prompt re- 
ply. " Good," said the other ; " you may go 
ahead, - I carry gravestones." 

The quiet sea, 
Th't, like a giant, resting from his toil, 
Steeps rn the morning sun. 



Provertos. 1. He that seeks trouble, it were 
a pity he should miss it. 2. Honor and case— are 
seldom &e(Z-fello\vs. 3. It is a miserable sight to 
see a poor man proud, and a rich man avaricicus. 
4. One cannot^??/ without wings. 5. The fairest 
rose at last is withered. 6. The best evidence of 
a clegynian's nseju^ness, is the holy lives of his 
parishoners. 7. We ate rarely so unfortunate, 
or so happy, as we think we are. 8. A friend iv. 
need, is a friend indeed. 9. Bought wit ie the 
best, if not bought too dear. 10. Disputations — 
leave truth in the middle, and the pariter at both 
ends. 11. We must do and live. 12. A diligeat 
pen supplies many thoughts. 

Autliority and Truth. Who has not 

observed how much more ready mankind arc 
to bow to the authority of a name, than 
yield to the evidence of truth? However 
strong and incontestible — the force of rea- 
soning, and the array of facts of an individ- 
ual, who is unknown to/ame, a slavish world 
— will weigh and measure him by the obscu- 
rity of his name. Integrity, research, sci- 
ence, philosophy, fact, truth, and goodness — 
are no shield against ridicule, and misrepre- 
sentation. Now this is exceedingly humilior 
ting to \\\e freed mind, and shows the great 
necessity of looldng at the truth itself for the 
evidence of truth. Hence, we are not to be- 
lieve what one says, because he says it, but 
because we see that it is fnie : this course is 
well calculated to make us independent rea- 
soners, speakers, and writers, and constitute 
us, as we w^ere designed to be — freemen, in 
feeling, thought and act. 

Varieties. 1 . How long was it, from the 
discovery of ^meru-cr, in 1492, by Columbtis, 
to the commencement of the Revolutionary 
War, in 1775'! 2. Most of our laws would 
never have had an existence, if evil actions 
had not made them necessary. 3. The grand 
secret — of never failing — in propriety of 
deportment, is to have an intention — of al- 
ways doing what is right. 4. Only that, 
which is sown here, will be reap'd hereafter. 
5. Is there more than one God? 6. The hu- 
man race is so connected, that the well inten- 
tioned efforts of each individual — are never 
lost; but are propagated to the mass; so 
that what one — may ardently desire, another 
— may resolutely endeavor, and a third, oi 
tenth, may actually accomplish. 7. All 
^Aottg- A/ is dependent on the will, or volun-' 
iary principle, and takes its quality there- 
from : as is the will, such is the tJiought ; for 
the thought — is the will, in form ; and the 
state of the will — may be known by that 
form. 

Go abroad, upon the paths of J^aturc. and when 
Its voices whisper, and its silent things [all 

Are breathing the deep beauty of the world. 
Kneel at its simple altar, and the Gcd, 
Who hath the living waters- -shal be there. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



45 




• 108. ElocuiiOTh- As not, as some errone- 
ously suppose, an art of something artificial 
in to7ies, links and gestures, that may be 
learned by imitation. The principles teach 
us — to exhibit truth and nature dressed to 
advantage : its objects are, to enable the rea- 
(ler, and speaker, to manifest his thoughts, 
and feelings, in the most pleasing, perspic- 
uous, and forcible manner, so as to charm the 
ejections, enlighten the understanding, and 
leave the deepest, and most permanent im- 
pression, on the mind of the attentive hearer. 

109. Tlie second sound of G, is hard, 
or gutteral, before a, o, u, I, r, 
and often before e, and i,- also, 
at the end of monosyllables, and 
sometimes at the end of dissyl- 
lables, and their preceding sylla- 
bles. GAME; a giddy goose LG in game.] 
got a ci-gar, and gave it to a gan-grene beg- 
gar .- Scrog-gins, of Bro&-dig-nag, growls 
over his green-glass g-og--gles, which the big 
ne-gro gath-er-ed from the bog-gy quag-mire ; 
a gid-dy gig-gling girl glides into the grog- 
ge-ry, and gloats over the gru-el in the great 
vig-<£'m of the rag-ged grand-mother, ex- 
claim-ing, dig or beg, the game is gone. 

110. Foreigners and natives may derive 
essential aid from this system of mental and 
vocal philosophy ; enabling them to read and 
speQ.k the language correctly,- which they 
most certainly ought to do, before they are 
employed in our schools : for whatever chil- 
dren learn, they should learn correctly. Good 
teachers are quite as necessary in the pi'i- 
mary school, as in the Academy or College .• at 
least, so thought Philip, king of Macedon, 
when he sent his son Alexander to Aristotle, 
the great philosopher, to learn his letters: 
and Alexander says, he owed more to his 
teacher, than to his father. 

111. Irregulars. Gh, in a few words, 
has this sound : tho', strictly speaking, the h 
is silent. The ghast-ly bur-gher stood a- 
ghast to see the ghost of the ghyll, eat the 
^^r/5-tly gher-kins in the ghos-t\y burgh. 
They are silent in — the neig-A-bors taug-At 
their daug-A-ters to ploug-A with de-light, 
ihongh the}'^ caught a fur-loug-A / &c. 

Notes. 1. This vocal sound is made, by pressing the roots 
of the ton^e againsf. tlie uvula, so as to close the throat, and beginning 
to tay go, without the o ; the sound is intercepted lower down than 
that of first d, and the jaw dropped more ; obsen'e also the vocal 
and aspirate ; the sound is finished, however, in this, as in all oth- 
er instances of making the vocal consonants, by the organs re- 
suming their natural position, either for another effort, or for 
silence. 3. If practice enables persons with half the usual num- 
ber of finjrers to accomplish whatever manual labor they under- 
fake ; think, how much may be done in this art, by those who pos- 
sess their vocal organs complete, provided they pursue the course 
here indicated, — there is nothing like these vocal gymnastics. 

'Tis autumn. Many, an d many a fleeting age 
Rath faded, sint* the primal morn of Time ; 
And silently the slowly journeying years. 
All redolent of countless seasons, pass. 



112. Freedonk of Tliongiit. Beware 
of pinning your faiih to another's sietv— -of 
forming your owji opinion entirely on that 
of another. Strive to attain to a modestmde- 
pendence of mind, and keep clear of leading 
strings: follow no one, where you cannot 
see tlie road, in which you are desired to 
walk : otherwise, you will have no confidence. 
in your own judgment, and will become a 
changeling all your days. Remember tl:* 
old adage — " let every tub stand on its owa 
bottom !■' And, " never be the mere shadow 
of another.'''' 

Proverbs. 1. He dies like a heast, who has 
done no good while he lived. 2. 'Tis a base 
thing to betray a man, because he trusted you. 3 
Knaves— imagine that nothing can be done with- 
out knavery. 4. He is not a wise man, who paya 
more for a thing than it is worth. 5. Learning — 
is a sceptre to some, and a bauble — to others. 6. 
JVo tyrant can take from you your knowledge. 7. 
Only that which is honestly got— is true gain. 
8. Pride— is as loud a beggar as want ; and a 
great deal more saucy. 9. That is a bad child, 
that goes like a top , no longer than it is whip- 
ped. 10. It is hard for an empty bag to stand up- 
right. 11. Learn to bear disappointment cheer- 
fully, 12. Eradicate your prejudices. 

Anecdote. A sharp Eye. A witness, 
during the assizes, at York, in Engla?id, 
after several ineffectual attempts to go on 
with his story, declared, "he could not 
proceed in his testimony, if Mr. Brougham 
did not take his eyes off from him." 

Varieties. 1. Which does society the 
most injury, the robber, the slanderer, or the 
murderer ? 2. In every period of life, our tal- 
ents may be improved, and our mind ex-pan^ 
ded by education. 3. The mind is powerful, 
in proportion as it possesses powerhil truths, 
reduced to practice. 4. Give not the meats 
and dri7iks of a man, to a child ; for how 
should they do it good ? 5. A proverb, well 
applied at the end of a phrase, often makes 
a very happy co7iclusion : but beware of 
using such sentences too ofte7i. 6. Extrav- 
agant — and misplaced eulogiums — neither 
honor the one, who bestov)s them, nor ths 
person, who receives them. 7. Apparetil 
truth — has its use, but genuine truth a 
greater use : and hence, it is the part ot 
wisdom — to seek it. 

Tis midnighVs holy hour— and silence now 

Is brooding, like a gentle Spirit, o'er 

The still and pulseless vborUi. Hark ! on the swrn 

The ifcV'j deep tones are swelling, — 'tis the kueU 

Of the departed year. No funeral ti ain 

Is sweeping past,— yet, on the stream, s.nd wood, 

with meUncholy light, the moonbeams rest, 

Like a pale, spotless shroud,— ihe air is stirred, 

As by a mourner's sigh — and on yon cloud, 

1'hat floats on still and placidly through heaven. 

The Spirits — of the Seasons — seem to stand ; 

Young Spring, bright Summer, .Autumn^s solenui Ctre 

And Winter, with his aged locks, and breathe 

In mournful cadences, that come abroad 

Like tlie far tinnrf-har])'s wild and touching nl^ 

A melancholy dirge— o'er the dead y su- — 

Gone, from the Earth, forever. 



46 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



113. These principles of oratory— are 
well calculated to accustom the mind to the 
closest investigation and reasoning ; thus, 
aflording a better discipline for the scientific, 
rational, and a/<c<M0MS faculties of the mind, 
than even the study of the mathematics: for 
the whole man is here addressed, and all his 
mental powers, and all his acquirements, are 
called mto requisition. This system is a 
Jieri/ jrdeal ; and those who pass through it, 
underftandinglu, and practically, will come 
oat perilled as hy fire: it solves difficulties, 
und 'sads the mind to correct conclusions, 
respecting what one is to do, and what one 
\B not to do. 

114. Tlie tlilrd souiid of G Is that of 
Zli which, tho' common to s 

and a, is derived to this letter ^^>^ 
from the French; or, perhaps //^^~^\ 
we should say, the words m (y^^^^>) 
which G has this sound, are Vv — >/ 
French words not Anglicised ^q j^ rquge.] 
— or made into English. The 
pro-te-g-e (pro-ta-zAa, a person protected, or 
patronized,) during his bad-e-nafife, (bad-e- 
nazh, light or playful discourse,) m the me- 
no^-e-ry, (a place for the collection of wild 
animals, or their collection,) on the vai-rage, 
(me-razA, an optical illusion, presenting an 
image of water in sandy deserts,) put rouge, 
(roozh, red paint for the face,) on the char- 

f6-d'af-fair, (shar-zAa-dif-fare, an ambassa- 
or, or minister of secondary rank.) 

115. This work informs the pupil, as the 
master workman does the apprentice : it 
teaches the principles, or rules, and the way 
to apphj them ; and when they are thus ap- 
plied to practice, he has no more use for 
them : indeed, its rules and directions serve 
him the same purpose as the guide-posi 
does the traveler) who, after visiting the 
place, towards which it directs, has no fur- 
ther weed of it. 

116. Irreg^nlars. Soften has this sound, 
and Z, generally. The az-ure ad-Ae-sion to 
the am-6ro-sial en-cZo-sures is a ro-se-ate 
f reas-ure of wts-ions of pleas-nres ; the sei- 
zure of the ti2-ier's en-<AM-si-asm is an in- 
va-sion of the ^Za-zier's di-t>j-sions of the 
scjs-sors ; the Zto-sier takes the Z»ra-zier's 
tro-sier with a-6ra-sions and cor-ro-sions by 
cx-po-sure, and <reas-ures it up without e- 
Zis-ions. 

Notes. I. This \*ocal triphthongal consonant sound may be 
niEde, by placing the orsani, as ii to pronounce sh iathow, and ad- 
d ng a voict sound, from the larynx ; or, by drawing out the sound 

of tha imaginary word 2/iur«, th ure. 2. Analyze these sounds 

thus ; give the^r>( sound of c, keep the teeth still compressed, add 
the ciipit ate of A, and then prefix the vocality ; or reverse the pro- 
coes. O is siieat m — the ma-lign phlegm of the poig-nant gnat, im- 
pregns tne en«gn's (it4-phragm, and gnaws into Chai^Ie-magne's 
sc-ragl-io. 

Anecdote. A considerate Minister. A 
vory dull clergyman, vhose delivery was 
monotonous and uninteresting to his hearers, 
putting many of the old folks asleep — said to 
tlx boys, who were playing in the gallery ; 
"Don't make so much noise there; you 
uiU awake your parents below." 

For me, my W— was what 1 mught ; to be, 
l« l\ff, or death, the 'eiriesj,— and be/rn 



Proverbs. 1 . Impudenae, and toiL, are Taitl; 
different. I. Keep thy shop, and thy shop will 
keep thee. 3. Listeners — hear no good of them- 
selves. 4. Make hay while the sun shines. 5. Ac 
ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit. 6. 
Purposing, without performing, is mere fooling 

7. Quiet persons— are welcome every where. 

8. Some have been thought brave, because they 
were afraid to run awaij. 9. A liar— is a brave 
towards Ood, and a coward towards men. 10 
Without n. friend, the world is a wilderness 11. 
A young man idle, — an old man — needy. 12 Re- 
solution, without action, is a slothful /oWy, 

Reading^ Rooms. Incalculable good 
might be done to the present and the rising 
generation, by the establishment, in every 
town and village in our country, of Public 
Reading Rooms, to be supported by volun- 
tary subscription: indeed, it would be wise 
in tow7i authorities to sustain such institu- 
tions of knowledge by direct taxation. Oh! 
when shall we wake up to a consideration 
of things above the mere love of money-ma- 
king. 

Varieties. L Did Napoleo7i — do more 
evil than good — to mankind? 2. A neces- 
sary part of good manners — is a punctual 
observation of time; whether on matters of 
civility, business, or pleasure. 3. It is ab- 
surd — to expect that your friends will re- 
member you, afteir you have thought proper 
to forget them. 4. How much pain has bor- 
rowed trouble cost us. 5. Adversity — haa 
the effect of eliciting talents, which, in pros- 
perous circumstances, would have lain dor- 
mant. 6, When the infidel would persuade 
you to abandon the J5tZ/Ze, tell him you will, 
when he will bring you a better book. 7. 
When the mind becomes persuaded of the 
truth of a thing, it receives that thing, arnl it 
becomes a part of the person's life : what 
men seek, they fi.nd. 

The Bp&cious firmament— on high, 

With all the blue etherial sky. 

And span«:led heavens, a shining frame. 

Their great original proclaim. 

Th' unwearied skw— from day to day. 

Does his Creator's power display ; 

And publishes— to eo'rj/ land. 

The work— of an Almighty hand. 

Soon as the evening shades prevail, 

The moon takes up the wond'rous tale 

And, nightly, to the list'ning earth. 

Repeats the story of her birth ; 

Whilst all the stars, that round her burn, 

And all the planets in their turn. 

Confirm the tidings as they roll, 

And spread the truth, from pole to polo. 

What, though, in solemn silence, all 
Move round the dark terrestrial ball ? 
What, though no real voice nor sound 
Amid these radiant orbs be found ? 
In reason^s ear they all rejoice. 
And utter forth a glorious voice, 
Forever singing, as they shine, 
"The hand that made us— is divine " 



I 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



47 




1 17. Be very particular in pronouncing 
the jaw, or ujotce-breukers, and cease not, 
till you can give every sound fully, correctly 
and distinctly . If your vocal powers are 
well exercised, by faithful -nractice on the 
more difficult combinatio7is, iney will acquire 
a facility oi' movement, a precision o{ action, 
n flexibility, grace, and force truly surprising. 

118. H hag but one sound) which is 
an aspirate, or forcible breathing, 
made in the glottis : HALE : , 
his high-ness holds high his/ 
hangk-iy head, and ex-At6-itsi ^ 
his shrunk shanks to ftie ho-ly 
horde in the hu-m'id hall; the [»'» hale.] 
Aani-heart-cd hedge-hog, heed-leaf of his 
hav-oc of the house-wm's ham, hies hini- 
self home, hap-py to have his head, his 
hands, and his heart whole; the /tarm-ful 
hum-hlc-hee Awr-tles through the Ao«- house, 
and ex-horts his ex-haust-ed hive-lings to 
hold their AoMse-hold-stuff for a Ao6-by-horse 
till /tar-vest-home. 

119. It is said, that no description can 
adequately represent Zjord Chatham : to 
comprehend the force of his eloquence, it 
was necessary to see and to hear nim : his 
whole delivery was such, as to make the 
orator a part of his own eloquence: his mi?id 
was view'd in his countenance, and so em- 
bodied was it in his every look, and gesture, 
that his words were rather /eZf than /oZZow- 
€rf ; they invested his hearers ; the weapons 
of his opponents fell from their hands ; he 
spoke with the air and vehemence of inspi- 
ration, and the very atmosphere flamed 
around him. 

1^0. H i» silent at tlie beginning and 
end of many -words. The Zion-est shep- 
/icrd's ca-tarr/t, /mm-bles the Aeir-ess in her 
disA-a-billes, and /m-mors the t/ty-mv r/tet- 
o-ric of his rAymes to r/tap-so-dy ; the h\x- 
mor-some T/tom-as ex-plained dipA-thongs 
and trin/t-thongs to A-6t-ja7t, Be-ri-aA — Ca- 
bJi, Di-na/t, E-li-']vJi, Ge-raA, Hul-daA, I- 
sa-iaA, Jo-nnh, Han-nah, Nin-e-vah, 0-ba- 
di-ah, Fis-gah, Ru-maJi, Sa-rah, Te-raA, 
Uri-a/t, Va-ni-aJi, and Ze-lah. 

Notes. 1. This sounl is the material of which all sounds 
»re irj'le, whfither vowel or consonant, either by condensation, 
or inodification. To demonstrate this jxisition, commence any 
sound in\ whiter, and proceed to a. vocalily ; shaping the orsTi.'s 
to form the one required, if a vowel or voca. consonant, and in ■ 
pDpef way to produce any of the aspirates, i Those who are 
Q tht labit of omitting the h, wlien it ought to be pronounced, can 
practice on the preceding and similar examples: and aNo correct 
ouch sentences ai this ; Hi took my 'orse hand went hout to 'unt 
iiiy 'ogs, hand got hofi my 'onie, hand 'iched im to a hoak tree, 
hand gave 'im lome boats. 3. It requires more breath to make 
this sound, than any other in our language; as in producing it, 
even mildly, tr.e lungs are nearly exhausted of air. It maybe 
made by whispering the word huh: the higher up, tlie more scat- 
tering, the lower in 'he throat, the more condensed, till it becomes 
vocaL 

I am well aware, that wfiat is base, 

JVb polish— can make ««er/tn^— and that vice. 

Though well perfumed, and elegantly dressed, 

Lik« an unhuried carcass, — trick'd with flowers. 

Is but a garnished nuisance, — litter far 

For c.canly riddance.— than for fair attire. 



Proverbs. 1. When the cat is away, the 
mice will play. 2 One may be a wise man, aivd 
yet not know how to make a watch. 3. A wi'.ked 
companion invites us to hell. 4. All happiness 
and misery— \% in the mind. 5. A good conscience 
is excellent divinity. 6, Bear and forbear— a 
good philosophy. 7. Drunkenness— in a voluntary 
madness. 8. Envy shoots at others, and vvoundB 
herself. 9. Fools lade out the water, and wise 
men catch the fish. iO. Good preachers give 
fruits, rather titan flowers. 11. .Actions are ti»e 
raiment of the man. 12. Faith is the eye o(lor>s. 

Anecdote. Frederick the Great, of Prus- 
sia, an ardent lover of literature and the fine. 
arts, as well as of his people, used to rise at 
three or four o'cloclc in the morning to get 
more time for his studies ; and when one of hia 
intimate friends noticed how hard he work- 
ed, he replied, — " It is true, I do work hard,- 
but it is in order to live ,- for nothing haa 
more resemblance to death, than idleness : of 
what use is it, to live, if one only vegetates .« " 

"Wrong Cboio*. How miserable some 
people make themselves, by a wrong choice, 
when they have all the good things of earth 
before them, out of which to choose! If good 
judgment be wanting, neither the greatest 
monarch, nor the repeated smiles o{ fortune, 
can render such persons happy ; hence, a 
prince — may become a poor wretch, and the 
peasant — completely blessed. To know 
one's self— IS the first degree o{ sound judg- 
ment; for, by failing rightly to estimate our 
own capacity, we may undertake — not only 
what will make us unhappy, but ridiculoun. 
This may be illustrated by an unequal mar- 
riage with a person, whose genius, life and 
temper — will blast the peace oi o7ie, or loth, 
forever. The understanding, and not the 
will — should be our guide. 

Varieties. 1. What can the virtues of 
our ancestors profit us, unless we imitate 
them "i 2. Why is it, that we are so unwilling 
to practice a little self-denial for the sake of a 
ftiture good ? 3. The toilet of woman — is too 
often an altar, erected by self-love — to vamiy 
4. Half the labor, required to make a first-rate 
mttsicJ/in. would make an accomplished rea- 
der and speaker. 6. Learn to M7?,Iearn what 
you have learned amiss. 6. A conceit of 
knowledge — is a great enemy to knowledge, 
and a great argument for ignorance. 7. Of 
pure love, and pure conception of truth, we 
are only receiver.^ : God only is the giver; 
and they are all His fromfirst to last. 

It is a beautiful belief, that wtr— round our head, 

Are hovering, on noiiless wing, the rpiriii of the dead. 

It is a beautiful belief, wh«n ended our career. 

That it will be our ministry to watch o'er nt/iert here ; 

To lend a morai to the flower; breathe vudvm on the \oitul; 

To hold commune, at night't pure noon, with the impri»f n'd mb-J 

To bid the mourner— cease to moum, the tremhtxng vc fornSom 

To bear away, from ills of clay, the infant-to its heaven. 

Ah ! when delight— vna found in life, and joy— in every brwUh, 

I cannot tell how lernUe— the mystery of death. 

But now, the past Is bright to me, aud all the future.-eUan 

For 'tit my faith, that after death, I Hill il>al! linger hcwx 



48 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



131. Important EemarJcs. Every pupil 
should be required to notice, distinctly, not 
o-ily all the specific sounds of our language, 
eirnple and compound, but also the different 
and exact positions of the vocal organs, ne- 
cessary to 'produce them. The teacher 
should, unyieldingly, insist upon having 
Ihese two things faithfully attended to : for 
fuccess in elocution, and music, absolutely 
demands it: no one, therefore, should wish 
to be excused from a full and hearty com- 
pliance. Master these elementary princi- 
ples, and you will have command of all the 
ricJIarns for communicating your thoughts 
and feelings. 

122. L. lias only one sound which is 
its name -sound. LAY; tho ,<^^ 
laird's little fool loudly lauds the / li A 
lil-y white lamb the /n'elong f"^^^^^^^ 
<Iay ; Lem uel Ly ell loves the v '^fS^ 
/c/ss-lorn /?//-ial)y of the land- 

lord's loceAy la Ay, and. with 
blissful t/«/ liance, f;cixtecl\y lis-teua to 
the lowly /o/- lards live ly song; the law- 
yer /f-gal-ly, and plain ly tells his luck-less 
cii-ent, that he lii-er-al-ly repels the il log- 
i-cal re ply of the 7iiol-ly-i'y ing leg-is Za- 
tor. who, in list-less languor, lies, and re- 
gales kim-selt' over the el-der blow tea: (not 
1-oo-t loot.) 

123. Pronounce wy, you, yoiir, and that, 
when emphatic, with the vowels full and 
open. My harp is as good as yours. He 
told you, but would not tell me. 1 said he 
was viy ihend, not yours. That man re- 
lated that story. When these words are not 
emphatic, the sounds of y and u are short- 
ened, the o silent, and u having its second 
sound, while the a is entirely suppressed. 
My pen is as bad as my paper. How do 
you do ? Very well ; and how do you do ? 
Have you got your 600A: ? This is not your 
book ; it is my book. I said that you said, 
that you told him so. 

Notes. 1. This vocal lingual dufal sound (from the 
larynx, toneue and teeth,) is made by pi^ssin; the tongue against the 
upper gums and the roof of tlie nioutk : pronounce the word lo, 

by prolonging the sound of I; I o. 2. T)o not let the eye mis- 

Itid the ear in the comparison c1 sounds ; gay and ghay are 
alike to the car, tho' unlike to *M eye: scare ph in philosophy 
arid / in folly: the same may be observed of th jn thine and thou 
■J. Never foriet the difference between the names of letters, and 
tlieir resi)ective sounds ; weigh their natures, powers and qualities. 
4. Notice the dissimilanty between the letters o-n-e, and the word 
OTie (loun ;) also e-i.g.h-t, and eighi (ate ;) e-n-o-u-g-h, and enuff. 
Is there not a better way ? and is not this that way ? 5. i is silent 
ia lK.;m, taive, couU, psata, wouM, chaZk, shouM, ta/k, haZ-ser 
;f.4iv-8er,) fa/-con (/aio-k'n,) sa/m-on, foZks, maJm-sey (2da) aZ- 
r.>-vls, &c. 

Anecdote. One Tongue. Milton, the au- 
thor of Paradise Lost and Regained, was one 
jay asked, by a friend of female education, 
if lie did not intend to instruct his daughter 
m \\\e (WffexenX. languages : " No Sir ,-'' re- 
plied ISIilton," one tongue is sufficient for a 
woman. 

Vc dttpoti, too long — did your tyranny hold us 

Id a voitalage vile — ere its voeakiiess we knew ; 

But we Jeani'd, that the lirihs of the chain, that enthraVd ug, 

W'< re fors'd by the feart of the captive alonr. 



Proverbs. 1. Almost, and very nigh, save 
many a lie. 2. A man may buy even gold too 
dear. 3. He, that waits for dead men's shoes, 
may long go barefoot. 4. It is an ill cause, that 
none dare speak in. 3. If pride were an art, 
there would be many teachers. 6. Out of sight, 
out of mind. 7. The whole ocean is made of 
single drops. 8. There would be no ffreat ones, 
if there were no little ones. 9. Things unreason- 
able—are never durable. 10. Time and tide wait 
for no man. 11. An author's writings are a mlf- 
ror of his mind. 12. Every one is architect of 
his own character. 

Ill tlie Truth. How may a person be 
said to be in the truth ? This may be un- 
derstood, rationally, by a comparison : we 
say — such a man is in the mercantile busi 
ness; by which we mean, that his life — ia 
that of merchandizing, and is regulated by 
the laws of his peculiar calliiig. In like 
manner, we say of a christian, that he is in 
the truth, and in the Lord, when he is in the 
true order of his creation; which is — to love 
the Lord, with all his heart, and his neighbor 
as himself ; and to do unto others — as he 
would they should do unto him : such a one 
is, emphatically, in the truth, and the truth 
makes him free; and this is the only freedom 
on earth, or in heave?i; and any other state is 
abject slavery. 

Varieties. 1. Why is the L, in the word 
military, like a man's nose 1 Because, it is 
between two ii. 2. No one is wise at atl 
times ; because every one is finite, and of 
course, imperfect. 3. Money — is the servant 
of those, who itnow how to use it ; but the 
master of those, who do 7iot. 4. Rome — 
was built, 7.o3 years before the christian era ,- 
and the Roman empire — terminated 476 
years after it ; what was its duration ? 5- 
The tales of other times — are like the calm 
dew of the moTning, when the sun is faint 
on its side, and the lake is settled and blue 
in the vale. 6. As is the state of mind, such 
is the reception, operation, production, and 
manifestation — of all that is received. 7. 
Ends of actions show the quality of life ; 
natui'ttl men ever regard natural ends ; but 
spiritual men — spiritual ones. 

Changing, forever changing \—So depart 

The glories— of the old majestic ruoorf; 

So — pass the pride, and garniture of fields; 

The growth of agei, and the bloom of days, 

Into the dust of centuries ; and so — 

Are both — renewed. The scattered tribes of men, 

The generations of the populous earth, 

All have iivew seasons too. And jocund Youth 

Is tha green spring-Wmc— Manhood's luity strengtt 

Is the maturing sunnna- hoary Age 

Types well the autumn of the year— and Death 

Is the real winter, which forecloses aU. 

And shall the /ortsfs— have another spring, 

And shall \he fields— another ^3s\mA wear, 

And shall the u'orm— come forth, renew'd in life, 

And clothed with highest beauty, ana not MAN ? 

No!— in the Book before me now, I read 

Another laugiiage ; and my faith is sure, 

Tliat though the chains of death may hold it umg. 

This morfoi— will o'ertnaster them, and brook 

Acoy, and put on innnorfalili/. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELa-.UTION. 



49 



134. Read, and speak, \x. such a. Just and 
impressive manner, as will instruct, interest 
and affect your hearers, and repvjduce in 
them all those ideas and emniions, which you 
wisli to convey. Remember, that theory — 
is one thing, and practice — another; and that 
there is a great difference, between knowing 
^ow a sentence should be read or spoken, 
and the ability to read or speak it : theory — 
is the result of thought ; practice — of actual 
ej.pe7'imce. 

1«5 i M lias only one sound 5 MAIM : 
meek men made 7rm/«-mies oxit 
of garn-mon, and moon-he,a.mi 'v-s-^>'. 
ofgum-my am-mo-ni-a, for a.prC' /c^5?^^ 
mi-um on dum-my som-jiam- Iv^— ---^/ 
!)u-lism: mind, man-ners and [Mm maim.] 
mag-na-?iim-i-ty, malce a migh-ty man, to 
n-maZ-ga-mate e;?i-blems and luam-pum for 
an om-ni-um gath-er-um : the malt-man cir- 
cum-flw-bu-lates thecim-me-ri-an ham-mock, 
and titm-hles the mwr-mur-ing mif^-ship- 
man into a rnin-i-mum and maa;-i-mum of a 
m«m- mi-form di-lem-ma. 

1JJ6. Cicero and Demosthenes, by their 
ivords, lives, maxims, and practice, show the 
high estimation, in which they held the sub- 
ject ot oratory ; for they devoted ijears to the 
study and practice of its theory and art, un- 
der the most celebrated masters of antiquity. 
Most of the effects of ancient, as well as of 
tnodern eloquence, may be attributed to the 
luanner of delivery: we read their words, 
but tlieir spirit is gone; the body remains, 
beautiful indeed, but motionless — and dead ,- 
TiiuE eloquence — revivifies it. 

Not*S» To produce this labio-nnsal sound, close the lips 
arid make a sound through t)ie nose, resembling the plaintive low- 
I! 5 of an ox, with its mouth clos»d ; or, a wailing sound through 
vr^ur nose. 2. Tliis is called a iiusal sound, because it is made 
through the nose; and not because it does not pass through it, as 
many imagine: which may become evident, by producing the 
sound when the nose is held between the thumb and forefinger. 3. 
Avoid detaching letters from preceding words, and attaching them 
to succeeding ones ; as— his cry moved me ; for, his crime moved 
me. 4. M is silent before n, in the same syllable ; as, JJ/nason, 
and 



l'iT» That is th' man, th't said that you 
saw him. I say th't that, th't that man said, 
is not that, th't that man told him. That th't 
I say is this : th't that, th't that gentleman 
advanced, is not that, th't he should have 
spoken ; for he said, tli't that that, th't that 
man pointed out, is not that that, th't that la- 
oy insisted th't it was ; but is another that. 

THE PATH.S OF LIFE. 

Go forth — the world is very wide. 
And many paths — before you lie. 

Devious, and dang'rous, and untried ; 
Go forth with wary eye ! 

Go ! with the heart — by yn-rjcf unbow'd ! 

Go! ere a shadow, or a cloud 
Hath dimm'd the laughing sky! 

But, lest your vvand'ring footsteps stray, 

Chtiose ye the straight, th« narroio way. 

BilONSON 4 



138. By the aid of the principlen heie in- 
culcated, children can be taken, before tliey 
have learned the names of the letters, and, in 
a few months, become better readers than 
one in fifty of those taught in the usual 
way ; and they may have their voices so de- 
veloped and trained, by the natural use of 
the proper organs and muscles, as to be able 
to read, speak, and sing, for hows in succes- 
sion, without hoarseness, or injurious ex- 
haustion. It is a melancholy reflection, that 
children learn mo-e bad habits than good 
ones, in most of our common schools. 

Provertos. 1. He, that does you an ill turn, 
will never /or^iwe you. 2. It is an ill wind that 
blows nobody any good. 3. The proof of the 
pudding— \s in eating. 4. None so deaf, as they 
that will not hear. 5. Time— is a file, that wears, 
and makes no noise. 8. When every one takes 
care of himself , care is taken of all. 7. Withotit 
pains, there can be no gains. 8. One may as 
well expect to be at ease, without money, as to be 
happy, without virtzie. 9. A man, like a watch, 
is valued according to his going. 10. The gov- 
ernment of the loill is better than an increase 
of knowledge. 11. Character — is everything — to 
both old and young. 12. JVar brings scars. 

Anecdote. Lojig Enough. A man, up- 
on the verge oi baiiliruptcy , having purchased 
an elegant coal, upon credit, and being told 
by one of his acquaintances, that the cloth 
was very beautiful, though the coat was too 
short ; replied, — with a sigh — "It will be 
long enough before I get another. 

Honor — was the virtue of the pagan ; 
but Christianity — teaches a more enlarged 
and nobler code ; calling into activity — all 
the best feelings of our nature, — illuminat- 
ing our path, through this world, with deeds 
of mercy and cJiarity, mutually done and re- 
ceived, — and sustaining us, amidst difficul- 
ties and temptations — by the hope of a 
glorious immortality, — in which peace — 
shall be inviolable — andjoj/ — eternal. 

Varieties. 1. Why is a fashionably 
dressed lady, like a careful hovsewifef Be- 
cause her waist (waste), is always as small 
as she can make it. 2. Literature and 
Science, to produce their full effect, must 
be generally diffused, like the healthful 
breeze. 3. The elements, so mixed in him, 
that Mature might stand up, and say to all 
the world, '^This is a man f'' 4. All minis 
are influenced every moment ; and there i;? 
a providence in every feeling, thought and 
v)ord. 5. The excesses of our youth, are 
drafts on our old age, payable with interest , 
though sometimes, they are payable nt sighi. 
6. I will not only k7iow the way, but walk in 
it. 7. As it is God's will to fill us with his 
life, let us exert every facuhy we poesess, 
to be filled with it ; and that with all fin 
eerily and diligence. 

The man, th't's resolute, and just. 
Firm to his principles and trust. 
No' hopes, nor fcors— can bind. 



60 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



129. Distinctness of articulation demands 
special attention, and requires that you should 
pronounce the vocal letters, as well as every 
word, audibly an; '. con-ectly, giving to each 
its appropriate /orce and quantity. Unless 
these principles are perfectly understood, 
y owe future acquirements will be more or 
less faulty : for, in proportion as one is ig- 
norant of what ought to be felt, thought, and 
done, will he be hable to err. 

130. N lias two »o\tnA»', first^its name 
sound : ^INE ; the towd-man's " 
niii-ny, neg-li-gent of the hunts- / , J 
man's en-cAan^-ments, con-tam,' /.u .^^^^^ 
i-nates the wo-ble-man's nine- \ ^ — ^ / 
pins with his an-ti-no-mi-anwo/i- [K '-^ nine.] 
sense : Ndi-hant, and Flan-m-gan, joint-/en- 
ants of wtne-ty-nine i\fan-i-kins, n-nan-i- 
mous-ly en-chain with win-ning tones, the 
be-nig-nantdu-ew-na, while they are con-ven- 
ed to nam-i-nate co7i-di-ments for the so-cin- 
i-an con-uen-tion of the non-^-es-i-dents ; he 
knows his nose,- I know he knows his nose : 
he said I knew he knows his nose : and if he 
says he knows I know he knows his Jiose, 
of course, he knows I know he knows his 
nose. 

131. Some public speakers, in 'other re- 
spects inferior, from the ease, grace, dignity 
and power of their delivery, sue followed and 
applauded ; while others, however sound in 
matter, and fmished in language, on account 
of their deficiency of manner, are passed by 
almost unnoticed. All experience teaches us 
the great importance of manner, as a means 
of inculcating truth, and persuading others 
to embrace it. Lord Bacon says, it is as ne- 
cessary for a public speaker, as decorum for 
a gentleman. 

Notes. I. This vocal nasal sound is made, by pressing the 
tingue against the roof of the mouth, and thus preventing the sound 
from passing through the mouth, and emitting all of it through the 
nose: see engraving. 2. In comparing sounds, be guided solely by 
the tar; beware of going by sight in the science of accoustics. 3. 
Remember, when there is a change in the position of the organs, 
Ihere is a corresponding change in the sounds. 4. In words where 
I and n precede cA, the sound of t intervenes in the pronunciation : 
filch, blanch, wench, inch, bench, &c. 5. Beware of omissions 
and additions ; Boston notion, not Boston ocean. Regain either, 
not regain neither.. 

Anecdote. The Rev. Mr. Whitfield— 
was once accused, by one of his hearers, of 
vxmdering in his discourse ; to which he re- 
plied : '* Uvou will ramble like a lost sheep, 
i must ramble after you." 

Truth- 
Comes to us with a sZow— and doubtful step ; 
Measuring the ground she treads on, and forever 
Turning her curious eye, to see that all 
Is right — behind ; and, with keen survey. 
Choosing her onward path. 

Seize upon truth,— wYierev ex found. 
On christian,— or on heathen ground ; 
Among your friends, — among your foes; 
The slant's 4ii inc,— toAe-e'er it grows. 



Proverbs. 1, It is not th* burthen, but the 
orer-burthen, that kills the beast. 2. The death 
of youth is a shipwreck. 3. There is no di&t ut- 
ing of tastes, appetites, and fancies. 4. When the 
fox preaches, let the geese beware. 5. .Alms- 
giving — never made a man poor ; nor robbery — 
rich ; nor prosperity — wise. 6. A lie, begets a lie, 
till they come to generations. 7. Anger — is often 
more hurtful than the injury that caused it. 8. 
Better late ripe, and bear, than blossom, and hlo>it. 
9. Experience — is the mother of science. 10. He 
that will not be counselled, can not be helped. 
11. Expose one's evils, and he will either /orsaAe 
them, or hate you for the exposure. 12. Do not 
hurry a. free horse. 13. Every thing would livs. 

Gradations. The dawn, the deep light, 
the su7i-rise, and the blaze of day ! what 
softness and gentleness ! all is graduated, 
and yet, all is decisive. Again, observe 
how winter — passes into spring, — each— 
weakened by the struggle ; then, steals on 
the summer, which is Followed by the matu- 
rity of autumn. Look also at the gradations 
and commingling of infancy, childhood, 
youth, manhood and age : how beautiful the 
series! and all this may be seen — in the 
successive developments of the hnmtmmind: 



xmagina- 



-there is first sense, then fancy, 
tion and reason, — each oi which — is the 
ground,^ or continent, of all that succeed : 
sense — is the rude germ, or crust of tht 
fancy, which is the full-fledged bird, freed 
from its confinement and limited notices, 
and soaring aloft, unrestrained, in.the luxu- 
ries of its weto being ; then, succeeds imagi. 
nation, a well regulated fancy, that emulate5 
the work of reaso?i, while it borrows the 
hues — of its immediate parent : and rea.<ton 
— is the full and perfect development — of all 
that sense — originally contain'' d, fancy — de- 
corated, and imagination — designed — in a 
thousand forms : thus reason — combines the 
whole, and from the whole, thro' the light 
of the Supreme Mind, deduces her conclu- 
sions : thus, shall the gradations, or series 
of developments, continue in the good, and 
the true — to all eter?iity ! 

Varieties. 1. How many years inter- 
vened — between the discovery of the mar- 
iner's compass, in 1302, and the discovery 
of America 1 2. The covetous man — is as 
much deprived of what he has, as of what 
he has not ; for he enjoys neither. 3. Ah ! 
who can tell, how hard it is to climb the 
steep, where Fame''s proud temple shines 
afar, checked by the scoff of Fride, by E?i. 
vy^s frown, and Poverty''s unconquerable 
bar ! 4. A man of cultivated mind, can 
converse with a picture, and find an agree 
able companion in a statue. 5. Little men- 
triumph over the errors of great ones, as an 
owl — rejoices at an eclipse of the sun. G. 
The eternal and natural worMs are so unit- 
ed, as to make but one ; like the soul and 
the body. 7. What is the difference between 
good sense, ana wit ? 

A villain, when he most seems kind. 

Is irost to be suspected. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



hi 




133. Be perfectly distinct in your articu- 
lation, or you cannot become an easy, grace' 
ful, effective and natural elocutionist ; there- 
fore, practice on the vowels and consonants. 
SlS here recommended, separately and com- 
bined. If your utterance is rapid, and indis- 
tinct, 5'our reading and speaking, will not 
be listened to with much pleasure, or profit. 
A hint — to those who would be wise, is suf- 
ficient. 

133. Tlie second sound of X, is tliat 
of Ng, before hard g, and often " 
before hard c, fe and q under the / 
accent. BANK ; con-gress con- [^ 
quers the strang-\in^ don-key, "^ 
and sanc-tions the lank con-clave IN in bank.) 
in punc-/i/!-ious co?i-course: the san-gume 
un-cle, ana;-ious to ling-ex much long-ex 
among the /mfe-ling in-gots,ym-gles his ?-iw- 
kled jin-gex over the lin-guist's an-gu-lar 
shrunk shanks. 

134. The common mode of teaching elo- 
cution is considered the true one, because it 
has been so long admitted and practiced : 
the old have become/ami/iar with it, and/oZ- 
Zo?/; it from habit, as their predecessors did ; 
and the rising generation receive it on trust : 
thus, thej' pass on, striving to keep each oth- 
er in countenance : hence it is, that most of 
our bad habits, in this important art, are horn 
in the primary school, brought up in the 
academjy, and graduated in the college,- if 
we proceed so fkr in our education. Is not 
an entire revolution necessary. 

135. Irregulars, iVg- have generally this 
sound. In cultivating and strength-en-ing 
the un-der-stond-ing, by stud-Y-mg,read-mg, 
wriAxng, c//-pher-ing, and speak-ing, I am 
ihink-'mg of con-^enrf-ing for go-ing to sing- 
ing meet-ing ; in re-Zin-quish-ing your stand- 
ing in the cmjr)-ing/rt/-ing pan, by/ttrnp-ing 
o-ver the ivindring rail-ing, you may be sail- 
ing on the &otZ-ing o-cean, where the limp-ing 
her-xings are .^fcip-ping, and danc-ing, around 
some-thing that is laugh-ing and cry-ing, 
„(eep-ing and lya-king, lov-ing and smi-ling. 

Notes. J. This nasal diphthongal vocal consonant sound, 
may be made by drawing the tongue back, closing the pass»^c 
from tlie throat into the mouth, and directing the sound through 
the nose; as in giving the name sound of N; it can be distinctly 
perceived by prolonging, or singing the ng sound m the word sing, 
2. If the iccent be on the syllable beginning with g and c hard. 
Mid h, and q, the n may take its name sound ; as, con-grot-u-late, 
cM>-cttr, con-c^wde, &c. 3. The three eounds of ni and n, are the 
^nl 7 nasal ones in our language. 4. Some consonant iounds are 
coniinuous: the 1st, 3d, and 4th of c ; the 2nd of/, the third of 
g,l,m,n, r, &c. are examples ; others are abrupt or discrete; ag, 
f, d, p, X, t, &c. : so we have coniinuous tounds, ( the long ones, ) 
•nd abrupt or discrete ones, (the short.) 

Anecdote. Equality. When Lycurgus, 
king of Sparta, was to reform andf change 
the government, one advised him, that it 
enould be reduced to an absolute popular 
equality : " Sir," — said the lawgiver, " be- 
gin it in your own house ^rs«. 

Xfl^— reckons hours — for months, — and days — for years ; 
.And ever? litUe oiwejice— is an age. > 



Proverbs. 1. A miss, is as good as a milg- 
2. A man is a lion in his own cause 3. He that 
has too many irons in the fire, will find thatsowi« 
of them will be apt to burn. 4. It is not an art to 
play; but it is a very good art to leave ojf play 
5. Beyond the truth, there is nothing but error ; 
and beyond error, there is madness 6. He, who 
deals with a blockhead, has need of much hrairia. 
7. The burnt child dreads the /re. 8. When oni 
will not, two cannot quarrel. 9. Words from the 
mouth, die in the ears ; but words from the heart 
—stay there. 11. Young folks— think old folks 
fools; but old folks know that young ones arc. 

11. First know what is to be done, then do it. 

12. The tongue, without the heart, speaks an un- 
known tongue. 13. Remember the reckoning. 

The three essentials — of every exist 
ence are an iiimost, a middle and an outmost: 
i. e. an e7id, a cause, and an effect: the e?id 
is the himost, the cause is the middle, and 
the effect the outmost, or ultimate. Ex, 
Man is one existence, and yet consists of a 
soul, or inmost principle, a body, or middle 
principle, and an activity, or ultimate prin- 
ciple. In his soul are ends, or motives to 
action; in his body are causes, or ways and 
means of action ; and in his life are effects, 
or actions themselves : if either were want- 
ing, he could not be a man : for, take away 
his soul, and his body would die for want of 
a first principle to live from ; take away his 
body, and his soul could not act in the natu- 
ral world, for want of a suitably organized 
instrument ; take away his life, or the acti- 
vity of his body from his soul, and both 
soul and body would cease to exist for lack 
of exercise. In other words, man consists 
of will, or inmost ; understanding, or inter- 
mediate ; and activity/, or ultimate. It is 
evident, that without willing, his under- 
standing would never think, and devise 
means of acting ; and without understand- 
ing, his will — could not effect its purpose ; 
and without action — that willing and under- 
standing would be of no use. 

Varieties. 1. The thief— is sorry he is 
to be punished, but not tHat he is a thief. 

2. Some — are atheists — only in fair weather. 

3. Is the casket — more valuable than the 
jexoel it contains ? 4. Indolence — is a stream 
that flows slowly on ; yet it undermines ev- 
ery virtue. 5. All outward existence — is 
only the shadow of that, which is truly real ; 
because its very correspondence. 6. Should 
we act from policy, or from principle? 7. 
The prayer of the memory is a reflected light, 
like that of the mdon ; that of the under- 
standing alone, is as the light of the sun in 
winter ; but that of the heart, likethe light 
and heat united, as in spring or summer ; 
and so also, is all discourse from them, and 
all worship. 

THE FLIGHT OF YEARS. 

Gone I gone forever .'—Like a rushing wave 
Another year— has burst upon the shore 
Of earthly being— and its last low tones. 
Wandering in broken accents on the air. 
Are dying— to an ecluc. 



52 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



136. In ancient Rome, an orator's educa- 
tion began in infancy; so should it be now ; 
the seeds of eloquence may be sown, when 
the child is on the maternal bosom ; the voice 
should be developed with the mvid. If the 
child has good examples set liim, in reading 
and speaking, and the youth is attentive to 
his every day languagCy and is careful to im- 
prove his mind and voice together, he wUl 
become a good elocutumist, without scarcely 
knowing it Connection and association — 
have as much to do with our manner of 
speaking, as with our cast of thinking. 

137. P lias but one soiuid: PAP; 
pale, par, pall, pap ; peep, pet ; , 
pipe, pip; pope, pool, pop; /^"Y^\ 
pule, pup, puss ; point, pound ; (fC^^^SX 
peo-p\e put pep-pev in ^p-per- ^^ — ■ -^ 
box-es, aj9-ple-pies in cup- [Pin pap.] 
boards, and whap-ping pap-poo-ses in wrap- 
pers ; tlie hap-ipy pi-per placed his peer-less 
jnip-Tpy in Pom-pey's slop-shop, to be pu7'- 
chased for a peck of pap-py pip-pins, or a 
pound of jDU^-ver-iz-ed pop-pies; a padrdy 
picked a peck of pick-led pep-pevs, and put 
them OH a broad brimed pew-ter plat-ter. 

138. Muscle Brfakehs. Peter Prickle 
Prandle picked three pecks of prickly pears, 
from three prickly prangly pear trees: if 
then, Peter Prickle Prandle, picked three 
pecks of prickly pears from three prickly 
prangly pear trees; where are the three pecks 
of prickly pears, that Peter Prickle Prandle 
picked, from the three prickly prangly pear 
trees'? Success to the successful prickly 
prangly pear picker. 

Notes. 1, To give this aspirate labial, whisper the word 
jnigh, (u short,) or pop out the candle ; see the engraving : it is 
all of the word up, except the u ; but the sound is not fini^ed till 
the lips are separated, or the remaining breath exhaled : remember 
".he remarks in reference to other abrupt elements. 2. The prin- 
cipal difference between i and p is, that 6 is a vocal, and p, only a 
breath sound. P, H, 7", are called, by some, sharp mutes ; and B, 
G, D,flat mutes a Germans find it difficult to pronounce cer- 
tain vocal consonants at the ends of words, tho' correctly at the be- 
ginning : hence, instead of sayinj dog, mad, pod, kc. they say, at 
first, dok, mat, pet, kc. 4. In pronouncing m, and t together, p is 
very apt to intervene ; as in Panj-ton &c. 5. P is silent in psal-fer, 
jpshaw, pneu-maMcs, Ptol-e-my, Psy-che, rosp-ber-ry, (3d a,) coi^js 
:o long,) re-ceipt, etc 6. Not detthg, but depths ; not clai-board, 
Sut clap-board ; not Ja-cop, but Ja-co6 ; not baj-tism, but bap- 
nm; etc. 

Anecdote. A Check. Soon after the 
.tattle of Leipsic, a wit observed, — " Bona- 
jart must now be in funds ; for he has re- 
ceived a check on ihe'hank of the Elbe^ 
Hidden, and deep, and never dry, 
(xrftowing, or at rest, 
A living spring of love — doth lie 
In every human breast. 
All else— may flail, th't soothes the heart, 
Ml. save that fount alone ; 
With that, and life, we never part ; 
For life, and love — are one. 

He seemed 
For diffnity composed,— and high ei ■plait ; 
Sut all was false —and hellow. 



Proverbs. L He, who thinks h< A;/iowg tlie 
viost, knows the least. 2. Take every thing as it 
comes, and make the best of it. 3. Three removet 
are as bad as a fire. 4. Tread on a worm, and he 
will turn. 5. Two things we should never be 
angry at,— what we can, and what we cannot 
heip. 6. When the bow is too much bent, it 
"breaks. 7. A wise man — is a great wonder. 8 
Kwicked man — is his own hell ; and his evil Ivits 
and passiovv the fiends that torment him. S 
Blushing — is virtue'' s color. 10. Evil comviM,;ir^ 
cations corrupt good manners. !1. Gain — is un- 
certain, but the pain is sure. 12. Never court., 
•inless you intend to marry. 

Amusements. Ever since the fall, 
mankind have been prone to extremes ; not 
only the religious, but the irreligious por- 
tion of the world. It ic greatly to be regret- 
ted, that we are all so much at the mercy 
of -passien and prejudice, and so little — un- 
der the guiding influence of reason and in- 
telligence. In our creation, the Divine 
Being — has manifested infinite love and in- 
finite wisdom : for we are made in " his 
IMAGE and likeness;" the /ormer, we 
still retain, but the latter, sad to relate, we 
have lost. The will, or voluntary principle 
of the mind, constitutes our impelling power, 
and the understanding, or reaso?iing facul- 
ties, under the light o\ truth, is our govern- 
ing power : if, therefore, we find ourselves 
loving — what is not good and true, our ra- 
tionality, enlightened by wisdom, must bo 
our guide. Hence, our rule is this ; what- 
ever amusements — tend to fit us for our va- 
rious duties, and give us zest in faithfully 
performing them, are perfectly proper ; but, 
amusements, whose tendency is the reverse 
of this, are entirely improper; and we should 
not hesitate a moment in abstaining from 
them, however they may be approved by 
others, or sanctioned by long usage : we 
must Clever compromise the interests of 
eternity — for those transitory enjoyments of 
time and sense, wh-ich are at variance with 
the principles of truth and goodness. Both 
worlds are best taken care of, when they are 
cared for together, and each has its attention, 



ig to Its importance. 
eties. 1. There ar 



Varieties. 1. There are some, who live 
— {o eat and drink; and there are others. 
who eat and drink, to live. 2. The perfec- 
tion of art is — to conceal the art : i. e. to he 
the thing, instead of its representative. 3. 
Let every one sweep the snow from his own 
door, and not trouble himself about the /ro5f 
on his neighhor''s tiles. 4. Gnhleo, the great 
astronomer, was imprisoned for life, because 
he declared that Venus — shone with a bor- 
rowed light, and from the sun, as the centre 
oionr system. 5. There ?ixe abuses — mall 
human governments. 6. He, whose virtues, 
exceed his talents, is the good man ; but he, 
whose talents exceed his virtues, is the hml 
man. 7 All we perceive, understand, wilt, 
love, and practice, is our own ; but nothing 
else. 

Sufptcion—ahoays haunts the gicilty mind ; 

The t«e/— «tiU fears each hush— in qffker. • 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



63 



139. Written language consists of letters, 
and , consequently, is more durable than spo- 
ke?} language, which is composed of articu- 
late sounds. Our written alphabet contains 
twenty-sir letters, which make syllables and 
nwds ; words make sentences; sentences 
paragraphs, which make sections and chap- 
ters; these constitute an essay, discourse, ad- 
dress, oration, poem, dissertatiun, tract or 
oook: but our vocal alphabet has forty-^fowr 
letters, or sounds, which make up tlie whole 
of spoken language. 

140. R Ixas two sounds ; first, its name 
Bound ; ARM ; the bar-bers were, ^ j 

in former years, the cr-bi-ters of "^^K 
the mwr-der-ers of their fore-fa- / /^^\ \ 
thers . the Tar-tars are g-crr-blers ; "Vaoxn^) 
of Aarrf-ware and per-rer-ters of " 

the er-rors of JVbr/A-ern-ers and [«'°^^RM-3 
SoM^A-ern-ers ; the/a?*-mers are dire search- 
ers af-ter burnt Gr-bors, and store the cor- 
ners of their Zar-ders with di-vers sorts of 
gr*ar-ter dol-laxs ; Charles Biir-ser goes to the 
/ar-ther barn, and gets lar-gev ears of hard 
corn, for the car-ter's horses. 

14:1. Dr. Franklin says, (of the justly cel- 
ebrated Whiifield,) that it would have been 
fortunate for his reputation, if he had left no 
tv nften works behind him ; his talents would 
fchen have been estimated by their effects : in- 
deed, his elocution was almost faultless. 
But whence did he derive his effective man- 
ner'? We are informed, that he took lessons 
of Garrick, an eminent tragedian of Eng- 
land, who was a great master in Nature'' s 
school of teaching and practicing this useful 
art. 

^Otes. 1. To make this smooth vocal sound, pronounce 
the word arm, and dwell on the r sound ; and you will pej'ceive 
that the tongue is turned gently to the roof of the mouth, and at 
the same time drawn back a little. 2. Avoid omitting this letter, as 
It never is silent, except it is doubled in the same syllable ; not 
staw-my, but stor-my ; not Zii-ah-ty, but /tfc-er-ty ; not burt. but 
burst ; not waw-um, but warm ; not oA-gu-ment, but ar-gu-n/ent ; 
uot hojses, but Aor-ses ; not hakA stawm, but hard storm ; etc. 3. Re- 
member that short e and t before r, in the same syllable, when ac- 
cented, sound like short u, unless followed by another r, as mei'cy, 
(mer-it,) ser-geant, (ser-rate,) ter-ma-gant, (ter-ror, ) mirth-ful, 
(Mirror,) ver-ses, (ver-y) (here the r is re-echoed ;) and spirits, fic. : 
the exceptions are in parentheses : see p. 22<1. 4. Some words, 
(where e, t, and r, are peculiarly situated, as above,) have, in their 
pronunciation, a reverberation, or rejietition of the r, although 
there laiy be but one in the word ; as — ver-y ; being followed by a 
vowel. 

Anecdote. Who Rules ? A schoolmas- 
itr, in ancient Rome., declared, that he ruled 
the world. He was asked to explain : which 
he did in the following manner. " Rome — • 
rules the world ; the women rule those who 
govern Rome ; the children control their mo- 
*hers, and / rule the children.'''' 

So — we grew together, 
Like to a double chary, suming— parted; 
But yet a union — in partition, 
TVoo lowly berries, — moulded on one stem: 
CO, with two seeming bodies, but one heart: 
7\oo— of the/irsi, like coats, in heraldry, 
Due but to one, and crowned — with one crest. 

e2 



I Proverbs. 1. He that is ill to himself, w]\\ 
be g-ood to nobody. 2. The remedy — is^vorse than 
j the disease. 3. Who is so deaf, as he that will 
not hear? 4. Ml vice infatuates and corrupts ihxi 
judgment. 5. A /oo^ may, by chance, put some- 
thing into a wise man's head. 6. After praying 
to Ood, not to lead you into temptation, do not 
throw yourself into it. 7. Evil gotten, evil spent. 
8. He, that knows useful things, and not he that 
knows many things, is the wise man. 9. He — . 
preaches well, that lives well. 10. It is always 
term time in the court oi conscience. 11. We may 
be ashamed of our pride, but not proud of our 
shame. 12. Historical faith — precedes saving 
faith. 13. Stolen waters are sweet. 

Tlie Tme Christian Cliaracter. The 
three essentials of a christian — are — a good 
will — flowing through a true under standing, 
into a uniform life oi justice and j^idgment. 
It is not enough, that we mean well, or 
know our duty, or try to do right ; for good 
intention is powerless, without truth to 
guide it ai-ight ; and truth — in the intellect 
alone, is mere tum^er-light, without the 
s«mmer-heat of love to God — and love to 
man; and blundering efforts — to do our 
duty — are poor apologies for virtuous ener- 
gies, well directed and efficiently applied : 
the three alone — can constitute us true chris- 
tians ; i. e. our will, understanding and life, 
must be brought into harmonious and effi- 
cient unity, in order that we may be entitled 
to this high and holy appellation. Things 
must not only be thought of, and desired, 
purposed, and intended, ; but they must be 
done, from love to the Lord ; that He, as a 
principle of goodness, and a principle of 
truth — may be flowing, constantly, from 
the centre — to the circumference of actions . 
we must practice what we Jc?iow of the truth; 
we must live the life of our heavenly Fa- 
ther's commandmeni s ; so as to have htit 
goodness and truth implanted in us, 'nat wp 
may strive to w;aZ/i,^efp.re Kitr>, and become 
perfect. 

Varieties. 1. A ccnmn apothecary — hag 
over his door, this slg7i — " All kinds of dy- 
ing stuff sold here." 2. Does v:eaUh — exert 
more influence than knowledge^ 3. A 
pretty shepherd , indeed, a utoZ/ would make! 
4. Ax some X-dvexn?,— madness — is sold by 
the glass ; ilt others, by the bottle. 5. So- 
hriely, without sullcjiness, and mirth witA 
modesty, are commendable. 6. Even an or- 
dinary composition, well delivered, is b'ltier 
received, and of course does more a W, 
than a superior one, badly delivered. 7, 
Where order — cannot enter, it cannot exist. 

What is beauty ? Not the show 

Of shapely limbs, a.nd features. No : 

These— are hutjlowers. 

That have their dated hours, 

To breathe their momentary sweets, then ^of 

♦Tis the stainless soul— within — 

That outshines— the /aires* skin. 

.Appearances — deceive ; 
And this one maxim — is a standing rttlej-- 
Men are not— what they wem. 



54 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



14:a. Many persons take great pains in 
tlieir dress, to appear well and receive atten- 
lion ,' and so far as personal appearance can 
exert an influence, they attain their end : but 
if tliey would cultivate their language, and 
the proper way of using it, so as not to de- 
form themselves in reading and conversation, 
they might accomplish the object at which 
they aim. 

143. Tlie second sound of R, is rougli, 
irIUed, or bxirredj when it \\L^ 
comes before vowel sounds in / (* \ 
the same syllable : RAIL ROAD ; '^^^^ 
the rc/a-ring rep-ro-bate re-ver- ^ ^ — ^ 
be-rates his ran-cor-ous ri6-ald- [R in rail.] 
ry and re-treats from his re-gal throne, to liis 
ri-val rec-re-a-tion in the rook-e-ry : the op- 
pro-bri-ous li-6ra-ri-an, rec-re-ant-ly threw 
the great gridri-ron among the crock-e-ry with 
ir-Te-proach-a.-ble ef-front-e-ry ; the re-sults 
of which were, ro-man-tic dreams, bro-ken 
ribs, and a hun-dred prime cit-rons for the 
throng of cn/-ing chil-dren: round and round 
the nig-ged rock the rag-ged ras-cal drags the 
strong rhi-noc-e-ros, while a rat in a ra^-trap 
ran through the rain on a rail, with a raw 
lump of red liv-er in its mouth. 

144. Written language — is used for com- 
municating information respecting persons 
distant from each other, and for transmitting, 
to succeeding ages, knowledge, that might 
otherwise be lost, or handed down by erring 
tradition. Spoken language — is used to con- 
vey the thoughts and feelings of those who 
are present, and are speaking, or conversing 
together: the former is, of course, addressed 
to our eyes, and the latter, to our ears ; each 
kind having its own particular alphabet, 
which must be mastered. 

Notes. 1. This vocal trilled diphthongal sound, consists 
iC the aspirate sound of h, modified between the end of the tongue 
md the roof of the mouth, combined with a vocal. 2. Or, make 
the nami sound of r, and mix it with the arpirate, by clapping 
t!ie tongue against the roof of the mouth ; psactice prolonging her" 
or purr in a whisper, trilling the r, then add the voice sound ; af- 
terwards prefix the i, and exercise as above. 3. Demosthenei, in 
the early part of liis career, was reproached for not being able to 
pronounce, correctly, the first letter of his favorite ^t— Rhetoric : 
i. e. he could not trill it for some time. 4. Give only one trill or 
clap of the tongue, uniest the sentiment be very animating; as— 
Rise— brothers, rise! etc. «' Strike! tUl the lajt armed foe ex- 
pjres." 

145. Another. The riven rocks are 
rudely rent asunder, and the rifted trees 
rush along the river, while hoa-ry 6o-re-as 
rends the robes of spring, and rat-tling thun- 
der roars around the rock-y re-gioiis : Robert 
Rowley rolled a round roll round ; a round 
roll, Robert Rowley rolled round ; where roll- 
ed the round roll, Robert Rowley rolled 
round'! 

Didst ever see 
Two gentle vines, eacA— round the other twined, 
Bo fondly, closfly, that they had become, 
Ere their growth, blended trgether 
bio one sinffU tree ? 



Proverbs. L He, who resc/ves to amend, 
has God on his side. 2. Honest men are soon 
bound ; but you can never bind a knave. 3. If 
the best man's faults were written on his fore- 
head, it would make him pull his hat over his 
eyes. 4. Life is haK spent, before we knew what 
it is. 5. Of the two evils, choose the least. 6. 
One bad example spoils many ^ood precepts. 7. 
Patience — is a plaster for all sores. 8. He who 
serves well — need not be afraid to ask his ra^£*. 
9. If you will not hear reason, slie will rap yo\» 
over your knuckles. 10. Prayer — should :)e the 
key of the daij, and the lock of the rJg'ru. 11. 
Foul water will quench fire. 12. Ficm ncithiug 
— nothing can come. 

Anecdote. Spinster. Formerly, it was 
a maxim, that a young woman should never 
be married, till she had spun, hferself, a full 
set oi linen. Hence, all unmarried women 
have been called spinsters : an appellation 
they still retain in certain deeds, and lav) 
proceedings ; though many are not entitled 
to it. 

Matliematics — includes the study of 
numbers and magnitudes : hence, it is called 
the science of gravity ; and is applicable to 
all quantities, that can be measured — by a 
standard unit, and thus expressed by num- 
bers and magnitude. Feeling and thought, 
though they vary immensely, cannot be 
measured : we cannot say, with strict pro- 
priety, that we love one — exactly twice aa 
much as another ,- nor, that one — is three 
times as wise as another : because love and 
wisdom are not mathematical quantities: 
but we can measure time by seconds, inin- . 
utes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, and 
centuries; space hy inches, feet, yards, rods, 
and miles ; and motion, by the space passed 
over in a given time. 

Varieties. 1. Was the world created 
out oi notJiing ? 2. Fools — draw false con 
elusions, from just principles : and mad 
rnen draw just conclusio7is, from false prin 
ciples. 3. The discovery of what is true, 
and the practice of what is good, are the two 
most important objects of life. 4. Associa 
tions — between persons of opposite tempera 
ments, can neither be durable, nor produc. 
five of real pleasure to either party. 5. 
Where grace cannot enter, sin increase? 
and abounds. 6. The spontaneous gifts of 
heaven, are of high value ; but •perseverance 
— gains the prize. 7. When the will — be- 
comes duly resigned to God, in small things, 
as well as great ones, all the affections will 
be reduced into their proper state, in their 
proper season. 

The wretch, condemn'd with life to pan, 

Still, still on hope relies, 
And every pang, that rends his hearty 

Bide nxpectation rise. 
Hope, like the glimmering taper^g light, 

.Adorns — and cheers his way, 
And still, as darker grows the nigkt. 

Emits a brighter ray. 



PRINCIPLESi OP ELOCUTION. 



55 




1 46. Keep a watchful and jealous eye 
over common opinions^ prejudices and bad 
school instruction, until the influence of rea- 
son, nature and truth, is so far established 
over the ear and taste, as to obviate the dan- 
ger of adopting ox following, unquestionable 
errors, and vicious habits of reading and 
speaking: extended views, a narrow mind 
extend. To judge righteously of all things, 
preserve the mind in a state of perfect equi- 
Hbrium, and let a love of truth and goodne&s 
govern all its decisions and actions. 

14:7. MV, lias but one consonant 
eoiuid, and one voivel sound; 
WOO ; a wan-ton wag, with wo- 
ful words, bc-wail-ed the well (t 
wish-er of the wig-wam ; the 
dwarf dwells in the wea-ry west, [W in woo, 
where wom-en weave well the warp of hfe, 
and tom-ter winds wan-dcr in the wild 
swamps, tliat wail and weep : the lya-ter- 
witch, al-ways war-worn in the wax-woxks, 
war-hies her watch-word to the iveathrer- 
wise, and re-iuards the wick-Qd with weep- 
ing, wail-'mg and w;orm-wood. 

148. By separating these elements of lan- 
guage, and practicing on them, each by itself, 
the exact position and cffo7't of the vocal or- 
gans, may be distinctly observed ; and in this 
way, the true means of increasing and im- 
proving the force and quality of every one 
ascertained. Be not discouraged at the ap- 
parent mechanical, artificial and constrained 
modes of giving the sounds, and pronoun- 
cing the words : acquire accuracy, and ease 
and gracefulness will inevitably follow. 

149. Irregulars, U has this sound in 
certain words: the rm-guish of the aw-ti-qua- 
ry is as-sua-ged with lan-guid man-sue-tude, 
for the con-quest over hi-s dis-tin-guish-ed 
per-5'?ia-sion : the guide d\s-guirses his as- 
sue-tude of per-,swa-ding the dis-5wa-der. 

Notes. 1, To produce this sound, shape the mouth and lips 
aafor whistling, and make a voice sou«d ; or, pronounce the word 
do, and when the o is about to vanish, commence this vocal conso- 
nant, thus, do was. 2. When w is initial, t. e. begins a word or 

syllable, it is a consonant ; but when it ends one, it is equivalent to 
ad in ooze ; new, how, now, pow-er, etc. 3. In sttiord, two, an. 
stoer, it is silent : w also before r, lorap, lorack, lureath, lorist, 
wrong, etc. bloio, iwho, knouHedee, lohom, lohose, lohole, lohoop, 
eic. 4. Practice changes onto and D, as found under 2d /. 6. He 
who a watch would wear, two things must do, pocket his watch, 
and watch his pocket too. 

Anecdote. A Scold. Foote, a celebrated 
comic actor, being scolded by a woman, said, 
in reply, " I have heard of tartar — and 
brimstone ; — you are the cream of the one, 
and the flowek of the other.'" 

" Ask for what en(i— the heavenly bodies shine ? 
Earth— ior whose ust F—Man answers, 'Tis for mine; 
For mc — kind nature wakes her genial ptnoer, 
Suckles each /leri, and spreads out every flovoar; 
Annual for me— the grape, the rose renew 
The JMtVe nectareous, and the balmy dew : 
Tot me — health — gushes from a thousand springs; 
For me — the mme— a thousand treasure.! brings, 
Seas roll — to vtaft me, tuns — to light me rise, 
lily footttool— earth, my canopy— the skxcs." 



\ 



Proverbs. 1. It is easier .o praise povrerty, 
than to bear it. 2. Prevention — is better than 
cure. 3. Learn wisdom by the follies of othen. 
4. Knowledge, without practice, makes but half 
an artist. 5. When you want any thing, always 
ask the price of it. 6. To cure idleness, count the 
tickings of a clock. 7. It costs more to revenge 
injuries, than to endure them. 8. Conceited men 
think nothing can be done without them. 9. He, 
that kills a man, when he is drunk, must be Awng 
when he is sober. 10. An idle man's head, is the 
devil's jcork-shop. II. God makes, and apfarcl 
shapes. 12. Good watch prevents harm. 

Tlie Difference. Two teachers apply 
for a school ; one — is ignorant, but ofl'ers to 
teach for twelve dollars a month ; the other 
— is well qualified for the station, and asks 
twenty five dollars a monih. The fathers — 
weigh the souls of their children against 
mo7iey, and the twelve dollar teacher is em- 
ployed. A man in search of work asks a 
farmer, if he does not want tc hire a hand ? 
'* If I can find one to suit me," — the farmer 
replies : and then he puts a variety of ques- 
tions to him; such as, — "Can you mowl 
reap? chop? cradle? hoe? dress flax? Sec.'' 
Soon after, another stranger calls, and asks 
whether they wish to hire a teaclier in their 
district ? But the prmci/)aZ question in thi? 
case, is — "How much do you ash ii month?'''' 
Now, just observe the difference — in the 
catechising of the two applicants. Again, 
the fathei — will superintend the hired man, 
and have things so arranged — as not to lose 
a moment's time, — and see that nothing 
goes to waste ; but the same watchful parent 
— will employ a teacher, and put him into 
the school, and never go near him. 

Varieties. 1. If a man begin a fool, he 
is not obliged to persevere. 2. Ought cir- 
cumstantial evidence to be admitted in cri- 
minal cases ? 3. Suspicion — is always worse 
than fact. 4. No duty, imposed by 7ieces- 
sity, shovJd be considered ^burthen. 5. To 
act from order, is to act from heaven. 6. 
Truth, however little, does the mind good. 
7. True love always gives forth Irtie light , 
false light agrees not with the trutli, but 
lightly esteems it ; and also, seems to itself, 
to be better than truth. 
Oreat were the hearts, and strong the mind&, 

Of those, who framed, in high debate, 
The immortal league o{ love, that binds 

Our /air, broad Empire, State with State 

And deep the gladness of the hour, 
When, as the auspicious task was done, 

In solemn trust, the sword of power. 
Was giv'n to gloriff unspo I'd son. 

That noble race is gone ; the suns 
Of fifty years — have risen, ^nd set ; 

But the bright links, those chosen ones 
So strongly /or-o-ed, are brighter yet. 

Wide— as our own free race increase- 
Wide shall extend the elastic chain 

And bind, in everlasting peace. 
State after State, a mighty train. 



56 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCU flON. 



150. Two grand objects are to be accom- 
plished by these lessons and exercises: the 
acquiring a knowledge of tlie voiuel and con- 
807iant sounds, and a facility in pronoun- 
cing them ; by means of which, the voice is 
partially broken, and rendered Jiexible, as 
well as controllable, and the obstacles to a 
clear and distinct articulation removed : there- 
fore, practice much, and dwell on every ele- 
mentary sound, taking the letters separately, 
aud then combining them into syllables, 
words and sentences. 

191. Two of tlie three sounds of X: 
first, name sound; or ks, when ^, . 
at the end of accented syllables, / TUT 
and often when it precedes them ; i' C-^^^ i 
if followed by an abrupt conso- ^' ^zr-^'^' 
nant AXE: the cox-comb ex- [XinAXE.i 
ye-ri-en-ces the lux-u-ry of ex-pa-ti-a-ting on 
the ex'plo-sion of his ex-ccs-sive ex-al-to-tion 
of the bux-om fair sex ; being ana;-ious to 
ex-plain the or-tho-dox-y and Ae^-o-dox-y of 
Ex-ffg^o-nus, the ex-po5-i-ter ex-po-ses the 
ex-ploU, of ex-pec/-ing to ex-plain how to 
ex-crete ex-cel-lent texts by ex-cru-ci-a-ting 
the wax of the ex-cheq-ner. 

153. A good articulation — consists in giv- 
ing to every letter in a syllable, its due propor- 
tion of sound, according to the best pronun- 
ciation,- and, in making such a distinction 
between the syllables, of which words are 
composed, as that the ear, without difficulty, 
shall acknowledge their number, and per- 
ceive, at once, to which syllable each letter 
belongs. When these things are not observed, 
the articulation is in that proportion, defec- 
tive: the ^reaX object is— to articulate so well, 
that the Jiearer can perfectly understand 
what is read or spoken, without being obliged 
to have recourse to a painful attention. A 
good articulation is the foundation of good 
delivery: as the sounding of the musical 
notes with exactness, is the foundation of 
good singing. 

153. Play upon Xes. Charles X. x-king 
of France, was xtravagantly xtoUed, but is 
xceedingly xecrated. He xperienced xtra- 
ordinary xcellence in xigencies ; he wasxcel- 
lent in xtemals,but xtrinsic inxtacy ; he was 
xtatic in xpression, xtreme in xcitement, and 
xtraordinary in xtempore xpression. He was 
xpatriated for his xcesses, and, to xpiate his 
xtravagance, was xcluded, and xpired in 
xpulsion. 

Notes. 1. To produce this diphthongal a^irate sound, 
whisper the word kus, and then repeat it, aid leave oat the j ; k'ss : 
one of the most unpleasant sounds in our language. 2. Since the 
word diph'hong merely signifies a double iound, there is no impro- 
priety in calling double consmmnts, diphthongs, as we do certain 
voweU. S. All critical skill ^n the sound of language, has its foun. 
dation in the practical Knowledge of the nature and properties of 
ttie«e elements : remember this and apply yourself accordingly. 
C In all rases, get the pro(>ef sounds of letters, as given in the 
irj-worda, or first examples. 

To err— ia human , to forgive— dlviTie. 



Proverbs. . If letter weie within, tsttei 
would come out. 2. Jests,, like sweetmeatt , Iiave 
often sour sauce. 3. Keep aloof from qunrrels; 
be neither a witness, nor a party. 4. Least said. 
the soonest mended. 5 Little boats should keep 
near shore ; greater ones may venture iiiore. 6. 
Some — are more nice than wise. 7. Make a wrong 
step, and down you go. 8. We all live and learn. 
9. Riches, (like manure,) do no good, till they ar^ 
spread. 19. Silks and satins often put out the 
kitchen^re. 11. Some — would go to the devil, if 
they had authority for it. 12. Love virtue, uid 
abhor vice. 13. Good counsel ftas no pru.e. 

Anecdote. Matrimony. A /aiAer, wish- 
ing to dissuade his daughter from all thoughts 
of irmirimony, quoted the words : "She who 
marries, doeth well ; but she who marries 
not, diOeXh. better.'^ The daughter, meekly 
replied, " Father, /am content to do well; 
let those do better, who cara." 

Boundaries of jKnovi'ledgfe. Human 
reason — very properly refuses to give its 
assent to any thing, but in proportion as it 
sees how that thing is, or is done. Now, 
there are three directions — in natural science, 
which are attended with their difficulties. 
The astronomer — sees — and feels a diffi- 
culty — in getting from the solar system — lo 
the universe ; the chemist, in proceeding 
iroro matter — io its mysterious essence; 
and the physiologist, in advancing from the 
body — to the soul ; three kingdoms of hnow' 
ledge — bordering on kingdoms — unknown to 
natural science. Without reason, man could 
never become elevated above his senses, and, 
consequently, could not become a ratiofial 
and intellectual being, and, of course, not 
MAN, in the true sense of the term. But 
our minds are so constituted, that after hav- 
ing traversed the material creation, anc 
perceived, scientifically, the very hnnndaries 
of matter, where it is adjoined hy spirit, it 
can elevate itself, by a power, constantly 
given by God, to the loiver boundaries of 
spirit, where it touches upon matter, and 
then, by its derived powers, ascend step by 
step, to the great I Am; whom to Awow 
aright, and whom to love supremely, is the 
chief good of man. 

Varletiss. 1. When man sins, angels 
WEEP, and devils rejoice. 2. True polite- 
ness, springs from the heart. 3. What is 
that, which makes every body sick, except 
those who swaZZoii; it ? Flattery. 4. Science 
has no enemy, but ignorance. 5. Be not too 
brief in conversation, lest you be not under- 
stood ; nor too diffuse, lest you be trouble- 
some. 6. Simplicity, and modesty, are 
among the most engaging qualities or every 
superior mind. 7. We five in two worlds 
a natural and a spiritual one. 

1 would never kneel at a gilde*' i}tr\m. 

To worship the \Ao\—gold; 

I would never fetter this heart ol mine. 

As a thing— for /or/u?i« sold : 

But I'd bow— to the light th' ' God hath given. 

The nohUr 1 ight— of mind ; 

The only light, save that of Heaven, 

That should free-wiil Iwmage find. 



I 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUl.ON. 



57 



15*. Reading — should be a perfect fac- 
Bimile of correct speaking ,• and both exact 
copies of real life : hence, read just as you 
would naturally speak on the same subject, 
and under similar circumstances : so, that if 
any one should fiear you, without seeing you, 
he could not tell whether you were reading 
or speaking. Remember that nothing is de- 
nied to industry and perseverance ,■ and that 
nothmg valuable can be obtained without 
them. 

155. Tlie second sound of X is tliat 
of gz ; generally, when it imme- ^ <>*^ 
diately precedes the accent, and / .-~li-N^ \ 
IS followed by a vowel sound, or ( C^ 3Tj!j^ ' 
the letter h, in words of two or \^ — // 
more syllables ; EXIST; the ex- [X in exist.] 
h'tr-ter is ex-haust-ed by his ex-w-ber-ant ex- 
or-di-um, and desires to be ex-on-er-a-ted 
from ex-aw-in-ing the ux-o-ri-ous ex-ec-u- 
tive; an ex -act ex-a/n-in-a-tion into the ex-ag- 
ger-a-tions of the aux-iZ-li-a-ries ex-Ai&-its a 
lui-tt-ri-ant ex-ile, who ex-is^-ed an ex-oMc 
in ea;-em-pla-ry ex-al-to-tion. 

156. The letters o, and e, in to and /Ae,are 
long, before vowels, but abbreviated before 
fonsonants, ( unless emphatic, ) to prevent 
a hiatus. Th' man took the instrument and 
began t' play th' tune, when th' guests were 
ready to eat. I have written to Obadiah t' 
send me some of th' wheat, that was brought 
in th' ship Omar, and which grew on th' land 
belonging t' th' family of the Ashlands. Are 
you going from town! No I am going to 
town. Th' vessel is insured to, at and from 
London, 

Notes. I, To make this diphthongal vocal sound, close the 
teeth as if to give the sound of C, and then bring into contact the 
posteriors, or the roots of the tongue, and back parts of the throat, 
and pronounce the imaginary word guz, several times ; then omit 
the ti, and pronounce the g, 2, by themselves : g—z. 2, For the 3d 
sound of X, see the third sound of C. 3. These elemental sounds 
vras the favorite study among the ancients, of the greatest ability. 

157. Sight Reading. To become a good 
reader, and a reader at sight, one must al- 
ways let the eyes precede tJie voice a number 
of words ; so that the mind shall have time, 
clearly, and distinctly, to conceive the ideas to 
he communicated { and also /ee/ their influ- 
ence: this will give full play to the thoughts, 
as well as impart power from the affectuous 
part of the mind, to the body, for producing 
the action, anrl co-operation, of tlie right 
muscles and organs to manufacture the 
sounds and words. In walking, it is always 
best to see where we are about to step ; it is 
equally so in reading, when the voice walks. 
Indeed, by practice, a person will be able to 
take in a line or two, in anticipation of the 
vocal effort: always look before you leap. 

The hiffh, the mountain-maieety^oi' worth — 
Skovld be, and shall, survive its woe ; 
And, from its immortality,— \oo\i forth— 
In the sun's face, — like yonder Alpint snow^ 
Jmperiahably pure— beyond all things belovv 
8 



Proverbs. 1. If you rt'ould lend a man 
money, and make him jour :nemy,askhim for :i 
again. 2. lie that goes a borrowing; goes a sor- 
roicivn-. 3. The t'riTioceni'— often suffer through 
the indolence and neffligence of others. 4. Two Oi 
a trade seldom agree. 5. When the Lord revives 
his work, the Devil revives hie. 6. He that 
swells in prosperity, will shrink in adversity. 7. 
It is human to err ; but diabolical to persevere in 
error. 8. For a cure of ambition, go in the church' 
yard, and read the gravestones. 9. Better get in 
the right path lute, than never. 10. A real friend 
— is discerned in a trying case. 11. Every one 
can acquire a right characUr. 12. Two wrongs-- 
don't make a right. 

Anecdote. Zeno — was told, that it waa 
disreputable for a philosopher to be in love. 
"If that were true,'" said the wise man, 
" the fair sex are indeed to be pitied; for 
they would then receive the attention of 
fools alone.'''' 

Mental Violence. Everything which 
tends to discompose or agitate the mind, 
whether it be excessive sorrow, rage or fear, 
envy, or revenge, love or despair — in short, 
whatever acts violently on our mental facul- 
ties — tends to injure the health. 

Varieties. 1. Washi7iaton — was bcrn 
Feb. 22d, 1732, and died Dec. 14th, 1799 ; 
how old was he ? 2. We cannot Zot^e those, 
whom we do not respect. 3. Order—is the 
same in the world, in man, and in the 
church ; and man is an epitome of all the 
principles of order. 4. In factions, the most 

¥norant are always the most violent. 5. 
he good man has God in his heart, when 
he is not in his mouth : but the hypocrite— 
has God in his mouth, without having him 
in his heart. 6. It is some hope of good- 
ness, not to grow worse ; but it is a part of 
badness, not to grow better. 7. Why should 
we seek — that love, that cannot profit us, or 
fear — that malice, that cannot hurt us ? 

ivARREN'S ADDRESS AT THE BUNKER HILL BATT.'.£ 

Stand ! the ground's your own, my bravte 
Will ye give it up to slaves ? 
Will ye look for greener graves ? 

Hope ye wercy still ? 
What's the mercy despots feel I 
Hear it— in that battle peal : 
Read it — on yon bristling steel I 

Ask it — ye who will. 
Fear ye foes who kill for hire ? 
Will ye to your homes retire 1 
Look behind you ! they're afire I 

And before you, see 
Who have done it !— From the vdti— 
On they come .'—and will ye quail 7 
Leaden rain and iron hail 

Let their welcome be ! 
. n the God of battles trust ! 
Die we may — and die we mutt : — 
But, O ' where — can dust— to dust 

Be consigned so well, 
As where heaven — its dews shall shed 
On the martyr'd patriot's bed. 
And the rocks shall raise their head. 

Of his deeds to tell J [piERPOJJl. 



58 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



158. An accurate knowledge of these ele- 
mentary sounds, which constitute our vocal 
Alphabet, and the exact co-operation of the 
appropriate organs to give them truly, are 
essential to the attainment of a good and ef- 
ficient elocution. Therefore, be resolved to 
understand them thoroughly/ and, in your 
various efforts to accomplish this important 
object, give preciswi and full force to every 
sound, and prsictice faithfully, and often, the 
difficult and rapid changes of the vocal pow- 
ers, required by the enunciation of a quick 
succession of the muscle-'bTeakers. 

159. Tlie sound of Y, ^vlieii a conso- 
nant ; VE t the year-ling young- 
ster, yelled for the yel-low yolk, 
i'es-ter-night, and yearn-ed in the 
yard o-ver the year-book till he 
yex'd: the yoke yields to your [VinYE.] 
year-ling, wliich yearns for the yar-xow in 
the yawls ; you yerk'd your yeast from the 
yavm-\xiz yeo-maxi t/cs-ter-day, and yet your- 
belf, of yore, yea, tho' young, yearn-ed o-ver 
the yes-ty yawn : Mr. Yew, did you say, or 
fiid you not say, what I said you said 1 be- 
cause Mr. Yewyaw said you never said what 
I said you said : now, if you say that, you 
did not say, what I said you said, then pray 
what did you say 1 

160. The first step to impirsvement is, to 
awaken the desire of improvernMnt : whatev- 
er interests the hea7't, and excites the imagi- 
nation, will do this. The second is a clear 
and distinct classification of the principles, 
on which an art is hosed, and an exact ex- 
pressio7i of them, in accordance with this 
classification ; indeed, all the arts and scien- 
ces should be seen in definite delineations, 
thro' a language which cannot well be mis- 
understood. 

161. Irregiaars. E, I, J, and U, occa- 
sionally have this sound ; £M-rope aZ-ien-ates 
the con-spic-n-ous cult-ure of her na-iads, 
and, like a d\s-guised a-eat-ure, eti-lo-gi-ses 
her^a-nior co;ir/-iers for their bril-lmnt gen- 
ius: the virt-n-ons christ-ian sold-ier, in spi)'- 
it-u-al un-ion with the mill-ions of Nat-ure, 
shouts with eu-cha-ris-tic grand-enr, eu-pho- 
Tii-ous hal-le-lu-jahs, which are fa-miZ-iar-ly 
read, throughout the vol-ume of the U-ni- 
vt'Tse. 

Notes. To give this voc»J sottnd, nearly close the teeth, 
viU. the lips turned out as in making long e, (see engraving,) and 
d.-awlingly pronounce the word yet, protracting the sound of the 

y tbua, y et ; y on. 2. For the two other sounds of y, see 

the two sounds of t ; rhyme, hymn ; isle, ile. 3. Fis a consonant at 
ttie beginning of t word or syllable, except in y-clad, (e,-dad,) j- 
KUft, {e-clqpt) 'yt-ri-a, (t/-ri-a,) Yp-si-tan-ti, (Ip-si-taii-ti,) the name 
oiatrwnin Michigan. 4. In prod-uce, u has its nawie sound ; 
-j'.A .n col-utne, if has this cun-so-nant sound of y preceding it; 
111 the^Srrt, it is preceded by an abrupt element : in the second, by 
isjqjcn one. 

If I could find some eave unknown. 
Where human feet have never trod. 

Even there — I could not be alone. 
On every side— there would be Chd 



Proverbs. \. Tha shorter answer— is dointi 
the thing. 2. You cannot quench fire with tew. 
Z. There is no general rule without exceptions. 
4. Happiness — is not in a csttage, nor in a palace, 
nor in riches, nor in poverty, nor in learning, nor 
in iffnorance, nor in active, nor in passive life ; 
but in doing right, from right motives. 5. Good 
intention — is not reftrmation. 6. It is seM-conceit, 
that makes a man obstinate. 7. To cure a fit of 
passion, walk out in the open air. 8. Idle men 
are dead, all their lives long. 9. If you would 
know the value of money, earn it. 10. Hearts 
may agree, tho' heads — differ. 11. Beware of 
jlirting and coquetry. 12. There is no place like 
home. 13. He that is warm, thinks others bo. 

Anecdote. A Vain Mother. As a lady 
— was viewing herself in a looki7ig-g\ass, 
she said to her daughter : " What would 
you give — to be as fiandsome as 1 am?" 
" Just as much, (replied the daughter,) as 
you would, to be as young as / am." 

The Poor. How few, even of professing 
christians, are aware of the pleasure, arising 
from contributing to the support of the poor .' 
Is it not more blessed to give — than to re- 
ceive ? But there are alms for the mind — as 
well as for the body. If we duly considered 
our relations, and our destinies, instead of 
giving grudgingly, or wanting to be called 
upon, we should go out in search of the de:5- 
titute and ignorant, and feel that we were per- 
forming the most acceptable service to God, 
while sharing the gifts of his providence with 
our /eZ/o'io-beings, who are as precious in his 
sight — as we fancy ourselves to be: for he 
does not regard any from their external situ- 
ation, but altogetlier from their internal state. 

Varieties. 1. American independence— ^ 
was acknowledged by Great Britai?i, Jan. 
19, 1783 ; and the treaty of Ghejit signed, 
Dec. 24, 1814. 2. Never do an act, oi' 
which you doubt the justice. 3. Nothing 
can be a real blessing, or curse, to the soul, 
that is not made its own by appropriation. 

4. Let every man be the champion of right. 

5. How sharper — than a serpenVs tooth it is 
to have a thanhless child. 6. All science has 
its foundation in experience. 7. Happy are 
the miseries that end in joy; and blessed are 
ih.e joys, that have no end. 

Ay, I have planned full many a sanguine scheme 
Of £ar(AZi/ happiness; * * * 

And it is hard 
To feel the hand of cfeat/t— arrest one's steps, 
Throw a chWXhlight — on aW one's budding hopes 
And hurl one's soul, untimely, to the shades. 
Lost in the gaping ^-mZ/ of blank oblivion. 
—Fifty years hence, and who will think of Henryl 
Oh, none!— another busy brood of beings 
Will shoot up in the interim, and none 
Will hold him in remembrance. — 

/ehall sink. 
As sinks a stranger — in the crowded streets 
Of busy London : — some short bustle's caused, 
A few inquiries, and the crowd close iu. 
And all's forgotten. [h. k. whitb. 



PRINCIPLES OF' ELOCUTION. 



5d 



183. Many consider elocution merely as an 
accomplishment and that a tlesiiltwy, in- 
stead of a systa.iatic attention, is all that is 
necessary. A regular, scientific and progres- 
nve course, in this as well as every thing else, 
is the only correct, effectual, and rapid mode 
of proceeding, ^improvement be the object, 
whether we devote little, or much attention, 
to a pursuit, be it mental or manual, system 
and method are absolutely essential : order — 
is heaven's^rs/, and last law. 

163. One of tlie tlxree sounds of Cli ; 
"Which may be represented by tch : , 

CHANGE ; the cheat choked a /^ \ 
child for cAoos-ing to chop a chump (i^^^^^ 
of chives for the arch-deacon of ^^■^''"zz ' 
Greew-wich: a chap chased a [CH in chip.] 
chick-en into the church, and the churl-ish 
chap-\a,m check'd it for c^ar-i-ty; the Sa- 
chem of TFooZ- wich, chuck-led over the icr- 
chin's chit-cha.i, and snatched his rich peach- 
es, and pinch'd tliem to chow-der ; the chief 
of iVor-wich, charm'd by the chaunt-lng of 
the c^irp-ing chough, chafed his c/^^ly chin 
by touch-ing it on the chal-ky chim-ney: 
three chub-hy chil-dren, in Richfield, were 
each choked with choice chunks of cheese, 
much of which Sancho Panza purchased of 
Charles Chickering on Chimborazo. 

164:. In all cases of producing sounds, ob- 
serve the different positions of the organs, 
and remember, that the running through with 
the forty-four sounds of our language, is 
like running up the keys of an instrument, 
to see if all is right : be satisfied with nothing, 
short of a complete mastery over the whole 
subject. Be very particular in converting all 
the breath that escapes into sound, when rea- 
ding or singing; and remember, that the 
purer the sound, the easier it may be made ; 
the less will be the injury to the vocal organs, 
the farther it will be heard, and with the 
more pleasure will it be listened to. Do not 
forget the end, the cause, and the effect. 

Notes. 1. To produce this most unpleasant triphthongal 
sound in our language, close the teeth, and, as you suddenly separ- 
ate them, whisper cftij, (m short,) and you will accomplish the ob- 
ject. 2. In drac/im, the ch, are siient. 3. Always try to improve 
'he sounds^as well as your voice. 4. QuinctXian says, in reioic- 
iiieiiding a close attention to the study of fne simple elements, 
" whoever will enter into the inmost recesses of this sacred edifice, 
will find many things, not only proper to sharpen the ingenuity of 
children, but able to exercise the most profound erudition, and the 
deepest science :"' indeed, they are the fountains m the Bcience of 
louud and vocal modulation. 

Anecdote. Principal — Interest. A 
debtor, when asked to pay hia creditor, ob- 
served to him : that " it was not his interest 
to pay the principal, nor his principle to pay 
the interest.'''' What do you thi7ik of such 
a man? 

Unhappy he, who lets a tender heart. 
Bound to him— by the ties of earliest love, 
Pali from him, by his own neglect, and die. 
Because it met no kindna^s. 



Proverbs. 1. IJumility — ga n^ more ihan 
prike. 2. ^ever he weary in well-dna^. 3. £x. 
pect nothing of those who promise a great deal. 
4. Orieving for misfortunes, is adding gall to 
mormwood. 5. He, who would catch fish, must 
not mind getting wet. 6 He that by the plo7n 
would thrive, must either hold, himself, or drive. 
7. Idleness — is the greatest prodigality in tho 
world. 8. If the counsel be good, no matter wh ■ 
gave it. 9. Occupation — cures one half of 'ife's 
troubles, and mitigates the other. 10. We boa? 
710 afflictions so patiently as those of ( thers. 1 1. 
Let JVaturi have her perfect work. 12. Soft 
hands, and soft brains, generally go logether. 

To speak of Howard, the philanthropist, 
without calling to mind the eloquent eulo- 
gium, in which Burke has embalmed his 
memory, would be as impossible — asit would 
be to read that eulogium without owning that 
human virtue never received a more illus- 
trious manifestation. " Jf:Z^oioarcif," said the 
orator, " was a man, who traversed foreign 
countries, not to survey the sumptuousness 
o[ palaces, or the stateliness oi temples ; not 
to make accurate measurements of the re- 
mains of ancient grandeur, nor to form a 
scale of the curiosity of modern art ; not to 
collect medals, or manuscripts ; but, to dive 
into the depths of dimgeo?is ; to plunge in 
the infection of hospitals ; to survey the 
mansions of sorrow and pain ; to take the 
guage and dimensions o{ misery, depression, 
and C071 tempt ; to remember the forsaken ; 
and to compare and collate the distresses of 
all men, under all climes." In the prose- 
cution of this god-\\ke work, Howard made 
" a voyage oi discovery, a circumnavigation 
of charity,'''' and at last — ^fell a victim to hia 
humanity; for, in administering medicine to 
some poor wretches in the hospital at Cher- 
son, in the Crimea, he caught a malignant 
fever, and died in the glorious work of bene 
valence. Thus fell the man who — 

" Girding crcatwi— in one warm embrace, 
Outstretch'd his savior-arm — from pole to pole, 
And felt akin — to all the human race.^' 

Varieties. 1. To promote an iniworthy 
person — disgraces humaiiity. 2. Read not 
6oo/rs alone, but me7i ; and, especially, thy- 
self 3. The human mind is a mirror — ot 
the incomprehensible Divinity. 4. No one 
need despair of being happy. 5. The rea^ 
son, that many persons want their desires, 
is — because tneir desires want reason. 6. 
Passions — act as xvind, to propel our vessel ; 
and our reason — is the pilot that steers her: 
without the wind, we could not move, and 
without the pilot, we should be lost. 7. 
The more genuine — the truths are, wnich 
we receive, the purer will be the good, that 
is found in the life ; if the truths are applied 
to their real and proper uses. 

What, then, remains, but well our power to use, 

And keep good humor stilt, xoliate'cr we loce ? 

And trust me, dear, good humor can prevail, 

When airs, zui flights, and screams, and tcolding—teU. 

Beauties— ,n vain, their pretty eyes may roll ; 

Charmt strike the fijW but mmJ— Tins tHe roul. 



60 



PRINCIPLES 0/ ELOCUTION. 



165. Vowel sounds are all formed in the 
LARYNX ; and, on their emission, the articu- 
lating organs modify them into words. 
These words constitute language, which is 
used, by common consent, as signs of ideas ; 
or as mediums for the manifestation of 
thought and feelinz : it may be written, or 
spoken ,- and the natural results are— books, 
fapers and lonversation : by means of which, 
the conceptions and affections of human 
minds are made known and perpetuated. 

166. Tli liave two soiuids ; first a lisp- 
ing sound; THIN: a thief /Airs/- 
e<.h for the path of death, and / 
u,'m-keth at his thank-less thefts ■ ' 
as the a-the-ist doth of the-o-?-e/- 
i-cal truth ; forth-with the thrift- [Th in thin.] 
less throng, tlirew tliongs over the mouth of 
Vrith of Fourth, and tliwar-ted the wrath of 
the thril-ling thun-der; faith, quoth the 
youth, to the Pro-/Aon-o-ta-ry, the bath is my 
berth, the hearth is my cloth, and the heath 
is my throne. 

16T. Ventriloquism. In analyzing the 
sounds of our letters, and practicing them 
upon different pitches, and with different 
qualities of voice, the Author ascertained that 
this amusing art can be acquired and prac- 
ticed, by almost any one of common organi- 
zation. It has been generally supposed that 
ventriloquists possessed a different set of or- 
gans from most people ; or, at least, that they 
■were differently constituted ; but this is alto- 
gether a misapprehension : as well might we 
say that the singer is differently constituted 
from one who does not sing. They have the 
same organs, but one has better command of 
them than the other. It is not asserted that 
all can become eguaZZ?/ eminent in these arts; 
for there will be at least, three grand divis- 
ions; viz, good, BETTER and BEST. 

168. The Thistle Sifter. Theophilus This- 
tle, the siiccesfful thistle sifter, in sifting a 
sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three 
thousand thistles thro' the thick of his 
thumb: if then Theophilus Thistle, the suc- 
cessful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of 
unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand this- 
tles thro' the thick of his thumb; see that 
thou, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted this- 
tles, dost not thrust three thousand thistles 
tlirough the thick of thij thumb : success to 
the successful thistle sifter, who doth not get 
Hie thistles in his tongue. 

Wotes. 1. To make this lisping diphthongal sound, press 
the tongue against the upper front teeth, and let the breath pass 
between them : or pronounce the word path, and dwell on the th 
sound; see engraving. 2. To avoid lisping, draw the tongue back 
lo Ki not to touch the teeth, and take words beginning with i, or it ; 
toe the fii-st sound of C for examples. 3. Why should this sound be 
ccUcd tharp, rather than didl? 4. Exactnes* in articulating every 
Tocal letter, is more iciportant thai- correct spelling in ccroposi< 
tfon; for the fonier it addressed to hundreds at the same instunt, 
«rM'.e t*ie bittri « '.ubra.tted to one or a few zX a time. 



Proverbs. I. Youih — it julges in hope old 
age — in remembrance. 2. One half of the world 
delights in utterina- slander, and the other — iQ 
hearing it. 3. Virtue— \s the only true nobility. 
4. To bless, is to be bless'd. 5. r easures — are 
rendered bitter, by being abused. 6. Quarrels — 
would not last long, if the faults all lay on one 
side. 7. True merit— is dependent, neither on 
season, nor on fashion. 8. Hypocrisy — is the 
homage, which vice— renders to virtue. 'J. The 
law — imposes on no one impossibilities. 10. Con- 
tempt of injuries, is proof of a great mind. 11. 
What ! hope for honey from a nest of zcasps ? 
12. Shall we creep like snails, or fly like eagles ? 

Anecdote. A stranger — went into a 
church-yard, where two children were set- 
ting out flowers on some graves. " Whose 
graves are these?'' said he. "Father, mo- 
ther, and little Jo/i?m// lie here." " Why do 
you set Xhefowers here ?"said the stranger. 
They looked at him with tears, and said — 
" We do love them so.''"' 

Human ambition and human poZ/cj^-— labor 
after happiness in vain; — goodness — is the 
only foundation to build on. The wisdom 
of past ages — declares this truth ; — our own 
observation confirms it; — and all the world 
acknowledge it ;— yet how few, how very 
few — are willing to act upon it ! If the in- 
ordinate love of wealth — and parade — be not 
checked among us, it will be tiie ruin of our 
country— as it has been, and will be, the 
ruin of thousands of others. But there are 
always two sides to a question. If it is per- 
nicious — to make money and style — the 
standard of respectability, — it is injurious— 
and' wrong — to foster prejudice against the 
wealthy and fashionable. Poverty — and 
wealth — have different temptations ; but they 
are equally strong. The rich — are tempted 
to pride — and insolence ; the poor — to jeal- 
ousy — and envy. The envious and discon- 
tented poor, invariably become haxighty- 
and over-bearing, when they become rich , 
for selfishness — is equally at the bottom — of 
these opposite evils. 

' Varieties. 1. The battle of New Or 
leans, was fought Jan, 8th, 1815. 2. A 
flatterer, is the shadow of a fool. 3. You 
cannot truly love, and ought not to be loved, 
if you ask any thing, that virtue condemnf. 
5. Do men exert a greater influence on so- 
ciety than women ? 5. Self-exaltation, is the 
worst posture of the spirit. 6. A principle 
of unity, without a subject of unity, cannot 
exist. 7. Where is the wisdom, in saying to 
a child, be a man ? Attempt not what God 
cannot cou?itenance; but wait., and all things 
will be brought forth in their due season. 

Deceit ! thy reign is short : Hypocrisy, 
However gaily dress'd— in specious ga/b. 
In witching eloquence, or winning smites. 
Allures— b-jt fur a time: Truth— Viftt the vei. 
She lights her torch, and places it on high. 
To spread iittelligcnce—to all around. 
How shrinks the fawning slave — hypoc>u,f 
Then, when the specious veil— is rent in tuxitn, 
Which scrtai'd the hideous monster— from ourm«W 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



61 



169. Enunciation— is the utterance and 
Cfltnbination of the elements of language, and 
the consequent formation of syllables, words, 
«fec, as contradistinguished from the tones, 
and tuning of the voice, and all that belongs 
to the melody of speech. A perfect enuncia- 
tion — consists in the accurate formation of 
the sounds of the letters, by right motions 
and positions of the organs, accompanied by 
a proper degree of energy, to impress those 
elements fully and distinctly on the ear ; and 
the act of combining and linldiig those to- 
getlier, so as to form them into words, capa- 
ble pf being again combined into clauses 
and sentences, for the full conveyance of our 
ideas and determinations. 

170. The second, sound of tin, is tlie 
vocal lisping: THAT; thotl- 

saidst the truths are thine, and l^'^yr^ 
the youths say they are theirs (c ^^i^ 
who walk therein ; fath-ex and I n^^E 
moth-ex liathe dai-ly, and their 
clothes and hearths are wor-thy f^H in that.] 
of them ; broth-et says, where-with-al shall I 
smoothe the scythe, to cut the laths to stop 
the mouths of the moths with-out be-ing both- 
ered ] they gath-er wreaths be-neath the baths, 
and sheathe their swords with swath-ing 
bands, rather than make a blith-some pother 

171. Jaw-breakers. Thou wreath^d^st 
and muzzPd^st the far-fetched ox, and im- 
•prison^d^st liim in the volcanic Mexican 
mountain of Pop-o-ca^-a-pe#l in Co-ti-por-i. 
Thou prob^d^st my rack'd ribs. Thou tri- 
fVd'st with his acts, that thou blackest and 
contaminated'' st with his filch'd character. 
Thou lov''d'st the elves when thou heard^st 
and quick'* n'd'st my heart's tuneful harps. 
Thou wagg^d'sl thy prop'd up head, because 
thou thrusVd''st three hundred and thirty 
three thistles thro' the thick of that thumb, 
that thou cur'd'st of the barb'd shafts. 

Notes. 1. To make this diphthongal vocal sound, place 
the organs as in the jjreceding th, and then add the voice, sound, 
wliich can be made only in the larynx. 2. The terms sliarp and 
fiat, as applied to sound, are not sufficiently definite; we might as 
vvelj sjieak of s<iuare, round and dull sounds ; at the same time it is 
ofien eonvetrfent to use such terms, in order to convey our idea». 
S. it you liave imperfections of articulation, set apart an hour eve- 
ry day for practice, in direct reference to your specific defects ; and 
eo of every other fault ; particularly, of rapid utterance : this can 
Be done either alone, or in company of those who can assist you. 

.Sky. mountains, rivers, winds, lakes, lightnings ! — Ye 
With ni^ht, and clouds, and thunder, and a ioid 
To make these /eZ/ a.nA feeling; the far roll 
Of your departing uoicei— is the kntU 
Of wh»t in me is sleepless— \i\ rest. 



CoHld I imhody and unhosom now 
That which is most within me — could I wrea& 
My thoughts upon expression, and thus throw 
tioul, heart, mind, passio7is, fechngs strong or weak, 
All that I would jave sought, and all I seek. 
Bear, know, ftel, and yet breathe, — into one word, 
And that one wori were lightning, I would speak !— 
But— aiit is— I live, and die, unheard, 
CV/h a most voicdess thought, sheathing it as a rwo"i. 



Proverbs. 1. A promise perforirjcd, ia prc- 
ferable to one ma ie. 2. It will not alnmjs be 
summer. 3. Make hay, while the sun shines. 
4. Cut your coat according to the cloth. 5. Pridd 
— costs us more than hunffer, thirst, or cold. 6. 
Never spend your money before you have it. 7. 
Never trc-uble another, for what you can do your- 
self, ?.. Slanderers — are the Devil's bellows, to 
blowup contention. 9. The loquacity of /oo.'*— 
is a lecture to the wise. 10. Vows made ia 
storms, are forgotten in calms. 11. We must (otm 
our characters for both worlds. 12. Progresa 
is the great law of our being. 

A Puzzle. Here's a healtli to all those 
that we love ; and a health to all those thaJ 
love us ; and a health to all them, that love 
those, that love them, that love tAemthat love 
those that love us. 

Anecdote. Half Mourning. A little 
girl, hearing her mother observe to another 
lady, that she was going into half mourning 
inquired, whether any of her relations were 
half dead ? 

Wliat is Ours. It is not tJiose, who 
have riches in their possession, that are real- 
ly rich ; but they, who possess, and use them 
aright, and thereby e7ijoy them. Is he a 
true christian, who has a Bible in his posses- 
sion, but does not live by the Bible? Is 
he a genuine christian, who i-eads, but does 
not understand the word, and, from under- 
standing, -practice it? As well may one 
say, that they are rich, who have borrowed 
money from others, or have the vroperty of 
others in their possession. Wliat do we 
think of those, who go dressed in fine clothes. 
or ride in splendid carriages, while none of 
these things are their own property ?' Know- 
ledges, or truths — stored up in the memory,- 
are not ours, really and trtdy, unless we re- 
duce them to practice : they are like hear- 
says of great travelers, of which nothing 
more than the sound reaches us. Under- 
standing — does not make the man, but un- 
derstanding and doing, or living accordingly. 
There must be an appropriation of know- 
ledge and truth — by the affections, in deeds, 
or they are of no avail: '^ Faith, without 
foorks, is dead :" the same principle applies 
to a society, and to a churcli. 

Varieties. 1. Burgoyne — surrendered, 
Oct. 17, 1777, and Comwallis, Oct. 19, '81. 
2. Happy is that people whose rulers — rule 
in the fear of God. 3. Remember the past, 
consider the present, and provide for tlie/«- 
ture. 4. He, who marries for wealth, sell.? 
his happiness for half price. 5. The covet- 
ous person is always poor. 6. If you would 
avoid wants, attend to every thing ^eZoto you, 
arou7id you, within you, and above you. 7. 
All the works of natural creation, are ex- 
hibited to us, that we may know the nature 
of the spiritual, and eternal; all things 
speak, and are a language. 
He was not born — to shame ; 
Upon his 6row— shame— is ashamed to sit ; 
For 'tis a throne, where honor— nmy be crown«o 
Sole monarch— of the universal earth. 



62 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUIiON. 



17a. The chief source of indistinctness is 
precipilanci/ / which arises from the bad 
method of teaching to read : the child not be- 
ing taught the true beauty and propriety of 
reading, thinks all exceUence consists in 
quickness and rapidity.- to him the prize 
seems destined to the swift ; for he sets out 
at a gallop, and continues his speed to the 
md, regardless of how many letters, or sylla- 
bles, he omits b/ the way, or how many 
words he runs together. " O reform it alto- 
gether." 

173. AVli have one sound; WHALE ; 
wherefore are u;Acf-stones made ^^,^1^ 
of whirl-winds, and whip-lashes / jJ-T'^x 
of whirl-pools 1 Why does that //>^^>' 
whimsical whis-tler whee-dle the y \\^^^y 
whip-por-wills with wheat 1 

PVfd-lom the wheels whipped [WHiaWHip.] 
the u?Ai/-fle-tree, and ?^Air-tle-ber-ries were 
u>M/e-washed for wheat; the luAim-per-ing 
ivhi-ning whelp, which the whigs ivhi-ten- 
ed on the wharf was whelmed into a whirl- 
i-gig as a z^Aim-wham for a wheel-haxxovf of 
whis-ky. 

174. Causes of Hoarseness. Hoarseness, 
in speaking, is produced by the emission of 
more breath than is converted into sound,- 
which may be perceived by whispering a few 
minutes. The reason, why the breath is not 
:onverted into sound, in thus speaking, is, 
that the thorax, (or lungs,) is principally 
used ; an 1 when this is the case, there is al- 
ways an expansion of the chest, and conse- 
quently, a lack of power to produce sounds 
in a natural manner : therefore, some of the 
breath, on its emission through the glottis, 
over the epiglottis, and through the back 
part of the mouth, chafes \ip their surfaces, 
producing a swelling of the muscles in those 
parts, and terminating in what is called 
hoarseness. 

Notes. 1. This diphthongal aspirate may be easily made, 
by whispering the imaginary word whu, (u short,) prolonging it a 
little. 2. Since a diphthong is a double sound and a triphthong 



Proverbs. \. Self-esiltation—\B the /oofi 
paradise. 2. That, which is hitter to endure, may 
be siceet to remember. 3. The foil—\% busy in 
every one's business but his own. 4. We may 
give advice, but we cannot give condtict. 5. 
Where reason — rules, appetite — obeys. 6. You 
will never repent of being patient and sober. 7. 
Zeal, without knowledge, is like^re without light. 
8. Law-makers, should not be law-breakers. 9. 
Might — does not make right. 10. The greater 
the man, the greater the crime. 11. JVo one live«i 
for himself. 12. No one can tell how much he 
can accomplish, till he tries. 

Anecdote. Wine. Said a Rev. guest to 
a gentleman, with whom he was dinins, and 
who was fl tentferance, man : "I always 
think a certain quantity of wine does no 
harm, after a good dinner.^'' " O «o sir," 
replied mine host; "it is the wwcertain 
quantity that does the mischief. 

Winter Evenings. This seems pro- 
vided, as if expressly for the purpose — of 
furnishing those who labor, with ample op- 
portunity for the improvement of their minds. 
The severity of the weather, and the short- 
ness of the day, necessarily limit the pro- 
portion of time, which is devoted to out-door 
industry; and there is little to tempt us 
abroad — in search of amusement. Every 
thing seems to invite us — to employ an 
hour or two — of this calm and quiet season, 
in the acquisition of useful knowledge, and 
the cultivation of the miiid. The noise of 
life is hushed ; the pavement ceases to re- 
sound with the di7i of laden wheels, and the 
tread of busy men ; the glowing sun has 
gone down, and the moo7i and the stars are 
left to watch in the heavens, over the slum- 
bers of the peaceful creation. The mind of 
ma7i — should keep its vigils with them ; and 
while his body — is reposing from the labors 
of the day, and \iis feelings — are at rest from 
its excitements, he should seek, in some 
amusing and instructive page, substantial 
food — for the generous appetite for k7iow 
ledge. 

Varieties. 1. The poor — may be con- 
tent ; and the contented are rich. 2. Hypo- 



tripk sound, tliere is as much propriety in applying the term to crisy dcslrCS tO Seem gOod, rather than 



cmisprtanta, as to vowels. 3. Let the pupil, in revising, point out 
all the Monothongs, Diphthongs, Triphthongs, and Polythongs. 4. 
Make and keep a list of all your deficiencies in speech and son.ij, 
wid |)racl ice daily for suppressing them: especially, in articulation, 
ind false intonations ; and never rest satisfied unless you can per- 
ceive a progress towards perfection at every exercise, — for all 
principles are immortal, and should be continually developing 
(neiiiselves. 

How sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
With all their country's wishes blest ! 
When Spring, with dewy fiiigers cold. 
Returns — to deck their hallow 'd mould, 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than Fancy^s feet have ever trod : 
By Fairy hands— their knell is rung, 
By forms wnsecre— their dirge is sung ; 
There— i/oKor comes, a pilgrim gray, 
To h'ess, the turf, that wraps their clay ; 
And Freedom— shall a while repair 
Tc cvoll, a weeping hermit, there. 



be good. 3. It is better to be beaten with 
few stripes, than with Tnany stripes. 4. He 
who swears, in order to be believed, does not 
know how to counterfeit a man of truth. 5. 
Who was the greater monster, Nero, or Ca- 
taline ? 6, Let nothing foul, or indecent, 
either to the eye, or ear, enter within the 
doors where children dwell. 7. We wor- 
ship God best, and most acceptably, when 
we resemble him most in our minds^ lives. 
and actions. 
Home I how that blessed word— thrills the earl 

In it — what recollections blend ! 
It tells of cAiZdAood's scenes so dear, 

And speaks— of many a cherished /rieni. 
O ! through the world, wherever we roam, 

Though souls be pure— and lips be kind ; 
The heart, vf \th fondness, turns to home. 
Still turns to those— it left behind. 



I 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



63 



178. The pupil, in Elocution and Music, 
is strongly urged to attend to the right and 
the wrong method of producing the sounds 
of our letters, as well as in enunciating 
wards. By all means, make the effort entire- 
ly below the diaphragm, while the chest is 
comparatively quiescent ; and, as you value 
health and Itfe, and good natural speaking, 
avoid the cruel practice of exploding the 
sounds, by whomsoever taught or recom- 
mended. The author's long experience, and 
practice, with his sense of duty, justify this 
jrrotest against that urmatural manner of 
coughing out the sounds, as it is called. 
Nine-tenths of his hundreds of pupils, whom 
he has cured of the Bronchitis, have induced 
the disease by this exploding process, which 
ought itself to be exploded. 

176. Tlie 44r sounds of our liangnage, 
m their alphabetical order. A 4; Ale, are, 
all, at: B 1 ; bribe: C 4; cent, clock, suffice, 
ocean : D 2 ; did, fac'd : E 2 ; eel, ell : F 2 ; 
fife, of: G 3; gem, go, rouge: H 1; hope: 
1 2 ; isle, ill : J\ ; judge : K 1; kirk .-LI; 
lily : M 1 ; mum : N 2 ; nun, bank : O 3 ; 
old, ooze, on : PI; pipe : Q 1 ; queen : R 2 ; 
arm, rough : S 4 ; so, is, sure, treasury : T 2 ; 
pit, nation .-US; mute, up, full : F 1 ; viv- 
id -• W 2 ; wall, how .• X 3 ; flax, exist, beaux : 
Y 3 , youth, rhyme, hymn : Z 2; zigzag, 
azure : Ch 3 ; church, chaise, chasm : Gh 3; 
laugh, ghost, lough : Ph 2 ; sphere, nephew .• 
Th2; thin, that: Wh 1; whale: Oi 1; oil: 
Ou 1 ; sound : the duplicates, or those hav- 
ing the same sound, are printed in italics. 

177. " Bovjels of compassion, and loins of 
the rnind." In the light of the principles 
Iiere unfolded, these words are full of mean- 
ing. All the strong affections of the' human 
mind, are manifested thro' the dorsal and a&- 
dominal region. Let any one look at a boy, 
when he bids defiance to another boy, and 
challenges him to combat: "Come on, I am 
ready for you :" and at the soldier, with his 
loins girded for battle : also, observe the ef- 
fect of strong emotions on yourself, on your 
l)ody, and where,- and you will be able to 
see the propriety of these words, and the 
world of .meaning they contain. If we were 
pure minded, we should find the proper stu- 
dy of physiology to be the direct natural 
:oad to the mind, and to the preseto". of the 
Dkttt. 

Notes. 1. Make these 4:4: sounds, which constitute our 
»ocal alphabet, as familiar to the tar, as the shapes of our /80 
letters are to the eye ; and remember, that success depends on 
■Jour mastery of them ; they are the «, b, c, of spoken language ; 
Eod the effort to ma}ie them has a most beneficial effect on the 
i,ealth and voice. 2. Keep up the proper use of the whole body, 
and you need not fear sickness. 3. The only solid foundation for 
elocution is, a perfect knowledge of the number and nature of these 
4:4 Bimple elements: error here will carry a taint throughout. 

Virtue — 
Stands* like the sun, and all, which rolls around. 
Drinks lifi, and lig'ht, and glory— from her aspect. 



Proverbs. 1. Truth — may be hlamti, but 
never shamed. 2. What soberness — conceals, 
drunkenness — reveals. 3. Be you ever so high, 
the law is above you. 4 A mob — has many heads, 
but no brains. 5. A poor man's debt makes a 
great noise. 6. Busy-hoAxes — are always med- 
dling. 7. Crows — are never the whiter, for 
washing themselves. 8. Good words — cost no- 
thing, and are worth much. 9. He, who paye 
well, is master of euer?/ -body's purse. 10. Oui 
knjowledge — is as the rivulet ; our ignorance — ^as 
the sea. 11. Consider well, before you promise^ 
12. Dare to do right. 

Anecdote. Candor. A clergt/man-'cncs 
preached, during the whole of Lent, in a 
parish, where he was never invited to di?ie , 
and, in his farewell sermon, he said to his 
hearers, "I have preached against every 
vice, except good living ; which, I believe, 
is not to be found among you ; and, there 
fore, needed not my reproach.'''' 

Society o^ves All a liivlng- Every one 
must and will — find a livelihood ; nor has 
society the choice, whether or not to provide 
for its members : for if an individual is not 
put in a way to ear?i a living, he will seek 
it by unlawful means : if he is not educuted 
— to lead a. sober and industrious life, he will 
lead a life of dissipation ; and if society re- 
fuse to take care of him, in his minority, he 
will force it to notice him — as an object of 
self-defence. Thus, society cannot avoid 
giving a livelihood to all, whom providence 
has placed in its bosom ; nor help devoting 
time and expense to them ; for they are by 
birth, or circumstances, dependent on its as- 
sistance. While, then, it has the power— ~ 
to make every one — available — as an honest, 
industrious and useful citizen, would it not 
be the best policy, (to say nothing of prin- 
ciples,) to do so ; and attach all to society, 
by ties oi gratitude, rather than put them in 
a condition to become e?iemies ; a condition 
in which it will be necessary to punish them 
— for an alienatio?i, which is the natural 
consequence oi desthution. Scliools, found- 
ed on true christian principles, would, in the 
end, be much cheaper, and better — than to 
support cur crimiiial code, by the prosecu 
tions, incident to that state, in which many 
come up, instead oihelngbrougtd up ; and the 
consequent expenses attending our houses 
of correction, penitentiaries, &c. (of which 
many seem to be proud,) on the score of 
public justice, hnt of which, on the score of 
christian love, we have reason to be deeply 
ashamed. 

Varieties. 1. Will not our souls — con. 
tinue in being forever? 2. He — is not so 
good as he should be, who does not strive to 
be better than he is. 3. Genius — is a plant, 
whose growth you cannot stop, without de- 
stroying it. 4. In doing nothing we learn 
to do ill. 5. Neither wealth, nor power, can 
confer happiness. 6. In heaven, (we havo 
reason to believe,) no one considers anything 
as good, unless others partake of it. 7. No- 
thing is ours, until we give it away. 
\ I doers — ^are ill thinkers. 



84 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



178. Orthography or Right Spelling. As 
we have two kinds of layiguage, written and 
si)oken, so, there are two modes of spelling ; 
one addressed to the fye, and exhibited by 
naming the letters; the other addressed to 
the ear, and spelled by giving the sounds, 
which the letters represent : the former meth- 
od, which is the common one, tends to the pre- 
dominant use of the throat, and lungs, and is 
one of the fruitful sources of consumptio7i ; 
the latter, which is the new one, serves to 
Keep up the natural use of the appropriate 
nuscles, and tends to prevent, as well as cure, 
dyspepsia, liver and lung complaints, and 
diseases of the throat. 

119. Classification of the Consonants. 
The first natural division of the consonants 
IS into Vocal and Aspirate. Of the Vocal 
there are, as they stand in the alphabet, and 
their combinations, twenty-six ,- but deduct- 
ing the duplicates, there are but seventeen ,• 
viz: &, as in bib; c, as in suffice; d, as in 
desid; f, as in of; g, as in g-em, go, rouge; 
/, as in ill ; m, as in me ; n, as in none, bank ; 
r, as in err, pride ; w, as in ivo ; x, as in e;r- 
ist ; y, as in yet ; and th as in this ; all of 
which should be given separately, as well as 
combined, and their differences observed. 

180. After the pupil has become familiar 
with reading by vowel sounds and spelling, 
as above recommended, let him be exercised 
in reading by the vowel and consonant 
jiounds: i. e. by giving a perfect analysis 
o' all the sounds, found in any of the words 
cf the sentence before him ; which involves 
every thing relating to sounds, whether sin- 
gle, double, or triple,- and to articulation, 
accent, pronunciation, and emphasis. No 
one should wish to be excused from these 
very useful and important exercises ; for they 
are direrctly calculated to improve the voice, 
tlie ear, and the manner, while they impart 
that kind of knowledge of this subject, which 
will be felt to be po7ver, and give one coJifi- 
ilcnce in his own abilities. 

Notes. 1. It is rot a little anmsin? and instructive too, to 
^janiiri* the great variety of names, used by different auttiors, to 
u. gi^iiate the sounds of our letters, their classificatioiis, *c. against 
* licti tlie charwof nmplicittj cannot be brought : in every thinfr, 
tf. u» euard against Zeanierf and unteamed ignorance. 2. There 
EFu Uiose, who oiiglit, from their positiin before tlie world, to be 
9UD>4rd aiithnrities in the pronunciation of letters and words, and 
lit eenera! delivfy ; but, unfortunately, on account of their sad de- 
K-a and iiiaccura .ie«, in all those particulars, they constitute a court 
of Errors, instead of Appeal: consequently, we must throvT our- 
je.ves u]K)n the first principles and our own resources; using, how- 
ever, such true lights as a kiud Providence has vouclisafed us for 
Oil' f^jidauce. 

T.» him, wlio, in the love of nature, holds 
n.iinmunion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A variovs language ; for his gayer lioiirs, 
Phf has a voice of gladness, and a S7iiile, 
And eioquenre of beauty ; and she glides 
Into his durksr musings — with a mild 
And rentle sympathy, that steals awav 
Their skarfnees—tre he is aware. 



Proverbs. 1. As we act towards oiherg, wn 
may expect others to act towards us. 2. A guod 
orator is pointed, and vehement. 3. Idleness — is 
the rust of the mind, and the blight of genius. 4 
Assist yowrseZ/, and heaven will assist you. 5 
We should estimate man's character,hy his good- 
ness ; not by his wealth. 6. Knowledge — is as es- 
sential to the mind, as food is to the body. 7. A 
good word is as soon said, as an ill one. 8. No 
temptation of emolument, can induce an honest 
man to do wrong. 9. Virtue — is the best, and 
safest helmet we can wear. 10. Against the 
fickleness of fortune, oppose a bold heart. 11. 
Never profess — what you do not practice. 12. 
Treat eucry one with iindHess. 

Anecdote. Keeping Time — from Eter- 
nity. Chief Justice Parsons, of MassachU' 
setts, having been shown a watch, that wa.s 
looked on as well worthy of notice, as it had 
saved a man's life, in a duel, remarked, — 
"It is, indeed, a very astonishing watch, 
that has kept time from eternity.'''' 

The DlfTerence. V/hy is it, that many 
professors of religion — are so reluctant, to 
have the reading" of the BMe, as well as 
speaking and singing, conducted in a cor- 
rect an^ proper manner? Should not the 
greatest and most glorious truths — be deliv- 
ered in an appropriate style ? Do they 
think to exalt religious truth, in the eyes ot 
the well-informed, by communicating it ii 
a way that is not only repulsive to correo 
taste, but slove?ily, and absolutely wrong t 
Is it calculated to recommend devotional ex- 
ercises to their consideration, by offering \\\ 
prayer in a language and manner, unbecom 
ing man when addressing man ; and per 
forming the singing, regardless of proper 
time and tune? Will they present their of 
ferings in a maimed, halt and hlind manner 
iipon the altar of religion ; while they have 
it in their power, to provide a way in ac- 
cordance with the suhject and object of their 
devotion? Is it vieU — to despise a good 
style and manner — of elocution and music, 
because we have not the ability, and are too 
indolent to labor for it. to do justice to our- 
selves and others ? Wliat course does true 
wisdom dictate ? 

Varieties. 1. Men — will never /eeZ like 
women, nor women — think, like men. 2. 
In too eager disputation, the truth is often 
lost sight of 3. Woma7i — is not degraded, 
but elevated, by an earnest, daily applica- 
tion — to her domestic concerns. 4. How 
wretched is his condition, who depends for 
his daily sitpport, on the hospitality of o^Aers. 
5. An evi]-speaker — differs from an evil- 
doer, only in opportunity. 6. The use of 
hnowledge is — to communicate to others, that 
they may be the better for it. 7. They who 
deny a God, either in theory, or practice, de 
stroy man's nobility. 

Till y .ruth's delirious dream is o'er, 
Sanguine with hope, we look before, 

The future good to find ; 
In age, when error charms no more, 
For bliss — we look behind. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



63 



181. Orthography, being to the Elocution' 
1st, especially, a subject of incalcualle im- 
portance, it is presumed a few observations, 
illustrated by examples, will not be out of 
place. The author introduces an entirelj^ 
7iew mode of learning the letters, by the use 
of sounds, before the characters are exhib- 
ited ; also, a new way of spelling, in which 
the words are spelt by giving the different 
Hounds of the letters, instead of their wames.- 
anJ finally, a new method of teaching chil- 
drtn to read, by dictation; instead of by the 
book:i. e. to read without a book, the same 
as wPkll learn to speak our mother tongue ; 
and afterwards, with a book: thus making 
the book talk just as we should, when speak- 
ing on the same subject. 

1 8«. Aspirates. There are, according to 
their representatives, 21 aspirate, or breath 
sounds : omitting the duplicates, (or letters 
having the same sound,) there are only elev- 
en ; viz : c, as in cent, clock, ocean ; d, as in 
flic'fZ ; /, as \njife ; h, as in hoe ; p, as in pipe ; 
X, as in mix ; ch, as in c/turch ; th, as in ^^in ; 
and luh, as in ivhere • whence it appears, by 
actual analysis, that we have sixteen vowel 
sounds, and twenty-eight consonant sounds ; 
making in all roftfY-Foun; some authors, 
however, give only thirty-eight. 

183. The common mode of teaching all 
three, is no better policy, (setting every thing 
else aside,) than to go from America to Chi- 
na to get to England : in other words, per- 
fectly ridiculoxis : and were we not so much 
accustomed to this unnatural and dementing 
process, we should consider it one of the 
mo?t self-evident humbugs, not of the age 
only, but of the world. Examples of the old 
mode: p, (pe,) h, (aytch,) i, (eye,) s, (ess,) 
TiR, i, (eye,) c, (see,) fc, (kay,) jck, tisick; 
fifteen sounds: of the new ; t,i,z, tis, i, k,ik, 
tis-ik; giving nothing but the five sounds: 
Ihe old: g, (je,) e, (e,) w, (doubleyou,) gv, 
g, (je,) a, (a,) iv, (doubleyou,) gaav, gkw- 
fi AW ; eighteen sounds, and not one sound in 
spelling is found in the word after it is spelt : 
the new mode; g, u,g, aw, rkaf-gaw, giv- 
ing only the /our sounds of the letters, in- 
stead of their names. 

If Otes. 1. We never can succeed in accomplishing one 
tialf of the «;lorio'js purposes of language, so long as we apply our- 
•elvos to what is ivritteti, and neglect what is spoken. 2. A new 
fif.' 1 presents itself; and when we shall have entered it, in the 
ni^it place and manner, a new era will dawn upon us, leading us 
more to the cultivation of the living language and the living voice: 
the compass and harmony of the best instrument can never be per- 
tt-ived, by toucliing the keys at random, or playing a few simple 
tunes upon if, learned by the ear. 

When sailing — on this troubled sea 
Of pain, and tears, and as:ony ; 
Thougli wildly roar the waves around, 
With restless and repeated saund, 
'Tis sweet— to think, that on our eyes, 
A loveliiT ciime — shall yet arise ; 
That W3 sh*^ 1 wase — from sorrow^s dream, 
Beside a pttfj — and living stream. 
13R0NS0.Y .> 



Proverb^. 1. Estimate persons tnore by 
tjeir hearts, than by their heads. 2. A. people 
who have no amveements. have no rnanners. 3. 
Ml are not saints, who gc to church; all is not 
ffold that fflitters. 4. Advice — is soUlom icelcovie, 
those who need it most, generally like it least. 
5. Do not spend your words to no purpose ; but 
come to the facts. 6. Great things — cannot be 
accomplished without proptr vieans. 7. Wc reap 
the consequences of our actions— holh here, an*;* 
hereafter. 8. God gives to all, the power of be- 
coming what they ought to be. 9. Infringe oa 
no one's rights. 10. If we are determined to suc- 
ceed, we shall succeed. 11. Better do well, than 
say well. 12. Better be happy tljan rich. 

Anecdote. If men would confine their 
conversation to such subjects as they under- 
stand, how much better it would be for both 
speaJcer and hearer. Halhj, the great ma- 
thematician, dabbled not a little in infidelity; 
he was rather too load of introducing tHis 
subject in his social intercourse ; and once, 
when he had descanted somewhat /reeZj? on 
it, in the presence of his- friend. Sir Isaac 
Newton, the. latter cut him short with this 
observation. " I always attend to you, Dr. 
Hally, with the greatest deference, when 
you do us the honor to converse on astro- 
nomy, or the mathematics ; because, t/iese 
are subjects that you have industriously m- 
vestigated, and which you well understakd : 
but religion — is a subject on which I hear 
you with great pain ; for this is a subject 
which you have not serionsly examined, and 
do not understand ; you despise it, because 
you have not stiidied it ; and you will not 
study it, because you despise it. 

Xiaconics. In the scale of pleasure, the 
lowest are sejisucU delights, which are suc- 
ceeded by the more enlarged views and gay 
portraitures of a lively imagi?iation ; and 
these give way to the suhliTner pleasures of 
reason, which discover the causes and de- 
signs, the form, connection, and symmetry 
of things, and fill the mind with the "contem- 
plation of intellectual beauty, order, and 
trutJi. 

Varieties. 1. The greatest learning — is 
to be seen in the greatest simplicity. 2, 
Prefer the happiness and independence of a 
private station, to the trouble and vexation 
of a pullic one. 3. It is very foolish — for 
any one, to suppose, that he excels all others 
— in understanding. 4. Never take thtj 
humble, nor the proud, at their own valu- 
ation ; the estimate of the former — is too 
little, and that of the latter — too much. 5. 
Every order of good — is found by an order 
of truth, agreemg with it. 6. As there is 
much to enjoy in the world,- so is there much 
to endure ; and wise are they, who enjoy 
gratefully, and endure patiently. 7. What 
is the meaning of the expression, in the first 
chapter of Genesis, — " Let us make man, 
in our image, and after our likeness ?" 
All farewells — should be sudden, when forever , 
Else, they make an eternity — of moments, — 
And clog the last— sad sands of life— with tears 



66 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



184. In teaching spelling to chUdren, ex- 
ercise them on the forty-four sounds of the 
letters; then in speaking in concert, after the 
preceptor, and also individually, interspers- 
ing the exercises with analyzing words, by 
givmg tlie various sounds of which they are 
composed. At first, let them give each sound 
in a syllable by itself, (after you ;) then let 
them give all the sounds in a syllable be- 
fore pronouncing it; and finaUy, let them 
give all the sounds in a word, and then pro- 
noimce it: thus, there are three modes of 
spelling by ear; easy, difficulty and more dif- 
cult. Those, however, taught in the old way, 
must expect that their younger pupils, espe- 
cially, will 'soon get ahead of them; unless 
they apply themselves very closely to their 
work. 

185. The second division of the Conso- 
nants is into SIMPLE, and coMPotrifi) ; or 
single and double : of the former, there are 
twenty, including the duplicates : viz .• c, in 
city; c, cab; d, do; d, pip'd; /, fifty; g, 
gull; h, hope; k, make ; I, biU; m, mUe; n, 
no ; p, pop ; q, quote ; r, corn ; s, see ; t, 
tune; ch, chyle; gh, tough; gh, ghastly; 
and ph, epha: omitting the duplicate repre- 
eentatives, there are but eleven ; viz : c, (cy- 
press;) c, (ac-me;) d, (day;) d, (tripp'd;) 
/, (foe;) g, (give;) I, (lay;) m, (mote;) 
«, (nine;) p, (passed;) r, (more:) com- 
pare, and see. 

186. Origin of Language. Plato says, 
that language — is of Divine institution ; that 
human reason, from a defect in the knowl- 
edge of natures and qualities, which are in- 
dicated by names, could hot dqtermine the 
cog-nom-i-na of things. He also maintains, 
that names are tiie vehicles of substances .• 
that a fixed analogy, or correspondence, ex- 
ists between the name and thing ; that lan- 
guagCf therefore, is not arbitrary in its ori- 
gin, but fixed by the laws of analogy ; and 
that God alone, who knows the nature of 
things, originally imposed names, strictly 
expressive of their qualities. Zeno, Cle-a«- 
thes, Chry-stp-pus, and others, were of the 
same opinion. 

Notes. I, This work is not designed to exnibit the whole 
mbject of Oratory ; which is at boundless and profound as are the 
thouehts and fedinss of the human mind ; but to present in a plain 
And familiar form, the e«entialj of this God-like art ; in the hopes 
of bein? useful* m this day and generation. In the course of a^oth. 
cr twelve years, there may bei nearer approach to tmth and rui- 
tvre. 2. Observe the difference between the sounds, heard in spel- 
ling the following words, by Uie names o( the letters, and those 
•aoundf, heard in the words after being spelt : a,-g,-e ; if the 
»nnd9 heard in calling the letters by name, are pronounced, the 
void is ay-je-ee; t,-», in like manner, spell eye-ess; c,-o,.r,-n, 
ipell, see o-or-en ; oo,-2,-«, spell doub-Je-o-ze-ee ; a,-l,-m;s, spell, 
Oj-d-fm-ess ; o,-n, spell— oio-en ; ic. 3. The common arrange- 
mant of words in columns, without meanmg, seems at variance 
wMi common sense ; but this mode is perfectly mathematical, as 
wdl u philosophical , and of course, in 'accordance with nature, 
KiaDee,and theitrueture of mind. 4. The proper formation of 
tcprdt, o»t of Utters, or lounds, is word-making. 6. Abcdari-ans 
tliciild first be taught ihe $owvU of letters, and then their uses, and 



then their shapes, and names, Ifgether with their uses ; »he mnw 
course should be pursued in teaching music, the eor, alwayt 
predominating; and then there will be ecuse, grace, and powei 
combined. 

Proverbs. 1. Virtue — grows under every 
weight imposed on it. 2. He, who enviea the 
lot of another, must be discontented witti his 
own. 3. When fortune fails us, the supposed 
friends of our prosperous days — vanish. 4. The 
love of rMZiw^g^— is the most powerful affection of 
the human mind. 5. A quarrelsome man — mnsK 
expect many wounds. 6. Many condemn, what 
they do not understand. 7. Property, dishone^tlf 
acquired, seldom descends to the third genera- 
tion. 3. He, who has well begun, has hc^ dene 
his task. 9. The difference between hi^ocrisy 
and sincerity— is infinite. 10. When our atten- 
ytion is directed to two objects, we rarely succeed 
in either. 11. Recompence every one for his la- 
bor. 12. Zealously pursue the right path. 

Anecdote. Fatience. The priest of a 
certain village, observing a man, (who had 
just lost his vnfe,) very much oppressed 
with grief, told him, — *' he must have Pa- 
tience ;'''' whereupon, the mourner replied, 
" I have been trying her sir, but she will 
not consent to have me." 

The range of knoAvledge- is divided 
into three classes, corresponding to the scie7i- 
tjfic, rational and affectuous faculties of man 
The first, is knowledge of the outward 
creation, — ^involving every thing material, 
— all that is addressed to our five se?ises ; 
the second, is knowledge of human e.\ist- 
ences, as it respects man's spiritual, ox :m- 
mortal nature : and the third, knowledge of 
the Divine Being, including his nature, anfi 
laws, and their modes of operation. There 
is a certain point where matter — ends, and 
spirit — begins : i. e. a boundary, where they 
come in contact, where spirit — operates on 
matter : there is a state, where finite spirit- 
ual existences — receive life and light — from 
the Infinite, who is the Lord of all ; that 
Spirit, 

" That warms— \:i the sun ; refreshes— in the breeze ; 
Glows— in the stars} and blossoms — in the trees." 

The omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent 
Being, that 

" Lives— through all life, extends thro' all extent. 
Spreads — undivided — ojierates — unsjient : 
Whose body nature is, — and God— the jouZ." 

Varieties. 1. Are mo7iopoUes — consist- 
ent with republican institutions ? 2. Love 
— often makes the most clever persons act 
like /ooZ«, and the most foolish, act like wise 
ones. 3. Patience is the surest remedv 
against column 1/ : time, sooner or later, will 
disclose the truth. 4. The fickleness of 
fortune — is felt all over the world- 5. It is 
easy to criticise the productions of art, tho' 
it is difficult to make them. 6. Do not de- 
fer till to-morrow, what ought to be don** 
to-day. 7. The precepts and truths of the 
word of God, — are the very laws of divine 
order ; and so far as our minds are receptive 
of them, we are so far in the divine order, 
and the divine order in us, if in a life agree' 
ing with them. 

Guard well thy thought* ;-^\a thoughts are bean' in ' 



PRINCIPLES uy ELOCUTION 



C7 



IST. The method, here recommended, of 
giving the sounds, of spelling, and of teach- 
ing childrtn to read u xthout a book, and then 
with a book, will save three-fourths of the la- 
bor of both teacher and pupil; and, in addir 
tio7i to these important considerations, there 
will be an immense amount of time and ex- 
pense saved, and the young prevented from 
contracting the common had habits of read- 
mg unnaturally; which not only obstructs 
the proper development of body and mind, 
but sows the seeds of sickness and premature 
death. Our motto should be, " cease to do 
evil, and learn to do ivell.^' 

188. Modes of Spelling. In the old, or 
common mode of spelling, there are many 
more sounds introduced, than the words con- 
tain : this always perplexes new beginners, 
vvliose ear — has had much more practice, in 
reference to language, than their eye. The 
great difficulty seems to be — to dispose of the 
parts, which amount to more than the whole : 
for, in philosophy, it is an acknowledged 
principle, that the parts — are only equal to 
the whole. Hence, spelling by sounds of 
letters, instead of by names is vastly prefera- 
ble : the former being perfectly philosophical, 
involving orderly, analysis and synthesis, and 
it is also mathematical, because the parts — 
are just equal to the whole : while the latter 
mode is the very reverse of all this ; and in- 
stead of aiding, essentially, in the develop- 
ment of hody and mind, tends directly to 
prevent both. 

189. Of the compound, or diphthongal and 
triphthongal consonants, we have twenty- 
three ; viz : c, (z,) discern ; c, (sh,) social ; /, 
(v,) thereo/,- g, (dg,) ^ibe ; g, (zh,) badinage ; 
J, (dg,) judgre; n, (ng,) bank; r, (burr'd,) 
trill ; s, (z,) was ; s, (sh,) sure ; s, (zh,) leisure ; 
t, (sh,) rational ; v, vivacity ; w, wist ; x, (ks,) 
ox ; X, (z,) Zcnia ; y, youth ; z, zigzag ; ch, 
(tch,) such ; ch, (sh,) chagrin ; ph, (v,) neph- 
ew; th, thick', th, tho^; wh, why: deduct- 
ing the duplicates, we have but twelve ; c, 
(z,) c, (sh,)/, (v,) g, (zh,) n, (ng,) r, (triU'd,) 
X, (ks,) X, (gz,) ch, (tch,) th, (think,) th, 
(that,) and wh, (when:) let them be exem- 
plified. 

190. It has previously been remarked, 
that, strictly speaking, a, in far, is the only 
natural vowel sound in our language ; and 
tliat the other ffteen are modifications of it ; 
also, that on the same principle, the aspirate, 
or breath sound, heard in pronouncing the 
sound of h, {huh, in a whisper,) is the mate- 
rial, out of which all sounds are made ; for 
it is by condensing the breath, in the larynx, 
through the agency of the vocal chords, that 
the voice sound, of grave a is made ; and, by 
the peculiar modification, at certain points 
ef interception, that any aspirate consonant 
sound is produced : hence, it may be said. 



that a, in far, is tlje original element of all 
the vowel and vocal consonant sounds, and 
the aspirate h, is ♦he original element, out 
which all the aspirate consonant sounds are 
made, as well as the vocal sounds ; thus, that 
which the letter h represents, seems to in- 
volve something of infinity in variety, so 
far as sounds, and their corresponding affec- 
tions are concerned ; for breath — is air : and 
without air, there can be no sound. Why 
was the letter A, added to the names of Ahram 
and Sarai ? 

Proverbs. 1. He, who reckons without h;« 
host, must reckon again. 2. When we despise 
danger, it often overtakes us the sooner. 3. 
They, who cross the ocean, may change climate, 
but their minds are still the same. 4. The cor- 
ruption, or perversion of the best things — pro- 
duces the worst. 5. We must not judge of persona 
by their clothing, or by the sanctity of their ap- 
pearance. 6. If we indulge our passions, they 
will daily become more violent. 7. Light grief- 
may find utterance ; but deeper sorrow can find 
none. 8. The difference is great — between words 
and deeds. 9. Poverty — wants mamj things; 
avarice— every thing. 10. Let us avoid having 
too many irons in the fire. 11. Faithfully per- 
form every duty, small and great. 12. Govern 
your thoughts, when alone, and your tongue^ 
when in company. 13. Ill got,— ill spent. 

Anecdote. Finishing our Studies. Sev- 
eral young physicians were conversing, in 
the hearing of Dr. Rush, and one of them 
observed, " When I have finished my stu- 
dies,'''' " When you have finished your 

studies .'" said the doctor, abruptly ; " why, 
you must be a happy man, to have finished 
them so young : 1 do not expect to finish 
mine while I live.'''' 

Ijaconics. The kindnesses, which most 
men receive from others, are like traces 
drawn in the sand. The breath of every 
passion sweeps them au)ay, and they are re- 
membered no more. But injuries are like 
inscriptions on monuments of brass, or pil- 
lars of marble, which endure, unimpaired, 
the revolutions of time. 

Varieties. 1. We rarely regret — having 
spoken too little ; but often — of saying too 
much. 2. Which is the more extensively 
useful,— fire, or water ? 3. A speaker, who 
expresses himself with fluency and discre- 
tion, will always have attentive Hr^eners. 
4. The spirit of party, sometimes leads even 
the greatest men — to descend to the mean- 
ness of the vulgar. 5. Without virtue, hap- 
piness — can never be real, or permanent. 
6. When we are convinced that our opinions 
are erroneous, it is always right to acknow- 
ledge it, and exchange them for truths. 7. 
Every love — contains its own trut?i. 
Serve Ood before the world ! let him not go^ 
Until thou hast a blessing ; then, resign 
The whole unto him, and remember who 
Prevailed by wrestling— ere the sun did shine 
Pour oil upon the stones, weep for thy sin. 
Then journey on, and have an eye to Aeai*eit. 



tf8 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCTjTION. 



191. Here a new field is open for the clas- 
sification of our letters, involving the struc- 
ture of all languages, and presenting us 
with an infinite variety, terminating in uni- 
ty^ — all languages being merely dialects of 
tiie original one ; but in this work, nothing 
more is attempted, tlian an abridgment of 
the subject As every effect must have an 
adequate cause, and as in material things, 
such as we see, hear, taste, smell, and feel, 
there can be no primary, but only secondary 
causes, we must look to the mind for the 
*'eelings and thoughts, that have given rise to 
all the peculiarities and modifications of lan- 
guage; being assured, that in the original 
language, each state of the tvill and the un- 
derstanding, had its external sign, as a medi- 
um of manifestation. 

193. Uses of Spelling. The object of sj^e^- 
ling, in the manner here recommended, is 
two-fold ; to spell by soujid, in order to be 
able to distinguish the sounds, of which 
words are composed, and to pronounce 
them correctly : thus developing and train- 
ing the voice and ear to the highest pitch 
of perfection. The use of spelling by the 
names of letters is, to make us acquain- 
ted wfth them, and the order in which they 
are placed in the words, so as to be able, not 
only to read, but to ivrite the language: 
hence, we must become acquainted with both 
our spoken and ivritten language, if we 
would avail ourselves of their wonderful ca- 
pabilities, and the treasures of which they 
are possessed. 

193. In partially applying this doctrine, 
we may say, B, (bib,) represents a gutteral 
labial sound; \st. c, (cent,) a dental aspi- 
rate : 2d. c, (clock,) a gulteral aspirate : Sd. 
c, (sacrifice,) a dental vocal consonant : 4th, 
c, (ocean,) a dental aspirate : Istf (if,) a sub- 
labial and super-dental aspirate : 2df, (of,) a 
sub-labial super-dental, vocal : 1 st g, (gem,) 
a posterior lingual dental vocal, terminating 
in an aspirate; 2d g, (go,) a glottal vocal 
consonant: 3d g, (rouge,) a. vocal dental as- 
pirate : h, a pure aspirate, with open mouth 
and throat; I, a lingual dental; and so onto 
the en'1 of our sounds, of analysis and syn- 
thesis, of which a volume might be written ; 
and although the writer has practiced on 
them many tlwusands of times, he never has 
done it once, without learning something 
new. 

Notes. 1. Don't forget to understand and mcu^ter every 
\\an% that relatat to the subject of study and practice; the only 
royal hiehway to trath is the straight way. 2. Become as familiar 
with the sounds of out langua^ as yoa are with the alphabet H. 
Am you proceed, acnuire inor« «ase and grace in reading and 
speaking 

An honest man— is still an unmoved rock, 
Wash'd whiter, but not shaken— wi'h the shock; 
Whose *eart— conceives no sinister device ; 
Fear/esa— he p ays with /ames, and treads on ice. 



Proverbs. 1. Do as much good as you can 
and make but little noise about it. 2. The Bibl&, 
is a book of laws, to show us what 's riffht, and 
what is wrong. 3. What maintains one vice, 
would bring up two children. 4. A little wrong 
— done to another, is a great wrong done to our- 
selves. 5. Sermons — should be steeped in tha 
heart — before they are delivered. G. A life of 
attractive industry is always a happy one. 7. 
Drive your business before you, and it will gt 
easily. 8. Good fences — make good neighbors. 
9. Pride wishes not to owe; self-love — wishes not 
to pay. 10. The rotten apple injures its compan- 
ion. 11. Make a virtue of necessity. 12. You 
can't make an auger hole with a gimblet. 

Anecdote Mathematical Honor. A sth, 
de7it — of a certain college, gave his fellow 
student the lie ; and a challenge followed. 
The mathematical tutor — heard of the diffi- 
culty, and sent for the young man that gave 
the challenge, who insisted, that he must 
fight — to shield his honor. " Why,'''' said 
the tutor? *•' Because he gave me the Zte.' 
"Very well; let him prove it: if he prove 
it, — yon did lie ; but iihe does not prove it, 
then he lies. Why should you shoot one 
another? Will that make a lie — any more 
ho7iorablp 7^'' 

CiCEKO says, the poet — is horn such ; the 
orator is made such. B ut reading boohs of 
rhetoric, and eloquent extracts — choice mor- 
sels of poetry and eloque?ice — will nevet 
make one an orator : these are only the ef- 
fects of oratory. The ca7ise of eloquence 
is to be sought for, only in the depths of the 
human mind — the true philosophy of man, and 
the practice of unadulterated goodness and 
truth. You must/eeZ rightly, think wisely, 
and act accordingly : then gracefulness of 
style and eloquence w'lWfit you; otherwise, 
you -will be like the ass, clothed with the 
lio7i\ skin. Accomplishment should not be 
an end, but a means. Seek, then, for the 
philosophy of oratory, where it is to be found, 
in the study oi geometry, la7iguage, physics, 
theology, and the human mijid profound, if 
you would attain that suavity of graceful 
periods, engaging looks and gestures, which 
steal from men their hearts, and reason, and 
make them, for the time being, your willing 
captives. 

Varieties. 1. Is there any lifle of de 
marcation between temperance and mtem- 
perance ? 2. We rarely repent — of eating 
too little ; but often — of eating too much. 

3. Truth — is clothed in v)hite ; but a lie — 
comes forth in all the colors of a rainbow. 

4. St. Augusti7i says, "Love God ; and then 
do what you wish.'''' 5. We must not do 
^vil, that good may come of it ; the means — • 
mui5t answer, and correspond to — the end. 
6. Assumed qualities — may catch the fancy 
of some, but we must possess those that are 
good, to fix the heart. 7. When a thing is 
doubtful, refer it to the Word in sincerity ; \\ 
it is not clear to you, let it alone, for the pro 
sent, at least, till it is made so. 

Mind, not money — makes the irwn 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



I 



194. Accent- -means either stress, or 
quantity of vpice, on a certain letter, or let- 
ters in a word : it is made by concentrating 
the voice, on that particular place in the 
word, heavy, at first, then gliding into silence. 
There are two ways of rnakinf^ \i\ first, 
by STUEss, when it occurs on short vowels , 
as, i/ifc-stand : secondly, by auAixTiTT, when 
it occurs on long ones ; as, o-ver : i. e. when 
the word is short, we pronounce it with 
force; and when it is long,vi\\h auAxxi- 
TY, and a little force too : thus, what we lack 
m length of sound, we make up by stress, or 
force, according to circumstances. These en- 
gravings present to the eye an idea of accent 
by stress, or a concentration of voice, with 
more or less abruptness. 



The first — indicates that the accented vow- 
el is near the beginning of the word ; as in 
ac-cent, em-pha-sis, in-dus-try, ori-ward, up- 
ward : the second, that it is at, or near the* 
eyid: as in ap-pre-Aewrf, su-per-in-/end, in-di- 
vis-i-6iZ-i-ty. In music, the first represents 
the diminish; the second — the swell of the 
voice. 

195. Theirs/ use of accent — is to convert 
letters, or syllables — into words, expressive 
of our ideas ; i. e. to fasten the letters to- 
gether, so as to make a word-medium for 
manifesting our /eeZwg-s and thoughts: and 
the second use is — to aid us in acquiring a 
distinct articulation, and melody of speech, 
and song. Exs. 1. Accent by stress of 
VOICE. He am-pli-fies his ad-t-gr-tise-ment, 
di-mi/z-ish-es its im-pe-tus, and oj9-e-rates on 
the tfZ-ti-mates. 2. The «c-cu-ra-cy of the 
csr-e-mo-ny is j^o--u-ra-tive of the com-pe- 
ten-cy of his wj9-riglit-ness : 3. The cat-e- 
pil-lar fox-gets the no-&i/-i-ty of or-a-to-ry 
un-^u^My; 4. The math-e-mo^-ics are su- 
per-in-^KWrZ-ed with af-fa-tiZ-i-ty, cor-res- 
pond^ent to in-sZntc-tions. 

Notes. 1. Observe, tliere are but FIVE SHORT vowels in 
our language ; the examples above contain illustrations of all of 
them, in their alphabetical order; they are also found in these 
words — at, et, it, ot, ut; and to give them with purity, make as 
though you were going to pronounce the whole word, but leave off 
it the t. 2. This is a very important point in our subject; if you 
(ail in understanding accent, you cannot succeed in emphasis. 

Anecdote. Holding One^s Oivn. A very 
fat man was one day met by a person whom 
he mved, and accosted with—" How do you 
do V Mr. Adipose replied, " Pretty well ; 
[ hold my own ;''"' — "and mine too, to my 
sorrow,'''' — rejoined the creditor. 
Hail, to ihee, filial love, source of delight, 
Of everlasting joy / Heaven's grace supreme 
Shines in the duteous homage, of a child I 
Religion, manifested, stands aloft, 
Superior — to the storms of wayward fate. 
When children — suffer in a parent's cause, 
And glory — in the lovely sacrifice, 
' 'T"s heavenly inspiration fills the breast — 
And an/ref«— waft their incense to the skies. 



196. Some persons may wish for more 
specific directions, as to the method of bring- 
ing the lower muscles into use, for producing 
sounds, and breathing .• the following will 
suffice. Take the proper position, as above 
recommended, and place the hands on the 
hips, witli the thumbs on the small of the 
back, and the fingers on the abdominal mus- 
cles before ; grasp them tightly ; i. e. try to 
press in the abdomen, and, at the same time^_ 
to burst off the hands, by an internal effort, 
in the use of the muscles to produce the vow- 
el sounds of the following words, at, et, it, oty 
ut; then leave off the Z, giving the vowels 
the same sound as before : or imagine that 
you have a belt tied around you, just above 
the hip bones, and make such an effort as 
would be required to burst it off; do the 
same in breathing, perseveve, and you will 
succeed : but do not make too much effort. 

Proverljs. 1. A man under the influence 
of anger — is beside himself. 2. Poverty, with 
Aonesfy, is preferable to ricAes,* acquired by dis- 
honest means. 3. The wolf casts his hair, but 
never changes his ferocious disposition. 4. To 
ictcAed persons— the virtue of others — is always a 
subject of eratjy. 5. Flies — cannot enter a mouth 
that is shut. 6. No plea of expediency — should 
reconcile us to the commi'ssion of a base act. 7. 
Power, unjustly obtained, is of short duration. 

8. Every 7/iod-man — believes all other men mad. 

9. The avaricious man— is kind ionone ; but least 
kind to himself. 10. The beginning of knowledge 
—is the fear of God. 11. Of aZZ poverty, that of 
the mind — is the most deplorable. 12. He only is 
porcerful, who governs himself. 

Varieties. I. What was it — that made 
man miserable, and vjhat — alone can make 
him happy ? 2. Diffidence — is the mother of 
safety; while self-confidence — often involves 
us in serious difficulties. 3. He is not rich, 
who has much, but he who has enough, and 
is contented. 4. It is absurd — for parents to 
preach sohriety to their children, and yet in- 
dulge in all kinds of excess. 5. Nature — 
never says, what vrisdom contradicts ; for 
they are always in harmony. 6. Save some- 
thing — against a day of iroMftZe. 7. With 
such as repent, and turn from their evils^ 
aud surrender their wills to the Lord^s will, 
all things they ever saw, knew, or exfe- 
RiENCED, shall be made, m some way or 
other, to serve for good. 

I do remember an apothecary,— 
And hereabouts he dwells, — whom late I noted 
In tatter'd weeds, with overwhelming brows. 
Culling of simples ; meagre were his looks. 
And in his needy shop— a. tortoise hung. 
Sharp misery — had worn him to the bones : 
An alligator stuff'd, and other skins 
Of ill-shap'd fishes ; and about his shelves 
A beggarly account of empty boxes. 
Green earthen pots, bladders, and musty seeds 
Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of rowo, 
Were thinly scatter'd, to make up a show. 



70 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



197. Accent— is made, secondly, by 
quantity; or prolongation of soimd, with 
expvilsive fo7-ce, on lo7is accented vowels ; 
which may be represented either by this en- 
indicative of a 



or, 



graving 

continuous equal move ment of the voice 
by this one, — ^"^^^^^B*"" 

which shows the swell, continuous and di- 
minish in combination ; or, the unequal con- 
tinuous. Exs. 1. The a-gent, with ar-dent 
r/»/>-ful e-go-tism,i-dol-i-zed the o-di-ous oo-zy 
t<-ni-tbrm, which was /rwi/-ful in ot-li-ness, 
from the oi^-ter-mosts. 2. The 6ase-ment of 
the ar-mo-ry, aiyfc-ward-ly e-qual to the i-ro- 
ny of the o-li-o, was, to the moo/i-shine of the 
T*-ni-verse, as an un-ob-/m-sive moi-e-iy of a 
wun-cet-box. 

198. Prolo7igation of Sound. Let the pu- 
pil take a lesson of the ferryman. A travel- 
er arrives at the brink of a wide river, 
which he wishes to cross; owe ferry-man is 
on the other side, and, by chance, one is on 
this side: the traveler halloos, in the com- 
mon speaking voice, using principally the 
chest ; of course his voice soon becomes dis- 
sipated. He is informed that his call cannot 
he heard: listen to me, says this son of na- 
ture; "0 ver, ver, 

ver:" making each accented vowel two sec- 
onds long : try it and see ; extending your 
e.yeand mind at a distance; which will aid 
the prolongation. 

199. In exercising on accent, for a time 
at least, go to extremes, and make the ac- 
cented vowels as prominent to the ear, as 
the following ones are to the eye ; a-bAse- 
ment. im-pE-ri-ous, I-dol-ize, 0-ver-throw, 
be«TJ-ti-ful, Oil-mill, OU-ter-most. Ex. 
1. The Ztt-na-tic 2i-hode at the ca-f^e-dral, 
till the an-nun-ci-M-tion, that the an-te-di- 
/zi-vi-ans — had cor\-vey^d the hy-dro-n/to-bia 
to Di-o-na of the E-p/je-sians, 2. 1 he pa- 
tri-ots and ma-trons of the rev-o-Za-tion, by 
their har-mo-ni-oas co-op-e-ra-tion, de- 
thron''d the ty-rants that were rw-ling our 
peo-ple with an un-/to-ly rod of i-ron. 

Anecdote. Raising Bent. " Sir, I in- 
tend to raise your rent," — said a land-holder 
— io one of his tena7i.ts : to which he replied, 
— " I am very much obliged to you, — for I 
cannot raise it myself.'''' 

Notes. 1. As vowels are either long or short, different de- 
grees of leriylh do not affect any one of the long ones, so far as 
t'ae qTiality of the sound is concerned ; the e in de-uue, and the o, 
in do-mtttn— are the same as to length, (net force.) as they are in 
efe-cent, rfo-tard ; thus we have long oc-cented vowels, and long 
unaccented ones. 2. We make accent by quantity, when the 
jicc«Mtpd voweb are long, and by si. >ss when they are short. 3. 
Th« iki/rt vowels are of the same length, but not so the long cvws. 
" Blessed is the man, 
Wlio hears the voice of nature; who, retired 
From bustling life, can feel thejladdening beam. 
The hope, that breathes of Paradise. Thy deeds, 
Sweet Peace, are music— to the exulting mind ; 
Thy prayer, like incense — wafted on the gale 
Of morning sprrads ambrosia,, as the cloud 
Of spicy noee/i— perfumes the whispering breeze, 
That »cents t^'aWa'* wild," 



Proverbs. 1. Men of ftmtterf attainniejits- 
generally coniiemn every thing, they cannot 
comprehend. 2. Wit — should flow spontaneously^ 
it cannot be produced by study. 3. Buoyancy of 
spirit — greatly diminishes the pressuie of jnw/or- 
tune. 4. The swresf method of being deceived is 
— to consider ourselves — more cunning than 
others. 5. Envious persons— always view, with 
an evil eye, the prosperity of others. 6. It is si 
proof of mediocrity o{intelle,ct — to be addicted to 
it ory -telling. 7. When we give way to passion^ 
we do every thing amiss. 6. Truth — needs no 
disguise, nor does she want embellishment. 9. A 
mind diseased — cannot bear any thing harsh. 
10. Never utter what is false, nor hesitate to 
speak what is true. 11. 7Vi/Zes— often discover 
a character — more than actions of importance. 
12. The Bible— \s a perfect body of divinity. 

Body and Mind. The science of hu- 
man nature — is valuable, as an introduction 
to the science of the Divine nature; for 
man — was made " in the image, and after 
Ahe likeness, ^^ of his Maker : a knowledge 
of (he former — facilitates that of the latter ; 
and to knov), revere, and humbly adore, is 
ihe first duty of man. To obtain ^'as^ and 
impartial views of human nature, we must 
not disconnect the object of our study, and 
consider the mind, body, and actions, each 
by itself, but the whole man together ; which 
may be contemplated under two different 
aspects, — of spirit and of matter ; on the 
body — shines the sun of nature, and on the 
MIND — that better light, which is the true 
light : here, is a real man, having essence, 
form, and use, which is clad in the habili- 
ments of beauty, and majesty ; meeting tig 
now, and which will meet us hereafter, as a 
purely spiritual being, in every possible 
stage of his future existc7ice. 

Varieties. 1. Can we be a /newtf, and 
an enemy — at the same time ? 2. Every one 
should be considered innocent, till he is 
proved guilty. 3. It is not sufficient that you 
are heard, yoii must be heard with pleasure. 
4. There is a great difference between poetry 
and rhymetry ; the former grows, the latter 
— is made. 5. If your money is your God, 
it will plague you like the Devil. 6. Order 
— is one, in revelation, man, creation, and 
the universe; each — respects the other, and 
is a resemblance of it. 
Man — is dear to man ; the poorest poor 
Long for some momenta, in a weary life. 
When they can know, and/eeZ, that they have been 
Themselves — the fathers, and the dealers out 
Of some small blessings— have been kind to sutli 
As needed kindness ; — for this single cause, 
That we have all of us — a human heart. 

Such pleasure— is to one kind being known, 
My neighbor, when, with punctual care, each wccK 
Duly as Friday comes, though press'd herself 
By her own wants, she, from her store of meai. 
Takes one unsparing liandful for the scrip 
Of this old mendicant ; and, from her daor. 
Returning with exhilarated heart, 
Sits by bcr^re, and builds her hopes in heaven 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



7i 



200. Aecent. The intentions of the 
mind — are manifested by the accent of the 
voice, as are those of a tailor, when he makes 
a gentleman's coat; or of a mantuamaker, 
when she makes a lady's gown ; there is a 
meaning, an end, in all. The three great 
categories of knowledge are end, cause and 
cffhct ; reflection and experience will convince 
those who would be wise, that the end or pur- 
pose, is the^^rs"^ thing, — the cause or medium, 
the second, and the effect, or ultimation of 
the co-operation of end and cause, the third 
thing. Now the feeling, or affection, is the 
first thing ; the tliought — is the' second thing : 
and \\\Q action — the third thing : the affection 
and the vowel sound are connected, the 
thought and the consonant, and aZ/ become 
manifest, when the word is properly made, 
by the application of accent, and enuncia- 
ibm.. 

301. Now, as the affectuous part of the 
mind operates, csptcially, on those lower 
nerves and muscles, that are combined to 
produce ihevowel sounds, and the intellectual 
part of the mind co-operates with the lungs, 
to form the consonant sounds, and the two 
unite — to make the word, by the use of the 
accent, through the agency of which, feelings 
and thoughts are conveyed, — it will be per- 
ceived, that whenever there is a change of the 
seat of accent, there may be a corresponding 
change of the meaning of the word: or 
rather, a change 6^ feeling produces a change 
Oi thought, and the two produce a correspon- 
ding change in the seat of accent : as — au- 
gust, Q.w.-gust ; prod-nce, ^ro-duce ,- gal- 
lant, gal-to«/. 

aoa. Change of the seat of accent accord- 
ing to sense. They hom-bard the town, with 
bom-b3.rds, and ce-ment their cannon with 
cem-ent, and call upon their coZ-leagues to 
col-teague together, col-/ec^ their soldiers, and 
offer up their collects. He com-ments upon 
their com-ments, while they com-merce about 
the cow-merce, and com-mon-ptoce their com- 
mon-place business. The co;w-pact was en- 
tered into in a corn-pact manner, while the 
soldiers corn-plot together in a corn-plot, and 
zom-port themselves with a becoming com- 
port. The farmer corn-posts his fields with 
excellent corn-post, and out of the com-pound 
he corn-pounds a fruitful soil ; which, when 
com-press^d, makes a very fine corn-press for 
the grain. 

My birthday what a different sound 
That word hid — in my youthful ears ! 
And how, each time— the day came round, 
Less, and less white — its mark appears ! 
When first — our scanty years are told, 
It seems like pastime — to grow old. 
And as youth — taunts the shining links, 
That time— aroMnd him binds so fast, 
Pleased with the task, he little thinks. 
How hard that chain vill press— al last. 



Anecdote. When Lieuteiianc Brien 
was blown up, in the Edgar, and thrc vvnon 
board the Admiral, all black and wet, he 
said to the commander, with pleasantry, " I 
hope sir, you will excuse my dirty appear- 
ance ; for I left the ship in so great a hurry, 
that I had not time to change my dress.'''' 

Proverbs. 1. Every thing great— is com- 
posed of minute particles. 2. JN'othing — bears a 
stronger resemblance to a mad-md^n. than a drun- 
kard. 3. Pleasure, purchased by pain, is always 
injurious. 4. The act is to be judged of, by tliTJ 
intention of the person, who does it. 5. Theonj, 
without practice, however plausible, seldom 
tends to a successful issue. 6. Reflect uiell, be 
fore you say yes, or no. 7. Be cautious — in giv- 
ing advice, and considei — before ynu follow it. 
8. A man, fond of disputing, will, in time, have 
few friends to dispute with. 9. Young peop'e 
are apt to think themselves wise enough ; a^ 
drunkards — think themselves sober enough. 10. 
Injustice — cannot exist without agents. 11. No 
great loss, but some small gain. 12. No smoke, 
without some^re. 

Readings Discourses. As the reading 
of written discourses is so common, it is very 
desirable, that the speaker should unite the 
advantages of wriiteii, or printed composi- 
tion, with extemporaneous speaking ; which 
can be done by mastering the principles of 
this system ; then, though the essay be a 
month, or a year old, the orator may give it 
all the appearance and freshness of oral dis- 
course. Many public men have injured 
their Jiealth by slavishly reading their dis- 
courses, instead of speaking them ; there 
being such an inseparable connection be- 
tween thinki7ig and breathi?ig, that the effort 
to read, especially from a manuscript, tends 
to the use of the thorax, or lungs. If we 
were taught to read by ear, instead of by 
sight, there would be no difficulty in this 
exercise : there must be a revolution — in 
regard to teaching and learning this impor- 
tant art, or sad will continue to be the con- 
sequences. 

Varieties. 1. Were the Texians right, 
in rebelling against Mexico ? 2. If woman 
taught the philosophy of love, who would 
not learn ? 3. Do not yield to misfortunes ; 
but resist them, with unceasing firmness. 
4. Procrastination — is the thief of time. 5. 
No one is qualified to command, who has 
not learned to obey. 6. A laugh — costs too 
much, if purchased at the expense of proh- 
priety. 7. Words, fitly spoken from a life 
of love, are exceedingly sweet, and profitable 
to all. 

Beware, ye slaves of vice and infamy, ' 
Beware — choose not religion's «acred nanoe, 
To sanctify your crimes— your falsehood shield. 
Profane not your Creator'i boundieos power, 
Or lest his vengeance— fall upon, and crush ye. 

It is an awful height— of human pride. 
When we dare— robe ourselves in sanctity^ 
While all is dark impiety within! 
This, surely, is the aggregate of sin. 
The last— to be forgiven— by heaven, or man. 



72 



PRINCIPLES 01' ELOCUTION 



a03. The subject of accent, being of pri- 
mary importance, should be dwelt upon, till 
Its pj-inciples and their applicatwn, are per- 
fectly familia r. Remember, it is the principal 
external means, of malcing words — out of let- 
ters and syllables: comparatively, it is the 
thread with which we make tlie garments 
for oui thougtits, and thus manifest the ob- 
jects wliich the mind has in view in clothing 
them in diflferent ways, and making them 
alive with feeling. The mental power of ac- 
cent, is in the will, or voluntary principle, 
and the physical force is from the combined 
action of the lower muscles, in connection 
with the diaphragm ; hence, it may be per- 
ceived, that in simply expelling vowel sounds, 
as always insisted upon, we at the same time, 
acquire the power of making the accent; for 
expulsion — is accent, radical, or stress. If 
you do not master accent, you cannot suc- 
ceed in becoming an elocutionist. 

804. Change of the seat of accent. On 
her en-trance, she was en-tranced at being 
es-cor^-ed by a grand es-cort: I essay to 
make an cs-say to ex-ile the ea:-iles : ex-port 
the ca;-ports, with-out ex-tract-ing the ex- 
tracts for the ex-tract-oxs : the fl&-ject fel-lowe 
ah-Ject the gifts, and the a&-sent minded ab- 
sent themselves from the party : he abstracts 
the a&-stracts and at-^rife-utes the a^-tri-butes 
to others: I lay the ac-cent on the ac-cen^-ed 
vowel, and af-fix the af-fix to the final sylla- 
ble, and make aw^-ment in the right place 
and ang-ment the word in ^w-gust, and thus 
make the idea au-gtist. 

Notes* 1. Be careful in placing the accent on the right 
syllable : ad-oer-tise-ment, al-to», com-pen-sate, m-qui-ry, de-co-nis, 
or-tho-e-py, ar-is-ioc ra-cy, ac-cep<-a-ble, Ar-e-op-a-gus, ac-ces-so- 
ry, «p-right-ly : forif you place the accent on the wrong vowel, 
>-ou partially pervert the meaning, or render it ridiculous : as, I 
Baw'an au-gust spectacle in Au-gust. 2. In singing, accent is al- 
ways made byttress: and the first note of each full measure ac- 
ce7it-ed. 

liAconics. Labor is honorable in all. from 
the king on the throne to the mendicant in 
the street ; and let him or her, who is a- 
shamed to toil for themselves, or the benefit 
of their race, be more ashamed to consume 
the industry and lahor of others, for which 
they do not render an equivalent. 

The rose had been washed, just washed in a shower. 

Which Mary— to Amia — conveyed ; 
The plentiful moisture — encumbered the flousfr. 

And weighfd '1')wd Us beautiful head. 
I'he cttpwit a.l\ filled, and the leaves were all wet, 

And it seemed, xo a. JancifiU view, 
To weep for the buds— it had left with regret, 

On the flourishing bush— where it grew. 
I hastily seized it, unfit as it was 

Fora nosegay,so dripping and drowned 
And swinging it r%tdely, too rudely, alai ! 

I mapped it,— it fell to the ground. 
And luch, I exclaimed, is the pitiless part, 

Some act— by the delicate mind. 
Regardless of wringing— and breaking a heart, 

Already to torrow resigned. 
This elegant rose, had I shaken it Itss, 

Might have bloomed with its owner awhile : 
And ths tear, that is wiped, with a little addras. 

Ma? oe followed, perhaps, by a rmile. 



Proverbs. 1. Beware of reading, v\il louJ 
thinking of the subject. 2. A man rarely deceivee 
another but 07ice. 3. A good paymaster is lord of 
another man's purse. 4. He is most secure frori 
danger, who, even when conscious of safety, i^ 
on his guard. 5. The pitcher may go often to the 
well, and be broken at last. 6. A good companion, 
makes good company. 7. Let every one choote, 
according to his own /ancy. h K comparison — is 
no reason. 9. Your looking-g\a.ss — will tell you 
what none of your friends will. 10. The human 
heart wants something to be kind to. 11. Many 
hands make light work. 12. Ask your purse - 
what you shall buy. 

Anecdote. Blundering on the Truth. 
An ignorant fellow, who was about to be 
married, resolved to make h.\mse\{ perfect in 
the responses of the marriage service ; but, 
by mistake, he committed the office of bap- 
tism for those of riper years : so, when the 
clergyman asked him, in the church, — 
" Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded 
wife V The bridegroom answered, in a 
very solemn tone ; " I renounce them all."^ 
The astonished minister said — " I think you 
are a fool ;" — to which he replied, " All this 
I steadfastly believe.'''' 

Analogies. As, in the succession of the 
seasons, each, by the invariable laws of na- 
ture, affects the productions of what is next 
in course ; so, in human life, every period 
of our age, — according as it is well or ill 
spent, influences the happiness of that which 
is to follow. Virtuous youth — generally 
brings forward accomplished and flourishing 
manhood; and such manhood passes off, 
without uneasiness, into respectable and 
tranquil old age. When nature — is turned 
out of its regular course, disorder takes 
place — in the moral, yist as in the vegetable 
world. If the spring — put forth no blossoms, 
in summer — there will be no beauty, and in 
the autumn — no fruit. If youth — be trifled 
away without improvement, manhood will be 
contemptible — and old age — miserable. If 
the beginnings of life — have been vanity, — 
its latter end can be no other than vexation 
of spirit. 

Varieties. 1. Is there any such thing as 
time and space, in the world of mi7id ? 2. 
Any book that is worth reading once, is 
worth reading twice. 3. Most misfortunes 
— may be turned into blessings, by watching 
the tide of affairs. 4. When the wicked are 
in power, innocence and integrity are sure 
to be persecuted. 5. Give people proper 
books, and teach them how to read them, 
and they will educate themselves. 6. ZJ?*- 
limited powers — should not be trusted in the 
hands oi any one, who is not endowed with 
perfection, — more than human. 7. The 
truths of the Bible are the seeds of order ; 
and as is the reception, such will be the 
produce. 

Faults — in the life, breed errors in the brain^ 
And these, reciprocally, those again : 
The mind, and conduct— mntnaWy imprint. 
And stamp their image— m each other's minU 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTIO^. 



a05. To accomplish the objects in view, 
the development and perfection of the voice 
for reading, speaking and singing, a great 
variety of exercises and examples, are intro- 
duced, containing sense and nonsense ; and 
attention can be given to both icinds, accord- 
ing to their uses. Let it be remembered, that 
the forty-four sounds of the language are the 
fountains, from which are to flow every stream 
of elocution and music : and these are con- 
tinually before us. No one can succeed in 
silently TOB^dlng, or thinking over the sub- 
jects: p7'actice is the great thing; therefore, 
frequently repeat the sounds, read by vowels, 
spell by sounds, and exercise in accent and 
emphasis, with all the other modifications. 

a06. They con-cert a plan to get up a con- 
cert, and as they con-cord the con-cords of the 
notes, they con-crete the con-crete tones with 
such admirable con-duct, as to con-duct the 
whole to the satisfaction of the audience. He 
con-fects f he sugar with delicious con-fects, 
although he con-fines his efforts to the co7i. 
fines of the room ; and without con^^ic-ting 
m any serious con- flict, he con-serves the con- 
serves in such a way as to con-sor^ with his 
con-sort without con-^cs/-ing with any seri- 
ous con-test. I will con-text the con-text, so 
as to con-tract the co7i-tract-ing in a strong 
con-tract, the con-vent, so as to con-zjcn^ its 
inmates, while they con-verse in familiar con- 
verse. 

aor. Among the more difficult acquisi- 
tions, is the ability to prolong sounds in 
strongly marked accented and emphatic 
words, involving the kindlier feelings of our 
nature ; to succeed in which, practice single 
long vowel sounds in separate words, and al- 
so in short and long phrases; as a ^le; 

a re; a ^11; ee 1; i le ; o 

Id ; 00 ze ; mu te ; pu ss ; oi 1 ; 

ou r; also, old armed chair; wheel to the 

right ; roll the flames and join ^he muse ; 
glowing hope ; praise the lofty dome. 

Notes. 1. The attempt is not made any where, to give a 
perfect notation of the manner in which one is to read ; and •omc 
■words are more or less emphatic, that are printed in common 
type ; while certain words, which are not very important as to 
meaning, are printed in italics. 2. Never mind the rough appa^ 
a^nxe of the exaimples j but make them smooth in your deliver)'. 

Anecdote. Self-love. The first consid- 
eration of a knave is — how to help AmseZ/; 
and the second, how to do it with an appear- 
ance of helping others. Dionysius. the ty- 
rant, stripped the statue of Jupiter Olympus, 
of a robe of massy gold, and substituted a 
cloak oiwool, saying-—" Gold is too cold in 
winter, and too heavy in the summer — it be- 
hooves us to take care of Jupiter.'' 

When was public virtue to be found, 

Where private was not ? 

Can he love the whole, 

Who loves no part ? 

He— he a nation's friend. 

Who, in truth, is the friend of no mar there ? 
10 



Proverbs. l.Insteadof saying "I can'*,' ray 
"I will." 2. Acquire knowledge that may Le 
useful. 3. If ;?ossJ6Ze, remove your own d'^^cu/- 
ties. 4. Husband your time, and waste neither 
that, nor your luoney. 5. Try to .exert a good 
iTi/iuence, wherever you are. 6. A little stone can 
make a great bruise. 7. Unwearied diligeitce 
the point will gain. 8. Cultivate good domestic 
habits. 9. Some rather reflect truth than practice 
it. 10. Man is a iwi-cro-cosm, or little world. 
11. Winter finds wh^i Summer conceals. 12. Twc 
of a trade seldom agree. 

Imiiortant. Let the orator consider him- 
self the comiecting hnk, or medium, between 
the mental and natural world:, i. e. that the 
spiritual world is progressmg down into the 
material world; and that all his muscles md 
vocal powers are the proper organs, thro' 
which it is to flow. Hence, the necessity of 
developing and traming, perfectly, those me- 
diums of communication, that every thing in 
the matter, may tell, effectually, in the man- 
ner. Much, very much depends upon the 
state of his own mind; for, according to that 
— will be the infiuence shed abroad on ihe 
minds of oi/iers. Conceive yourself the rep- 
resentative of a vast concourse of associated 
minds, and be the true representative of your 
constituents. 

Varieties. 1 . Are fictitious writings bene- 
ficial. 2 2. -E-go-tism(orselfTeommendation,) 
is always disgusting, and should be carefully 
avoided. 3. A man cannot call a 6e^/er phy- 
sician than himself, if be Win take all the 
good advice he gives to others. 4. Why is the 
human mind like a garden ? because you can 
sow what seeds you please in it. 5. Good 
and bad fortune are nccessar.' , to prepare us 
to meet the contingencies of Ife. 6. Be not 
too much afraid oi offending others, by telling 
the truth : nor stoop to fiattery nor mean- 
ness, to gain their favor. 7. The whole out- 
ward creation, with its every particular and 
movement, is but a theatre and scene of ef' 
feds, brouglit forth into existence, and mov- 
ed by interior spiritual causes, proper to tht 
spiritual world. 

To the curious eye 
A little monttor— presents her pa^ 
Of choice i-nstructimi, with her snowy Ijells— 
The lily of the vale. She, not affects 
The puWic walk, nor gaze of inid-d.-iy suns 
She — to no state or dignity aspires, 
But, silent anu alone, puts on her suit, 
And sheds her lasting per-fnme, but for which 
We had not known— there was a thing — so sweet 
Hid— in the gloomy shade. So, when the blast 
Her sister trities confounds, and, to tlie earth 
Stoops their high heads, that vainly were exposed, 
She feels it not, but flourishes anew, 
still sheltered and secure. And so the storm, 
That makes the huge elm couch, and rends the on*, 
The humble lily sp.ares. A thousand blow^ 
That shake the lofty rruntareh, on his throne. 
We lesser folks /cei not. Kea\ are the pjJns 
.SdvancefmentofXexihvinga. To be trfurs. 
Be humble ; to be hayptf, be contttU. 



74 



PxvINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



a08. The question is often asked — which 
receives the accent, the vowel or the conso- 
nant ? The reply is, sometimes one, and at 
others, both, when tliey are connected. 'In a- 
ble, the accent is all on a; in no-hle, the n 
and receive the accent, but principally the 
0; in jyre-sume, the accent is mostly on w; 
and is imparted to 5 and m, terminating on 
the m. Although this fact is perfectly obvi- 
ous, yet one book that purports to have pass- 
ed through seven editions, insists that vowels 
ate never accented. I would ask that author, 
what letter receives the accent of the proper 
name A-i in the Bible, since it has two sylla- 
bles, and yet there are no consonants. Let 
us beware of wrong guides as well as blind 
ones. 

309. Half accented vowel sounds. There 
is an inferixn; or half accent, on certain words 
of three or more syllables, which should be 
obsers'ed; and, although given distinctly, 
must be kept within the vanish of the accent- 
ed ones. The (Zem-o-ciiAT-ic co?z-ver-SA-tion 
vQ-spect-in^ the tPx-xa. was A^/-e-ro-GE-ne-us 
to a rfem-on-STiiA-tion ; a me/-a-pnis-i-cal 
/^7/^o-ciiox-dria is rec-om-MEK-da-to-ry of su- 
l>er-a-BU>r-dant27rorf-i-fiAL-i-ty : the in-covo.- 
pre-HEN-si-ble jy/en-i-po-TEx-ti-a-ry isan«m- 
pli-fi-CA-tion of A//-dro-PHo-bi-a ; the ^er-pen- 
dic-u-LAR-i-ty of the g:e7i-er-al-is-si-mlr, and 
tfie mcg--na-KiM-i-ty of thejftti/-an-THROP-i- 
cal re-ca-pit-u-LA-tion was c^r-ac-ter-is-tic 
of the irt-cor-rup-ti-BiL-i-ty of his in-con- 
s I D -er-a-ble-ness. 

a 1 0. The mere mention of Oratory, reminds 
ua of the early times of Egypt, Greece, and 
Rome ; when there flourished a Levite, who 
was an important instrument in delivering an 
ancient people from captivity ; one of whose 
qualifications for his high office, was, tliat he 
could "■speak well;'' — a DemosVienes, the 
magic, music, and witchery of whose ele- 
quence, it is impossible to translate or de- 
scribe ; — a Cicero, whose oratory was copious, 
correct, ornate, and magnificent ; — each of 
whom was pre-eminent in his own style and 
manner, — the Grecian — carrying the citadel 
by storm, and the Roman taking it after a 
regular and most beautifully conducted siege ; 
— of a Peter, and Paul, pleading in the 
cause of Heaven, and holding vast multitudes 
in breathless silence, making even Judges 
treml)le in their high places ; — of more mod- 
im times, whose history presents us the name 
of a Chatham, a Burke, and a Fox, in tlie as- 
nembly ; and those of a Buurdaloue, Massil- 
lon, Bridane, and Whitfield, in the pulpit; 
also the orators of our own time and land; 
some of whom, in many respects, will not 
Buffer by a compaHson with any of their il- 
lustrious predecessors. 

Praisin<r— what is lost. 
Makes the 7 emerrbrance — dear. 



Proverbs. 1. Shaw me & "iar, and I will 
show you a thief. ■ 2. The best mode of instruc 
tion is — to practice what we teach. 3. Vain glo- 
ry blossoms, but never bears. 4. Well to judge, 
depends on well to hear. 5. He who is wicked 
in the country, will be wicked in the town. 6, 
He who preaches war, is the devil's chaplain. 
7. You will never have a friend, if you must 
have one without failings. 8. A bad man in of- 
fice, is a public calamity. 9. That war only io 
just, which is necessary. 10. The worst of law 
is, that one suit breeds twenty. U. Be not ruin- 
ed by your neglect. 12. Ignorance is a misfortune 

Anecdote. An Unwelcome Visitor. A 
person, who often intruded himself in a read- 
ing-rooTO. and library, to which he was not a 
subscriber, had his pet dog turned out by the 
crusty old sexton ; who gave him a kick, say- 
ing — ''you are not a fubscribar at any rate." 
The intruder took the hint; and never ap- 
peared again in the establishment, till he be- 
came a patron. » 

Horace, a celebrated Roman poet, relates, 
that a countryman, who wanted to pass a 
river, stood loitering on the banks of it, in the 
foohsh expectation, that a current so rapid 
would soon discharge its waters. But the 
stream still flowed, (increased perhaps by 
fresh torrents from the mountains,) and it 
must forever flow ; because the source from 
which it is derived, is inexhaustible. Thus, 
the idle and irresolute youth, trifles over his 
books, or squanders, in childish pursuits, his 
precious moments, deferring the business o: 
improvement, (which dX first might be render- 
ed easy and agreeable, but which, by delayy 
becomes more and more difficult,) until the 
golden sands of opportunity have all run, and 
he is called to action, without possessing the 
requisite ability. 

Varieties. 1 . Has the invention cfgunpoiv- 
der been beneficial to the world ] The 77iind, 
like the soil, rises in value, according to the 
nature and degree — of its cultivation. 3. 
Labor and prudence, relieve us from three 
great evils, — vice, want, and indolence. 4. 
A wise man reflects, before he speaks; a 
foolish one speaks, and then reflects on what he 
has said. 6. Our happiness does not consist 
in being without passions, but in having 
command of them. 6. Good — is never more 
effectually accomplished, than when produced 
by slow degrees. 7. True charity— cannot 
be conjoined to a persuasion ot falsity, flow- 
ing from evil. 

There's quiet — in the deep : — 
Above, let titUs — and tempests rave, 
And earth-born whirlwinds — wake the wave; 
Move, let care — and Jear contend 
With jm and torrow — to the end: 
Here, far beneath the tainted foani, 
That frets — above our peaceful /loirid, 
We dream in joy, and wake in love. 
Nor know tl>e raje— mat yells above t 

There's quitt in the deiep ! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



75 



211. Unaccented Vowels. There is great 
beauty in pronunciation, where each letter, 
that is not silent, tells upon the ear its true 
character, and all contribute to produce the 
desired effiect : hence, the great necessity of 
giving to all letters, syllables, and words, 
their proper sounds; especially, the vowels, 
whether long or short, accented or unaccent- 
ed : as, — on the pres-eni oc-ca-sion I shall not 
a.t4empt to ^^'-u-dice your o-pm-ions or e- 
//io4ions to ac-co/7i-plish my oh-jects ; is it 
pos-si-ble, the ^er-ri-ble oi-fence of the gen-er- 
al, in rf/-er-ence to the man-u-scnpts, is par- 
^ic-u-lar-ly con-spic-u-ous in the re^i-o-lent 
ca/i-o-py of heav-en ! the <te/-e-gate re-quests 
me to give an oc-cu-lar erZ-u-ca-tion to his del- 
i-cate child, and be par-^ic-u-lar in its e-nun- 
ci-a-tion and ^ro-nun-ci-a-tion. 

313. A co?i-vert is one, who is con-yer/-ed 
from one side to another, and a co w-vict is one 
who has been con-ric-ted of some crime. The 
con-voy con-voyed the king to his throne, and 
placed a cor-o-nal on his co-ro-nal brow. I 
will coun-ter-&«Z-ance that coz^w-ter-bal-ance, 
and coun-ter-&u;^ the enemy's couw-ter-buff. 
They wUl coun-ter-cAcrr^-e the cotiw-ter-charge 
on England, and coun-ter-c^arm the broker's 
cown-ter-charm, while we coun-ter-c/^ec* the 
private's cown-ter-check. The general coun- 
ter-mantis his officer's couw-ter-mand, as 
we coun-ter-Twarc^ our coi^n-ter-march. We 
will coun-ter-pto^ your cown-ter-plots, and 
coun-ter-mifie your cow?i-ter-mines. He coun- 
ter-poised their coz^n-ter-poise, and coun-ter- 
vailed their coun-ter-vail. , 

Notes. 1. Different words, as well as the same wordt, 
vvij oe iccented on ditferent vowels, according to thie object con- 
templated ; thus— i)i-brate, yiro-pose, brig-ode, hus-hiud, au-gust, 
vi-giist., corn-pound. 2. The accent is generally on the root, or 
tfume of the word ; but gonmetimes on the subordinate part. 3. 
la reading poetry, the accent may be ditferent from what it would 
be in prose, for the sake of the melody of the verse. 4. Remem- 
ber, vowels must be prolonged on their radical parts, not on their 
vanishing movements. 5. Observe how lively, varied and inter- 
esting a passage is, when pronounced with proper accentual force ; 
and see how inripid and monotonous without it. 6. Always let 
your accent be well marked and sustained ; then your delivery will 
be brilliant, sprightly and effective. 

Anecdote. Undergoing a great hard- 
ship. During a trial in Court, where judge 
Parsons presided, a lawyer desired to know 
what a witness meant by keel-hauling. " Do 
jou not know?" rephed the judge; "he 
means that it^^'s undergoing a great hard 
ship, to be sure!" 

Fare thee irell / the ship is ready, 
And the breeze — is fresh and steady. 
Hands are fast the anchor weighing ; 
High in air — the streamer's playing. 
Spread the sails — the waves are swelling 
Proudly round thy buoyant dwelling; 
Fare thee well ! and when at sea, 
Think of those who sigh for thee. 

Acrjuaintance jrew ; the acquaintance they improved 
to friendsht" friendship — ripenend int« love. 



Proverbs. 1. Our *e?J security consists in 
innocence, and the cheering influence of approv- 
ing conscience. 2. Tardiness and precipitation 
are extremes equally to be avoided. 3. Th<» 
brave way fall, but never yield. 4. Books alone 
can never teach the use of books. 5. Common 
fame — is often a common liar. 6. Words — are 
leaves ; deeds are fruits. 7. Deserve success, and 
you shall comviand it. 8. False friends are 
worse than open enemies. 9. Goodness alone, 
enriches the possessor. 10. He who avoids the 
temptation, avoids tl^e sin. 11. Knowledge ia no 
burden. 12. JJfaw proposes, and God disposej. 

Woman. What a consoler is woman! 
None but her presence can so win a man 
tVom his sorrow, make placid the knit brow, 
and wreathe the stem lip into a smile. The 
soldier — becomes a hghtsome borj at her feet ; 
the anxious statesman — smiles himself back 
to free-hearted youth beside her ; and the still 
and shaded countenance of care — brightens 
beneath her influence, as the closed ^ow'ifr 
blooms in the sunshine. 

Varieties. 1 . What is truth ? Heaven and 
earth, are interested in'this momentous ques- 
tion. 2. Flee from sloth ; for the indolence 
of the soul, is the decay of the body. 3. Elo- 
quence is of two kinds, — that of the heart 
which is called divine ; and that of the head^ 
which is made up of conceit and sophistry. 
4. It is no small grief to one's good nature, 
to try his friends. 5. Talk not of the love 
that outlives adversity ; the love, that remains 
with it, is a thousand times more rare. 6 
Deliberate with caution, and act with preci 
sion ; yield with grace, and oppose with 
firmness. 7. The internal man is formed in 
the body, as a tree in the ground, or a seed in 
the fruit. 

AUTUMN EVENING. 
Behold — the western evening liglit ! 

y melts — in deepening g-Zoow ; 
So calmly — Christians sink away, 

Descending — to the tomb. 
The tmnrfj— breathe Uno, the withering leaj 

Scarce whispers — from the tree ; 
So gently — flows the parting breath. 

When good men — cease to be. 
How beautiful — on all the hills, 

The crimson light is shed ! 
'Tis like the peace— the Christian gives 

To mourners— round his led. 
How mildly — on the wandering cloud, 

The sunset beam — is cast ! 
'Tis like the nicmon/— left behind. 

When loved ones — breathe their last. 
And now, above the dews of n^ht, 

The yellow xtor— appears ; 
So— faith springs in the heart of those, 

Whose eyes — are bathed in tears. 
But sooji — the moming-s happier ligh 

Its ^Zon/ shall restore ; 
And eyelids, that are sealed in death 

Shall loaic— to close no more. 

True religion- 
Is always mild, propitious, and humane. 
Plays not the tyrant, plants no faith in blood; 
But stoops to succor, polish, and redress. 
And builds her grandeur — on the public ^ood. 



76 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



313. A too frequent recAirrence of accent- 
ed vowels, occasions a heavy utterance, in 
consequence of the almost continual succes- 
sion of vocal efforts: it is seen and felt in 
words, particularly tlie monosyllables, and in 
sentences, or members of sentences, and is tlie 
cause of the slow rate in the movement of the 
voice. Exs. " And ten low words oft creep in 
one dull hne. O'er hills, o'er dales, o'er crags, 
o'er rocks, they go. Up the high hill he heaves 
a huge round stone." Whenever accent oc- 
curs frequently, there is always a predomi- 
nance of quantity ; and the delivery, of neces- 
sity, is much slower. Now here we have posi- 
tive evidence that monosyllables have accent. 

\ Our best autlwrs use the shortest icords, 
.which are usually of Saxon Origin; hence, 

the charm, the witchery of certain speakers 

and writers. 

314. He Aes-cants upon tlie des-cani of 
the preacher, who deserts his post, and goes 
into the des-ert, to live on spicy desserts. 
I will di-gest the di-gest, although I dis-cord 
every thing like discord; I will also dis- 
coiint Hie note for a reasonable rfi^-count, be- 

' cause he asked me down-rig A/, in a down- 
right manner. 

315. Education means the development, 
perfection, and proper use of the body and 
mind : it relates to the training and guardi- 
ansliip of youth, from infancy to mature age 
— to the influencing of the character and 
prospects, not only of individuals, but of 
nations. The highest powers and noblest 
sentiments of our nature might remain for- 
ever dormant, were they not developed and 
matured by the instruction and example of 
the wise and good. In a still wider sense, 
education may mean the whole training of 
the thoughts and affections by inward reflec- 
tion and outward events and actions, by in- 
tercourse with men, " by the spirits of the 
just made perfect" — by instruction from the 
worh, and the training the whole man for 
life and immortality. 

Notes. 1. It woulJ be extremely difficult, considering the 
partially developetl and cultivated state of the ootce, ear, and lan- 
pjLOge, to give definite ruleg for pronouncing the unaccented vovr- 
els, in consequence of their verging towards each other in many 
r/OTds ; of course, we must avoid too much •tiffnest on the one 
hand, and vulgarity on me other ; tlie time will come, however, 
when every thing with regard to elocution will be as fixed and cer- 
tain aa in the science of music ; which is as perfect as the science 
of numbers. 2. Never forget that without a good articulation, no 
»r.a can become a correct reader, or spealter; and whatever other 
Jefocts one may have, if he possess thu eiceiience, he will be lie- 
tened to with pleasure and profit : there is something very attrac- 
tive and winning, in a clear, distinct and correct enunciation, 
which del^hts and captivates the sou!. Let no one excuse himself 
Iiom becoming perfect in this essential requisite. 

What— cannot patience do ? 

A great design — is seldom match'd t once : 

Tis patience heaves It on. 

From savage nature, 

Tis patience, lliat has built up human life, 

The nurse of arts; and Rome exalts herA^ad, 

An everlasting rnonumerU to j)atleiice. 



Pi-ovei"lJs. 1. Make provision »or want in 
time of plenty. 2 Live and let live — is a good 
motto. 3. Of all flatterers, self-love is the 
greatest. 4. Perspicuity is inseparable from elo- 
quence. 5. Restraint from ill is lie best kind ci 
freedom. 6. Sin and sorrow are inseparable 
companions. 7. Speech \s the giii oi all ; thougki 
of hut few. 8. That which opposes riff lit, must 
be wrong. 9. Undutiful children — make wretch- 
ed parentis: 10. No one can tell how much he can 
accomplish, till he tries. 11. The hand of the 
diligent maketh rich. 12. Ill^o( — ill spent. 

Anecdote. Dangerous Biting. Dioge- 
nes, of old, being one day asked, the biting of 
what beasts is the mo.st dangerous, replied, — 
" If you mean wild beasts, it is that of the 
slanderer; if tame ones, of the Jiatterer.^' 

True Empire. It is pleasant to be virtu- 
ous and good ,- because, that is to excel many 
others; — it is pleasant to grow better; be- 
cause that is to excel ourselves ; it is pleas- 
ant to mortify and subdue our lusts, because 
that is victoi-y ; — it is pleasant to command 
our appetites and passions, and to keep them 
in due order, witliin the bounds of reason and 
religion, — ^because — that is empire. 
. Varieties. 1. Are Rail-Roads and Ca- 
nals^ benefit to the country 1 2. He, who 
is slowest in making a promise, is generally 
the most faithful in performing it. 3. When 
a teacher is to be hired, there is generally a 
terrible pressure in the money market. 4. 
ZJn-educated mind is ed-ucated vice. 5. 
They, who love fiattery, are in a fair way to 
repent of their vjeakness ; yet how few are 
proof against its attacks. 6. If others attrib- 
ute more to us than is our due, they are 
either designing or mistaken ; ajid, if they 
allow us le.'is, they are envious or igiiorant ; 
and, in both cases should be disregarded, 
7. The Lord is ever present in the human 
soul, and we are tried every moment in all 
we will, think, do, hear, or say. 

CURRAN'S DAUGHTER-EMMET-3 BETROTHED. 
She is /or from the /a»irf— where her young hero sleeps, 

And lovers — around her are sighing ; 
But coldly she turns from tlieir gaze, and weeps, 

For her heart — in his grave — is lying. 
She sings the wild songs— of her dear native plain?, 

Every note, which he lov'd — awaking,— 
Ah '. little they think, who delight in hers^ratjw, 

How the Iieart of lh» minstrel— is lireaki7tg. 
He had h'oV— for his Zoue— for his country— he dua 

They were all — that to life had intwiii'd him — 
Nor soon— shall the t«ars of his country biplricd, 

Nor long — will his love stay behind him 
Oh ! make her a p-ace- where the sunkeanu rest. 

When they promise a glorious morrow : 
They'll shine o'er her sleep — lil^e a smile from the vecst, 
From her own lov'd inland of sorrow 
Oft I hear, 
t/pon the silence of the midnight tir, 
Celestial noices — swell in holy choivs ' 
That bears the soul — to heaven. 

Impartial — as the grave. 
Sleep, — rcbs the cruel tyrant — of liis pnwer. 
Gives rest and freedom to the o'erwrought ilavet 
And steals the wretched beggar— t'rcm hia team 



PRINCIPLED OF ELOCUTION. 



77 



a 16. A too uw-frequent occurrence of ac- 
cent, produces indistinctness ; because of the 
rapidity with which the unaccented sounds 
must be pronounced ; depending, as they do, 
on the radical or accented vowels: in pro- 
nouncing such words, be particular to con- 
centrate the voice, strongly, on the accented 
vowels ; and that will give you sufficient im- 
pelling power, to carry you easily tlirough 
the word. Ex. His dis-in-ter-est-ed-ness and 
in-tel-li-gi-&i^-i-ty are a&-so-lute-ly in-ca'-pli- 
ca-ble ; I un-Aes-i-ta-ting-ly say, that the un- 
rea-son-a-ble-ness of tliat tri-per-son-al-ist's 
scheme is an ir-re/-ra-ga-ble proof of lat-i-tu- 
di-wa-ri-an-ism ; he spoke com-mw-ni-ca-tive- 
ly of his in-rfis-so-lu-ble sZoy-en-li-ness, which 
he, lii-e-ro-g-Z2/P^-i-cal-ly and per-em^-to-ri-ly 
declared, was neither an-ti-pes-ti-Ze?i-tial, con- 
graZ-u-la-to-ry, nor in-con-tro-?;ef-ti-ble. 

a 17. Pay particular attention, not only to 
the errors of foreigners, in pronunciation, but 
also to those of o\ir own countrymen: let 
nothing of importance escape your critical 
observation: in this way, your voice, taste, 
and ear, will be cultivated, and you will be 
saved from such defects as would, if indulged 
in, impede your progress in these arts, and 
prevent you from being extensively useful in 
your day and generation. 

ais. He in-lay s the table with silver in- 
lays. J;?.stinct is the power derived from 
above, that determines the will of the brute 
creation, while all nature is instinct with life 
IVom the same source. The in-suLt returned 
in-stUts the man, as it inter-dicts the mter- 
cliange which invalids inter-chang'd for an 
in-val-id wi-terdict. His mi-nute mis-corz-duct 
every mm-ute that he miscon-ducts, mi-nute- 
ly affects the lady min-utely. 

319. Laughing Scientifically. The fol- 
lowing suggestions are given for the forma- 
, tionrof laughing glee clubs; in the hope that 
this remarkably healthful and anti-melan- 
choly exercise, may aid in accompUshing its 
very beneficial effects in old and young, male 
and female. Let a number of persons, say 
six, or eight, form a circle, sitting, or stand- 
ing, erectly, with the shoxilders throvm back, 
and tlie leader commence, by giving one 
laugh, in the use of tlie syllable huh : then, let 
the one at his right hand repeat it, which is 
to be reiterated by each one till it comes 
round then, without any loss of time, let the 
loader repeat tlie word, adding another, (huh, 
h^-ih,) which is to be taken up as before by 
the club ; and, as it comes to him the third 
time, let him add anotlier, (huh^ huh, huh,) 
and so on, till there follows a complete round 
of shouts, and rosjrs of laughter. 

Again— I feel my bosom bound, 
My heart sits lightly on its seat; 
My cares — are all in raphtre drown'd, 
In every pulse — new pleasures bcal . 



Proverbs. 1. Want of punctuality is a spe- 
cies of falsehood. 2 Youth— is the best season <br 
improvement. 3. No confidence can be placed in 
those, who are in the habit of telling lies. i. Good, 
and bad habits, formed during youth, generally go 
with us during Ife. 5. Our best friends are those, 
who tell us OUT faults, and teach us to correct them. 
G. A kind word, or even a kind look, often affords 
great comfort to the afflicted. 7. 'Tis not those 
who read the rr.ost, that know xhe most; but, those 
who refect and practice the most. 8. The sun—ii 
never the worse for shining on a dunghill. 9. Trut 
valor — is fire; bullying — is smoke. 10. Wealtli is 
not his, who gets it; but his who enjoys it. 11. Dy 
ing — is as natural as living. 12. All covet — all lose. 

Anecdote. Sea-Laivyers. A member of 
the bar, on his passage to Europe in a 
steam vessel, observed a shark near them ; 
and not knowing what it was, asked one of 
the sailors ; who replied, with much gravity, 
" Here, we csfll 'em sea-lawyers.^^ 

'K.jkowTk Tby our Fruits. A man — is 
known by his words — as a tree — by its fruit; 
and if we would be apprised of the nature 
and qualities of any one, let him but dis- 
course, and he will speak them to us, better' 
than another can describe them. We may 
therefore perceive hew proper it is — for those 
to hold their ^wrgwes, who would not discover 
the shallowness of their understandings. 
Empty vessels — make the greatest sound, and 
the deepest rivers — are most silent. It is a 
true observation, that those who are weakest 
in understanding, and slowest of apprehen 
sion, are, generally, the most precipitate — ir. 
uttering their crude conceptions. 

Varieties. 1. Why is an egg — un-done, 
hke an egg over-done'l Because, both are 
hardly done. 2. A prying disposition — into 
what doQS not cmicern one, and a tat] ing 
tongue — are two very common evils. 3. The 
bones of birds are hollow, and filled with air, 
instead of marrow ; hence their power of 
making sound. 4. Unprofitable speech — is like 
the cypress, which is great and tall, yet bears 
no fruit. 5. Nature, in too many instances, 
is pushed from her throne; the world havinii 
lost its relish for her tynith and punty. 6. 
Swift — dedicated one volume of his works to 
^'Prince Posterity;''' and tliere is wawZmess in 
the act. 7. Every advancement in good, is a 
delivery from evil influences; and every fall 
in evil, is a victory, obtained by them ovei 
the soul. 
If we are wise—arA Indge aright, there's scarce 
An ill of life (however keen or hard 
To bear), but good may be extracted thence '. 
Tis so by Providence ordained, to those 
Who seek for light— nmld tlie shade of gloom. 
It is, indeed, a sombre sky, where not 
One cheerful speck appears. Wiy gaze alone 
On that, which doth appal tlie soul, and pass 
The cheering ray, which, constant gazing on, 
Might so expand, to chase the sombre cloud? 



78 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTIONS. 



aao. There are words, as we have seen, 
tliat are spelt alike, but pronounced different- 
ly, by changing tlie seat of accent : because 
the meaning is different : and there are words, 
spelt nearly alike, and pronounced by some 
alike, though incorrectly ; and the conse- 
quence often is, a complete perversion of the 
sense. A minister took for his text, the fol- 
lowing very comprehensive words ; " He that 
feareth God, and worketh righteousness, is 
accepted of liim." But instead of reading it 
as contained in the Bible, he perverted it, by 
saying : " He that feareth God, and worketh 
righteousness, is fa:-cepted of him :" that is 
left out s excluded. 

3-il. Practice on the following, and simi- 
lar words, and distinguish tlie voV)el sounds 
by their appropriate pronunciation. The ab- 
o-/i-tion niove-ment is ac-cep^-ed by some, 
and ex-cepi-eA by others. 2. Being con-fi- 
dent of his con-fi-dant, the j»er-son-age work- 
ed the ^-na-ry, by the par-son-age of his 
^-na-ry. 3. The rarf-ish pen-daxii, looking 
red-ish, was pen-deni in tlie nose of the 
bar-on whose lands were bar-ren. 4. His 
sal-a.-ry was cel-e-ry, because he hved under 
the cap-i-iol in the cflp-i-tal of the state, op- 
posite the office that was op-po-site to his 
purpose. 

ii'i^. Telling Stories. Who has not ob- 
served the intense interest, manifested by 
children, in hearing one another tell stories? 
They will sit up tiU midnight, without being 
sleepy; and are generally driven to their 
homes, or their bed. How readily they re- 
member, and relate interesting stories to their 
companions, days, weeks, and months, and 
even years, after first hearing tliem : the rea- 
son is, they not only see and understand these 
tales, but feel them intensely ; and hence, 
they easily get them by heart, as it is called. 
Why have not teachers long since taken a 
hint of the mode, in which to communicate 
all the varieties of scientific, and useful knowl- 
edge to their pupils ? Let them take turns in 
telling stories after their teachers ; and if their 
exercises are judiciously managed, as they 
may be, they will be found exceedingly amus- 
ing, and promotive of a very rapid devel- 
opment of mind. 

Anecdote. BoiChle Meaning. An illiter- 
ate personage, who always volunteered — to 
go round with liis hat, was suspected of spa- 
ring his own pocket. Overhearing, one day 
a remark, to that effect, he made the follow- 
ing reply : " Other gentlemen puts down 
what they think proper, and so do I. Chari- 
ty's a private concern, and what I give is 
nothing to nobody.^^ 
Dost thou knowtl\e fate of soldiers? 
They're but ambitioti's tools— to cut a way 
To her unlawful ends; and when they're worn, 
Hacked, hnen — with co)istant service^ thrown aside, 
To rust -It. peace, or rot— in hospitals. 



Proverbs. 1 . Be puntlua. — m a J your ap 
pointments, and honest — in all your dealings. 2. 
Always live so that the world may be the betur, foi 
your living in it. 3. Never make sport of an in- 
sane, or intoxicated person. 4. Let the law of 
kindness — be ever on your tongue. 5. In comer- 
sation, seek out acceptable words. 6. Never re- 
quire favors, but ask for them. 7. Avoid doing 
things, that are calculated to excite attention. S. 
liCarn to practice self -denial, when it will promote 
the happiness of others. 9. Kindly and faithfuUy 
remind your friends and companions, of their 
faults. 10. Be accurate in every thing. 11. No 
rose without a thorn. 12. Pride— will have a/a/J. 

Discovery of Glass. Pliny informs us, 
that the art of making glass — was acciden- 
tally discovered by some merchants, who 
were travehng with nitre, and stopped near a 
river, issuing from Mount Carmel. Not find 
ing anything to rest tlieir kettles on, tlie> 
used some pieces of nitre for that purpose 
The nitre gradually dissolving by the heat, 
mixed with the sand, and a transparent mat- 
ter flowed, which was in feet glass. It is cer- 
tain that we are often more indebted to appa- 
rent chance, than genius — for many of the 
most valuable discoveries: therefore every 
one should keep his eyes and ears open, — his 
thoughts and feelings awake and active. 

Varieties. 1. fTAy should any one think 
it a disgrace — to work for his living 1 2. In- 
vestigate every subject, with which you be- 
come acquainted, until you understand i1 
thoroughly. 3. "I'll try," is a plant, that 
would flourish in the f7-igid zone ; " I can't,' 
would be barren any where. 4. Never con- 
demn another, for not knowing- what yott 
have just learned ; or perhaps do not clearly 
understand. 5. No tongue can tell, or intel- 
lect perceive, the full import of the word 
HOME. 6. The trtce christian religion — is a 
divine wardrobe, containing garments for all 
kind^ and orders of wearers. 7. As the soul 
advances in true resignation of its own will, 
to the will of God, every principle andfacul^ 
ty of mind — ^becomes sanctified, even down 
into the life of the senses. 

Weep not, that Time 
Is passing on, — it will— ere long, reveal 
A brighter era to the nations. Hark! 
Along the vales— and mountains of the earth 
There is a deep, portentous m%irmuring, 
Like the swift rush — of subterranean streams ; 
Or like the mingled sounds of ear«A and air, 
When the fierce Tempest, with sonorous wing, 
Heaves his deep folds upon the rushing winds, 
And hurries onward— WiXh. his niglit of c&m<fc 
Against the eternal mountains. 'Tis the voice 
Of infant Freedom, — and her stirring call 
Is heard — and ansioered — in a thousand tones, 
From every hill-lop of her Western hom^, — 
And lo, it breaks across old Ocean's flood,— [shout 
And '^'^ Freedom! Freedom!" is the answering 
Of nations, starting from the spell of years 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



7fi 



!133. When accented and unaccented syl- 
lables are agreeably Interspersed through the 
words, neither a heavy utterance, nor indis- 
tinctness occurs. Ex. "Not so, when swift 
Camilla scours the plain, Flies o'er the un- 
bending com, and skims along the main." 
Now, compare the movement of the voice in 
this, with the following, and see and feel the 
difference : " And ten low words oft creep in 
one dull line." The former is like a nag, that 
gallops off in fine style ; the latter, one that 
creeps, like a snaiL The reason is, as you 
perceive, in one case, there is life and light ; 
in the other, nothing but words. 

aa*. Neither teachers nor parents, can be 
too wisely careful of the influence, exerted 
upon their pwptZs and children: for principles 
apply to both matter and spirit. " Just as 
the twig is bent, the tree's inclined." Again, 
since thoughts are imperishable existences, 
we should be careful in entertaining and 
cherishing any other, than such as we are 
willing to have for our companions on earth, 
and during our eternal state of being in the 
future world. Here, then, is something for 
all of us to attend to; and unspeakable con- 
sequences are depending on the performance 
of duty. Are we of the number of those, who 
turn back in the day of battle 1 or, of those 
who gird on their armor, to do, or die ? 

aas. Position in Bed. There is no doubt, 
that the habit of forming round or hump'd 
shoulders, (which is rarely, if ever, natural,) 
is contracted in infancy, end childhood. The 
incautious mother, not understanding the 
principles of physiology, lays the infant on a 
pillow of feathers, instead of on a good mat- 
tress, or straw bed, without pillows; thus, 
elevating the head far too much above the le- 
vel of the body ; and this practice is continued 
in after-liffe, very much to the detriment of 
health, and beauty of form. If necessary, 
raise the Aead-posts of the bedstead a few 
inches, instead of using pillows. 

Notes. 1. Observe, tliat when the accent h at, or ntar, the 
^tginnins; of the word, it materially aids the expulsive stress of 
voice, carrying us more easily through the word, than when it is 
placed near the last end : the genius of our language is in favor of 
the former ; hence, the tendency is to place the acceat at the be- 
finnins ; which makes language more powerful and effective. 2. 
In Yunniiig, the impetus of preceding efforts carries us on after 
Ibc^e efforts have ceased. 

Anecdote. A Tough Animal. " The con- 
stitution of our females must be excellentr 
says a celebrated physician; "for, take an 
ox, or a horse, and enclose his sides with cor- 
sets, — and he would labor indeed, — but it 
would be for breath:' 

Nothing— li lasting— on the world's wide stage, 

As mng, and wisely sung, the Grecian sage ; 

And man, who, through the globe — extends his sway 

Reigns — but the sovereign creature — of a iay ; 

One generation comes, aiiother — goes. 

Time— blends the happy— yrxVn the man of VKt; 

A different /ace of things — each age appears, 

And all thiae;--a2(er -in a course oiyeart. 



Proverbs. 1. He iv ho mar* .es for weiUh, sells 
hxs liberty. 2. A/rtend, which you buy with pre- 
smts, may be boicght from you. 3. Ladies — will 
soonei pardon want of sense, than want of good 
manners. 4. The remedy for love is — land between. 
5. You may know a foolish woman— by her fin- 
ery. 6. Temperance, employment, and » cheerful 
spirit — are great preservers and restorers of health. 
7. Many a one digs his grave with his teeth 8 
The epicure — puts his purse in his stomach; aivS 
the m.iser — his stomach in his purse. 9. Change ot 
weat/ier is the discourse o( fools. 10. "We hate do 
lay; but it often makes us wiser. 11. Talking— 
does no work. 12. Fast labor is pleasavJ. 

liaconics. Never mystify science; but, 
if 2>ossible, always ehicidate it. Knowledgo 
— is too important — to be made the subject 
of a silly yofee. 

Varieties. 1. If content does not remove 
the disquietudes of life, it will at least alleviate 
them. 2. Can matter ever be annihilated ? 
3. Every sentence we read under standingly, 
is like a cast of the weavers shuttle, adding 
another thread to the web of life. 4. They, 
who are governed by reason, need no other 
motive than the goodness of an act, to excite 
them to practice it. 6. A reading people wik 
become a thinking people ; and then, they 
are capable of becoming a great people. 6. 
A diligent pen supplies many thoughts. 7. 
Nothing but divine Inve, and divine wisdom, 
can proceed ft-om God, the centre of all beings 

BEATH OF A HHAKT-FRIEND. 

If I had thought — thou couldst have died, 

I might not weep for thee ; 
But I forgot, when by thy side, 

That thou couldst mortal be. 
It never through my mind had passed, 

The time would e'er be o'er, 
And I on tlue — should look my last, 

And thou shouldst smile — no more ! 
And still — upon that /ace I look, 

And think — Hwill smile again ; 
And still the thought— I loill not brook 

That I must look in vain! 
But when I speak, — thou dost not say, 

What thou ne'er !eft'.st unsaid ; 
And now I feel, as well I may. 

Sweet Mary I thou art dead ! 
If thou wouldst stay, e'en as thou art. 

All coZd— and all serene, — 
I still might press thy silent heart, 

And where thy smiles have been ! 
While e'en thy chill, bleak corse I have 

Thou seemest still my own ; 
But there I lay thee— in thy grave,— 

And I am now — alone! 
I do not think, where''er thou art, 

Thou hast forgotten me ; 
And Z, perhaps, may soothe this heart 

In iVinking, too, of thee. 
Yet there was round thee — such a dawL 

Of light, ne'er seen before, 
As fancy -never could have drawn^ 

And never can restore ! 



80 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3SI6. Revisions. The great practical im- 
portance of this subject, demands a passing 
remark. In revisiyig, we not only gather up 
thefragmetits, but refresh our minds with a 
reproduction of what we previously had 
learned. By reviewing our studies, we often 
find the matej-ials, with which we can over- 
come difficulties, that seem sdmost insur- 
mountable ; hence, revisions frequently serve 
as a Jcey, to unlock the casket, that contains 
invaluable treasures. And we must guard 
against thinking of the principles, as being 
jXMitained in the book ; unless they are un- 
derstood and felt in the mind, and by the 
mind, and through the body are reduced to 
practice, they are, so far as we are concerned, 
talueless and dead. Seeing food, or think- 
vig of it, will impart no nourishment to tlie 
body; it must be eaten, digested, and appro- 
priated. 

337. Now repeat all the sounds of tlie let- 
ters, in their alphabetical order, as found on 
page 63 ; omitting those that are dujdicates ; 
then give the vowels and consonants, by them- 
selves; afterwards, give the short vowels, 
and the long ones by tliemselves, and read 
several paragraphs by vowel sounds; after 
which, give the vocal consonants, and aspi- 
rates, by themselves: then tlie single, dou- 
ble, and triple ones, and analyze words, 
spelling them by their sounds; also, raise 
and fall the eight vowels, according to the di- 
atonic scale, in article 64; then revise the 
two modes of making accent; practice on 
tlie changes of its seat, and reahze the impor- 
tant use of every exercise. 

33S. The pre-con-tract ^re-con-tracts the 
pre-fix which is Y>^e-Jixed to the prel-Mde, 
with which the speaker ipTe-ludes the pres- 
ent pres-age, that he pre-sog-'d the man would 
r>re-sent. The prod-\ice of the land was such 
as to i)TO-duce a pro-ject to iiro-test against 
the man who pro-Jects the infamous jyrot-est 
against the reb-el that re-bels against the 
law. I re-fuse to re-cord either the ref-use or 
*he rcc-ord, or re-tail them by wholesale or 
n'-tail. 

339. A Dandy of some use. Let the pu- 
pil impress on his mind tlie absolute necessi- 
ty, for awhile, of keeping his shoulders 
thrown back, so as to make the breast as 
round and prominent as possible : and then, 
after a few days, or weeks at fartliest, he will 
feel very uncomfortal)le to sit, stand, or labor, 
in a bent position. But, says one, " I should 
look so much like a dandy." Never mind 
that, provided it be right} and if you can 
make this much use of so superfluous an ar- 
ticle, it may serve to show you, that nothing 
exlics in vain : think of the wisdom and in- 
dusirj' of the bee. 
TThis smooth dhcourse,— and mild behavior, oft 
Conceals — a traitor. 



Proverbs. 1 . Never repulse an associate witfc 
unkindness. 2. Love one another with a pun 
heart fervently. 3. Tlie morality of the christian 
religion, is not national, but universal. 4. Pru- 
dence says— take time by the foretop. 5. A bird in 
the hand, is worth two in the bicsh. C. The dili- 
gent soul, shall be made rich. 7. Knowledge— -is. 
power; ignorance— is weakness. 8. An egg to 
day, is better than a hen to-morrow. 9. Worldly 
reputation and sengnal pleasure, are destructive lo 
virtue. 10. The history and wisdom of the world, 
can only be known by reading. 11. We are to be 
saved from our sins, not in our sins. 12. What- 
ever is worth reading at all, is worth reading weU. 
Anecdote. Afraid of Work. A person 
once said to a father, whose son was noted 
for his laziness, that he thought his son was 
very much afraid of work. "Afraid qf 
work .?" replied the father, " not at all, — he 
will li£ down, and go to sleep close by the 
side of it." 

RiSbt Views. The more we ascribe all 
goodness and truth — to the Lord, the more 
— will the interiors of the mind, be open to- 
wards heaven, the only source of happiness : 
for by thus doing, we acknowledge tliat notli- 
ing good and true is from ourselves ; and, in 
proportion as this is heartily confessed, the 
love of self — departs, and with it — the thick 
darkness, which arises from that which is 
false and evil : thus it is evident, how one — 
becomes wiser than another. As the exhala- 
tions from the earth — rise and form clouds, 
more or less dense, thus obscuring the atmos- 
phere, and preventing the clear light of the 
sun ; so, do the exhalations of se^-love — arise 
and obscure the light of Divine truth, — of 
that Sun, which rules the world of mind. 

Varieties; 1. Does pain or pleasure- 
predominate in human hfe ] 2. WeddedUfe 
says a happy husband, is a perpetual /ow/?- 
tain of domestic sweets. 3. Drinking watei 
— neither malces a man sick, nor runs him in 
debt, nor makes his wife a ividow : can a> 
much be said of ardent spirits ? 4. He, who 
peeps through a keyhole, may see something 
to vex him. 5. That gentleness, which if 
characteristic of a good man, like every other 
virtue, has its seat in the heart : and nothing 
but whatjioivs from the heart — can render 
even external manners, truly pleasing. 6. 
The Lord came to seek and save those wlio 
arc lost : and he saves all who are willing to 
be saved. 7. Love - principles and genuine 
truth, respect each other according to degrees 
of affinity : and the greater the affinity, tli« 
greater is the attraction between them. 
Morning — hath her songs of gladness, 

Sultry nooti — its ferved glare, 
Evening hours, their gentle sadness, 

Night — its dream.s, and rest from ca'e; 
But the pensive twilight — ever 

Gives its oivn sweet fancies birth, 
Waking visions, that may never 
Know realitv — on enrth. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



81 



330. Orthography — relates to the right 
placing of the letters in words, and Orthoepy 

-to the right prononncing of words, accord- 
ing to the sounds of the letters, — the former 
— ^respects written language, and is addressed 
to the eye ; and the latter, spoken language, 
and is addressed to tlie ear; the first supposes 
the second We may infer the perfection, 
uliich the ancient Greeks attained, in or-tho- 
e-py, from this fact, that when a public spea- 
Jcer — even pronounced a word incorrectly, the 
whole audience simultaneously hissed him. 
Whence did they acquire such accuracy of 
ear] Doubtless, in spelling by the sounds 
of their letters, instead of by their names. 
When we adopt this method, which nature 
and science dictate, we shall attain like excel- 
lency in pronvmciation, and our language 
will then be found to contain more power and 
svjeetness than any other in the world. 

831. Pronunciation — is orthoepy, or the 
right utterance of words ; i. e. pronouncing 
words according to euphony, analogy and 
custom, which constitute the standard. The 
principal rule is, pronounce in the easiest and 
most effectual manner : and, when words are 
introduced from other languages, they should 
be pronounced according to the principles of 
our language ; that is, they must conform to 
the genius of tlie English language, as for- 
eigners do to that of our constitution, when 
they become naturalized, — abjuring /oreigw, 
uncongenial influences and principles, and 
submitting to ours. 

233. Our Orthography and Orthoepy. 
Many foreigners and natives find it difficult 
to speak our language, in consequence of the 
great difference between its spelling and its 
pro7iu7idation, and the various sounds given 
to tlie same letters in similar, and in different 
combinations ; and, although, for the last two 
centuries, our orthography has remained 
nearly stationary, yet our ortheopy has been 
very much changed ; which may be seen in 
comparing the Bible, translated under James 
I., with the common edition. Different per- 
sons have proposed different means, for over- 
coming these difficulties, and nearly all 
without much success; wJiich is the less to 
i)V. regret-ted, when we consider how little the 
viiice and ear have been developed and culti- 
vated, and thereby prepared to meet the exi- 
gencies of the case. It is now seen, on a 
foithful analysis and synthesis of their labors 
to revolutionize our language in these re- 
spects, that each reformer's system is found 
to be very imperfect ; but the good work is 
going on slowly ; and, in process of time, 
it will be accomplished; very much to the 
disappointment of fcoofe-worms, and to the 
gratification of that spirit of the age, which 
looha more to the uses of things, than to their 
looks. 

BRONSON. G 



Proverbs. 1. Reprove mildly, and correci 
with caution. 2. Let us creep before we walk, and 
walk before -we fly. 3. One book, w«ll read, is 
worth twenty skimmed over. 4. The greatest 
wealth— is contentment with a little. 5. A letter- 
is half a meeting. 6. We may read mucli, witli- 
out understanding much. 7. Presence of mind. 
is necessary at all times. 8. Little boats sliould 
keep near shore; great ones — may venture more 
9. I confide, and am at rest. 10. While tliere is 
life, tliere is hope. 11. He attains whatever he 
aims at. 12. A good story, is none the worse <b\ 
being twice told. 

Anecdote. Dying hut Once. When Ce« 
sar was advised, by some of his friends, to be 
more cautious as to the security of liis per- 
son, and not to walk among the people with- 
out arms, or any one to protect him; he 
replied, — " He, who lives in the /ear of death, 
every moment feels its tarture; I will die 
but once." 

liaconlos. A life of deceit — is one of un- 
mitigated torture — a living hell, which should 
deserve our pity for the unhappy beings wh 3 
submit to it. 

Varieties. 1 . Are not the unity and trin- 
ity of God, the elemental and fundamental 
principles of christian theology ? 2. Charac- 
ter, based on goodness and truth, is a source 
of eternal happiness. 3. We are made what 
we are, by what is from above, within, and 
around us. 4. God gives to all, the power 
of becoming what they ought to be. 5. A 
fuU persuasion of our ability to do V}ell, is i\ 
powerful motive to excellence, and a sure 
pledge of success. 6. It is our duty, and our 
Iiappiness, to feel for others, and take an in- 
terest in their welfare. 7. The action of life, 
is desire ; as is the desire and delight, with its 
consequent actions, such is the life. 

THE GOODNESS OF PROVIDENCE 

The Lord — my pasture shall prepare, 
AnA feed me — with a shepherd''s care ; 
His presence — shall my wants supply, 
And guard me — with a watchful eye; 
My noon-day walks — he shall attend, 
And all my midnight hours — defend. 
When, in the sultry glebe— I faint, 
. Or, on the thirsty mountains pant ; 
To fertile vales, and dewy meads^ 
My weary, wand''ring steps he leads, 
Where peaceful rivers, soft and slow, 
Amid the verdant landscape flow. 
Though— in the paths of death— I tread, 
With gloomy horrors — overspread, 
My steadfast heart—shall fear no ill ; 
For thou, O Lord, art with me still : 
Thy friendly crook — shall give me aid. 
And guide me— through the diieadful $fiade. 
Though in a bare— and rugged way, 
Through devioMs— lonely wilds I stray, 
Thy bounty— shall my pains beguile; 
The barren wilderness — shall smile. 
With sudden greens— and herbage crowne<l, 
And Btreams— shall murmur all around. 



82 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



$S33. Pronunciation — should be so sys- 
tematic, as to render it capable of being stu- 
died from its elementary priiicij)les, and be- 
come an object of methodical acquirement. 
Every thing involved in producing sounds, 
in the conformation of the organs in articu- 
lation, the application of all that belongs to 
accented, /m//-accented, and wn-accented 
vowels, and every principle of melody and 
euphony — are included in pronunciation, 
and tends to its perfection : but the ancients 
included also Emphasis, Intonation, Inflec- 
tion, Circumfiexes and tlie other essentials of 
delivery. 

234. If the great object of pronimciation 
be, to produce the designed effect, in the best 
manner, we shall find it necessary to attend 
not only to the preceding principles, and 
iheir application, but to watch over useless 
innovations, and inclinations to senseless 
changes, — desires to be what is called fash- 
ionable — regardless of reason, and ambitious 
to shine as a leader in some pecuUar pronim- 
ciation : then, our language will bear a rigid 
comparison with any other, either ancient or 
modem, when ends, causes and ejfects are ta- 
ken into consideration. Let us not, then, de- 
viate from established principles, and rules, 
without good and satisfactory reasons. 

^t35» Action and Reaction. Have you 
ever particularly noticed, the reciprocal ac- 
tion between the voice and the mind, the 
tongue and the heart ? Well might the apos- 
tle exclaim, "How great a matter a little 
fixe kindleth !" The tongue is full of pow- 
er for weal, or for wo, according to the state 
of the heart, that impels it to action. What 
is there, that cannot be talked up, or talked 
down by itl It is full of blessing, or curs- 
ing — Ume or hatred; and oh! how it can 
sting the soul, when it has been dipped in 
the gall and wormwood of hell ; and how lift 
it to heaven, when fired with celestial love. 

ZVoteS. Always infill, perfectly, the accented vcnod, and 
mart so, in proportion as the word is important ; i. e. shape the 
Towe] sound completely, by the appropriate organs, and give it all 
its necessary power, filling it full of the influence of the mind, in 
the proportion as you wish your ideas to be impressive and abiding. 
Mind possesses a magnifying power over words, making them 
mean more than they naturally do : which will be perfectly obvi- 
ous m the specific practice of the principles which we are gradu- 
ally approaching. 

Anecdote. "I suppose," (said an arrant 
quack, while feeling the pulse of his patient,) 
»' that you think me a. fool.'' " Su-," (replied 
the sick man,) " I perceive you can discover 
a man's thoughts by his pulse." 
If all our hopes and all om fears, 

Were prisoned in life's narrow bound; 
If, travders through this vale of tears, 

We saw no better world beyond ; 
■Oh! what could check the rising 5tg&.' 

What earthly thing, could pleasures give? 
tOh! who would venture then, to die, 
■Or who would venture then, to live * 



Proverbs. 1. The eotiduct of men is an in- 
dex to their hearts ; for by iheirfruits ye shall hnow 
them. 2. In arduous and trying circumstancee 
preserve equanimity; and in prosperous hours, 
restrain the ebullitions of excessive joy. 3. Those 
things that belong to others generally please ms ; 
while those that are our own are more valued by 
others. 4. Attach yourself to good company aail 
you will be respected as one of them. 5 Tine 
most distinguished men, of all ages, have hod 
their imperfections. 6. Ct/Jfrng-^ests, when the sa- 
tire is true, niflicts a wound that is not soon forgoU 
ten. 7. Nothing is more dingusting, than a low- 
bred /eZ^w, when he suddenly attains an elevated 
station. 8. Either never attempt a thing, or aceotft- 
pUsh it. 9. Fortune — favors the bold, and aband- 
ons the timid. 10. Acts of kindness, shown to 
good men, are never thrown away. 11. War — is 
death's jest. 12. Of two evils— choose the least. 

Varieties. 1. If you make a present, 
give what wUl be useful. 2. Do not the 
wings, that form the butterfly, lie folded in 
the worm 1 3. Language — should first be 
learned by imitation. 4. One of the greatest 
obstacles, in the road to excellence, is indo- 
lence. 5. Humility — is that low, sweet root, 
from which all heavenly virtues shoot. 6. 
Acquire a thorough knowledge of all your 
duties. 7. God — is an infinite abyss of wis- 
dom: which is not comprehensible — either 
by men or angels, as to one millionth of ita 
parts: of its infinite store, they are to receive 
fresh supplies to all eternity. 

THE mother's injunction, ON PBIESENTINO HEB EOB 
WITH A BIBLE. 

Remember love, who gave thee this, 

When other A&ys shall come ; 
When she, who had thy earliest kiss, 

Sleeps— \n her narrow home. 
Remember, 'twas a wofAer— gave 
The gift to one— she'd die to save. 
That mother— sought a pledge oilave. 

The holiest— (ox her son ; 
And, from the gifts of God above, 

She chose a goodly one 
She chose, for her beloved boy, 
The source of light, and life, and joy, 
And bade him keep the gift, — that, whiKi 

The parting hour would come, 
They might have hope — to meet again. 

In an eternal home. 
She said — his {aithin that — would be 
Sweet incense— to her memory. 
And should the scoffer, in his pride, 

Laugh that fond faith to scorn. 
And bid him cast the pledge aside, 

That— he from youth had borne; 
She bade him pause, and ask his breast, 
If he, OTshe, had loved him bist? 
A parenfs blessing on her son 

Goes with this hqjy thing; 
The love, that would retain the one. 

Must to the other cling. 
Remember! 'tis no idle toy, 
A morter's gift, Bemember, boy/ 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



83 



336. The only way that provincialisms, 
foreign accents and brogues, can be removed, 
is by individual attention to the first princi- 
vles of our language, as here exhibited, and. 
At the same time, following- a teacher who 
can give the true English pronunciation ,- 
for sounds can only be learned by imitation ; 
and this is the way in which Elocution and 
Music must be taught. Our language has 
Buffered, and is suffering, greatly, oy being 
improperly taught hy foreigners, wlao can- 
not pronounce one half of our words with 
propriety. But a teacher may be able to pro- 
nounce single words with a good degree of 
correctness, and yet be unable to deliver se7i- 
tences, in a proper manner. A few minutes 
every day, for a few weeks, devoted to the 
study and practice of these principles, will 
enable almost any one to discover and amend 
his errors and defects in articulating our for- 
ty-four sounds, and pronouncing correctly, 
the words in common use ,- and if spelling by 
sounds and by sight, be faithfully practiced, 
one may secure another rare excellence, — 
that of writing our words with correctness 
and despatch. 

837. Every thing in the universe, both of 
mind and oi matter, exists in reference to cer- 
tain fixed pi-inciples, which are called laws 
of order, originating in tlie Great First 
Cause, and thence emanating throughout all 
creation, animate and inanimate: and so 
long and so far, as these Isiws are obeyed, we 
are shielded from all evils, physical and spiri- 
tual : hence, if a man suffers, either in mind, 
or body, from within, or without, the cause 
of the suffering is an infringement of the 
Laws of Life. Such, then, are our constitu- 
tions, and relations, that we cannot will, 
think, or act, without obeying, or violating, 
these laws of Life, of Being, of God. Oh the 
fengths, the breadths, the heighths, and the 
depths of the wisdom and love of God, as 
aianifested in the creation, redemption, and 

^ALVATIOir or MAX. 

Anecdote. Pity. A would-be orator, of 
"ery moderate abilities, after a long- ha- 
angue, asked a real friend, if he did not ex- 
nte much compassion. He replied, "most 
'.ertainly, you did sir ; every one of the au- 
Hence pitied you most heartily.^^ 

•' The way was long, the wind was cold, 
The minstrel — was infirm, and old ; 
His wither' d cheek — and tresses gray, 
Seem'd to have known a better day. 
The harp, his sole remaining joy. 
Was carried— by an orphan boy." 
Ve- -'et the tender office long engage, 
fo rock the cradle of reponiiig age ; 
tVith lenient arts — extend a mother's breath. 
Make languor smile, and smooth the bed of death ; 
Explore the thought, explain the asking eye, 
And keep, a while, one parent from the sky I 



Proverbs. 1. Neither great p&nerty nor 
great riches will hear reason. 2. Wine — is a turn- 
coat ; first a. friend, then an enemy. 3. Diet and 
exercise are the two physicians of nature. 4. 
There is many a good Aow«e-wife that can't sing, 
or dance. 5. Love — can neither be bought, n»»r 
sold. 6. He, that is a wise man, by day, is i.o 
fool by night. 7. The society of ladies— \9 a 
school of politeness. 8. An enemy to beauty is 
a. foe to nature. 9. When a man's coat is thread- 
bare, it is easy to pick a hole in it. 10. The study 
of vain things— is laborious idleness. 11. No 
mine equal to saving. 12. Dependence is a poor 
trade. 13. All is good that is useful. 

CoKTEXTMKNT — ^produces, in some meas- 
ure, all those effects, which the alchymist 
usually ascribes to what he calls the philoso- 
pher's stone ; and if it does not bring riches, 
it does the same thing, by banishing the de- 
sire of them. If it cannot remove the dis- 
quietudes, arising from a man's mind, body 
or fortune, it makes him easy under them. 
It has indeed, a kindly influence on the soul 
of man, in respect of every be;ng to whom he 
stands related. It extinguishes all murmur, 
repining, and ingratitude, towards that Be- 
ing, who has allotted him his part to act in 
this world. It destroys all inordinate ambi- 
tion, and every tendency to corruption, with 
regard to the community wherein he is plac- 
ed. It gives sweetness to his conversation, 
and a perpetual serenity — to aU his thoughts. 

Varieties. Is it not strange, that nations 
of men could ever have admitted into their 
creed, the idea of a plurality of Gods ; when 
the whole of Nature bears on it so distinctly 
the impress of one mind 1 2. He is not the 
best reader, who speaks his words most rapid- 
ly ,- but he who does justice to them, by pro- 
nouncing them correctly, and effectively. 3. 
If a person delights in telling you the faults 
of others, be sure he intends to tell others 
your faults. 4. Never be a minute too late. 
5. Avoid loud talking and laughing in the 
streets. 6. The moral and intellectual man, 
seems to mould and modify the physical 
man. 7. We are filled with the life of heaven, 
just so far as we are emptied of our oum, and 
find m us an utter inability to do good, with- 
out divine assistance. 
A cloud lay cradled— near the setting sun— 

A gleam of crimson — tinged ita braided snow; 
Long had I watched the glory — moving on, 

O'er the still radiance — of the lake below. 
Tranquil its spirit seemed— and floated slow; 

Ee'n in its very motion— there was rsst. 
While every breath of cue, that chanced to blow. 

Wafted the traveler— to the beauteous west-' 
Emblem, methought, of the departed soul. 

To whose white robe, the gleam of bliss is given, 
And by the breath of mercy— made to roll 

Right onward— to the golden gates of heavenf 
Where, to the eye of faith, it peaceful lies, 
And tella to man— his glorious destiniti. 



84 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



338. Pronundaiion, as has been observed, 
had a very comprehensive meaning among 
the ancients, taking in the whole compass of 
delivery, and involving every thing we see 
and hear in modern elocution : it is now con- 
fined within narrower limits, and has refer- 
ence only to the manner of sounding words. 
It is much to be regretted, that there is not 
•iiore agreement, even among hterary and 
•cientific men, with regard to this important 
oranch of our subject : but when we reflect, 
♦hat not one m a hundred, takes it up syste- 
matically, and masters its principles, it is not 
su .-prising that there is so much discrepancy. 
This consideration of inattention to the sub- 
ject should put us on our guard against fol- 
lowmg their examples in every respect, and 
of yielding implicit obedience to their whims 
and oddities. There is so much self-love and 
pride of intelligence, as well as passion for 
novelty, prevalent in the world, that the stu- 
dent in elocution, as well as in every thing 
else, should cleave to acknowledged and well 
estabUshed principles; and regard what is 
most useful instead of what is new. 

339. There are general as well as specific 
rules, for pronunciation: a partial idea of 
which, may be obtained IVom this manual of 
Elocution. The author has been engaged, 
for many years, in compihng a Dictionary, 
on an entirely neiu plan, so arranged, that 
when one has learned the definitions of a few 
hundred words, he can accurately define as 
many thousands^ and with the use of his 
perfect alphabet, he will know the sound of 
every letter, the instant he sees it, and how 
to pronounce each word, withoiit re-spelling, 
with the same facility. All things are gov- 
erned by fixed principles, when they are in 
true order; and when the principles of Pro- 
nunciation are properly developed, and ap- 
plied, they will be found as simple and eff'ec- 
iive, as those of Elocution and Music. 

Notes. 1. As the voice is often affected, by a derangement 
of the respiratory and artictUaiing organs : a few observations are 
made on tome of their causes and remedies. 2. Colds and Coughs 
—are tlie eBects of sudden exposure to a cold atmosphere, by 
wliich tlie pore* of the skin, (which is an exhaUnt surface,) be- 
comes constringed and obstructed ; which obstructions may be re- 
moved, by restoring to the sltin, (which is the ra/eiy-valve of the 
tystein,) its usual offices. When one has taken cold, the mncus 
nieinbrane of the lungs, and air passages, (vrhich are also exha- 
lunts.) emit a new fluid— to compensate for the interruption in the 
ofiRcfj of the surface of the body ; and, as this new secretion con- 
cists of humors, which can be of no further use to the system, it 
excit'se a muscular effort, called a Cough ; by which it is detached 
from the surface o' this inner skin, and expectorated. One of the 
bert lemedies is a Vapor Bath, with an application of cold water, 
aud friction tmmediately after. 

Anecdote. A parish clerli. having, accor- 
ding to custom, published the banns of matri- 
mony, between a loving couple, was followed 
by the minister, who gave out the hymn, 
commencing with these words — ^'■Mistaken 
souls! that dream of Heaven.''^ 

Ricson gains all men —by compelling— none. 



Proverbs. 1. Endeavoj to Improve in con- 
versation. 2. He who is wise i.n small malt«i>i, 
will be wise in larffe ones. 3. Never say a. fool- 
ish thing. 4. None can speak so feehnsly of an 
advantage, as he who has suffered by neglecting 
it. 5. Let not the sun go down on your wrath. 
6. Our minds are moulded and fashioned by the 
books we read. 7. Better be good, and not aeeiR 
so, than seem good, and not be so. 8. A pleasant 
journey is dearly bought, with the loss of koma. 
9. He, only, is a man, who governs himself. 10. 
Ml have power to distinguish between right, 
and wrong. 11. Turn a deaf ear to obscene 
words 12. ./fH things are proven by contrast. 

Good Sense. It will preserve us from cert- 
soriousness; will lead us to distinguish dV' 
cumstances; keep us from looking after vis- 
ionary perfection, and make us see things u) 
their proper light. It will lead us to study 
dispositions, peculiarities, accommodations; 
to weigh consequences; to determine what 
to observe and what to pass by; when to be 
immoveable, and when to yield. It will pro- 
duce good manners, keep us from taking 
freedoins, and handhng things roughly; will 
never agitate claims of superiority, but teach 
us to submit ourselves one to another. Good 
sense — will lead persons to regard their own 
duties, rather than to recommend those of 
others. 

Varieties. 1. Is not a true knowledge of 
the Divine Being, the foundation of religion, 
and the corner-stone of the church? 2. 
Every improper indulgence of the passions, 
increases their strength for evil. 3 Few 
seem to be aware, how much depends on the 
culture of our social nature. 4. It is a great 
happiness — to be free from suspicion; but a 
greater, to be free from offence. 5. To be 
without passion, is worse than a beast; and 
to be without reason, is worse than a man. 
6. The refined pleasures of a truly pious 
mind, are far superior to the coarse gratifica- 
tions of sense. 7. God gave no faculty of 
mind, or body, to men, but those which he 
meant slaould be exerted, and hoiior him in 
his design; the perversion of those faculties, 
and acting from, in, and by them, contrary 
to God's design, makes the evil, disease, and 

death. 

THE DAY OF LIFE. 

The morning hours— of cheerful light. 

Of all the day— are best ; 
But, as they speed their hasty flight, 
If every hour— be spent aright. 
We sweetly sink— to sleep— at night., 

And pleasant— is our rest. 
And life— ia like a summer^s day. 

It seems so quickly past : 
Youth — ia the morning, bright, and gay , 
And, if 'tis spent in wisdom^s way, 
Wa meet old age — without dismay. 

And death— is sweet— at last. 
Oft, the cloud, that wraps the present hour. 
Lives— hnt to brighten— all out future days. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



86 



840. Pauses, aie indications of silence; 
rhey were introduced with the art of printing ; 
and it is questionable, whether they have aid- 
ed us much in learning to read or speak : for 
if there were no pauses, we should be com- 
pelled to exercise the mind, so far as neces- 
sary to understand the author. Pauses in 
speech, are analagous to rests in music ; and 
there are seven different kinds in each art ; all 
of which must be thoroughly understood, in 
their essence, to read, write, or sing correctly. 
The true principles of notation, or pauses, 
are found only in the measure of speech, 
which is based on the philosophy of mind, 
involving the exercise of thinking and feel- 
in?;. The use of pauses is to aid in making 
the seme clearer, and should be only just long 
enough to answer their end. 

ail. There are two kixds of pauses, — 
Grammatical and Rhetorical. Grammatical 
pauses are distinguished by characters, and 
are addressed to the eye, as well as to the ear. 
The shortest pause is called a comma, (») 
which indicates a silence of one second. The, 
teacher is recommended to count, at every 
pause, while the pupil reads ; the same as is 
done at the rests in music ; this exercise, is 
the surest to accomplish the object. Ex. 1. 
Do to others, as you would they should do to 
you. 2. None can be a disciple of the graces, 
but in the school of virtue. 3. Be armed 
with courage, against thyself, against thy 
passions, and against ihy flatterers. 4. Every 
leaf, every twig, and every drop of water, 
teems with life. 5. The colors of the rairv- 
bow SiTe — violety indigo, blue, green, yellow, 
orange and red. 

»4:3. Examples to Illustrate the Pauses. 
The three grand degrees of all existences are 
— what is natural, humax and DIVINE. 
The three grand divisions of all natural 
things are — earths, waters and atmospheres. 
The three kingdoms of nature axe — the min- 
eral, the vegetable, and the animal. The 
three divisions of the mineral kingdom are — 
the soils, the rocks, and the precious stones. 
The tliree divisions of the vegetable kingdom 
are — grasses, plants and shrubs, and trees. 
The three divisions of \he animal kingdom 
ere — into those that creep and walk on the 
earth, those that swim, and those that fly. 
Each of these divisions is divided in trines ,• 
according to which, all things exist, and sub- 
sist. 

Anecdote. An agent, soliciting subscri- 
bers for a book, showed the prospectus to a 
man, who, after reading- — "one dollar in 
boards, and one dollar and twenty-five cents 
in shjeep," — declined subscribing, as he might 
not have boards or sheep on hand, when call- 
ed upon for payment. 
The humble man, when he receives a wrong, 
R«f«ro revenge—to vyhom it doth belong. 



Proverbs., 1. A bird it known by his nots 
—and a man by his talk. 2. There are nuiny, 
who glory in their shame. 3. A good character- 
is a badge of excellence, that cannot long be ettn- 
cealed. 4. Never more, or less, than enough. 5 
Some — ralher imitate greatness, than goodnose. 

6. There is misery in want, and danger in excess. 

7. Good sai/mg-s, belong to all; eyil actions only ' 
to their authors. 8. A knowledge of the way, is a 
good part of the journey. 9. If we go wrong, tho 
farther we go, the farther we are from horns. 10 
Reform yourself first, and then, others. 11. The 
fool — wanders; the wise— travel. 12 Words arc 
wind ; seeing is believing. 

Inadequacy of lianguage. Words — 
are poor weapons. The most beautiful verses 
— are those which we cannot express. The 
diction of every language is iasufficient ; and 
every day, the heart of man finds, in the de- 
licacy of his sentiments, and the imagination 
discovers — in the impressions of visible nor 
ture,thvigs, which the mouth cannot embody 
for want of words. The heart, and the 
thought of man — are Uke a musician — driven 
to play infinitely varied music — on an organ, 
which has but few notes. It is sometimes 
more advisable to be silent than to speak. 
Silence — is felt by the soul, and appreciated 
by God ; and that is enough. 

Varieties. 1. Is not the doctrine of the 
divinity, and humanity — of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the touch-stone, by which the chris- 
tian church is to.be tried. ^ 2. The life of a 
ch)-istian — is his walk; Christ is his way, 
and heaven — his home. 3. A coward in the 
field, is like a wise man's fool ; he does not 
know what he professes ; but a coward in the 
faifh, is like a/rx>/, in his wisdom, he does not 
profess wliat he knows. 4. Virtue — consists 
in the faithful performance of our duty, from 
love to God, and love to 7nan ; and vice — in 
the neglect of our duty from a love of self 
and a love of the loorld. 5. The heart of a 
worthless man — is as unfixed, ^nd. change 
able, as the fitful wind. 6. The tongue may 
speak the loudest ; but the heart — the truest. 
7. Look at the form, consider tlie desire, and 
act, and mark the end; for thereby you mav 
know the nature of all created beings. 
This world's not " all a fleeting show. 
For man's illusion given ;" — 
He that hath sooth'd a tvidow''t wo. 
Or wip'd an orphan^s tear, doth Know 
There's something here of Heaven. 
And he, that walks life's thorny way. 
With feelings calm and eiicr, 
Whose path is lit, from day to day, 
By virtues bright and steady ray, 
Hath something felt of Heaven. 
He, that the christian's course hath ran, 
And all his foes forgiven, 
Who measures out life's little span 
In love to God— and love to man^ 
On earth, hath tasted Heaven. 



86 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



343. The Semicolon — is an indication that 
we should pause long enough to count two, 
dehberately ; and while we are thus resting, 
from physical effort, we can carry on our 
mental effort, for the purpose of producing 
the desired eff'ect: for it is of the first impor- 
.tance, in reading and speaking, to keep the 
mmd employed with the thoughts and feel- 
ings; even when there is no external act; 
except it may be the play of the facial mus- 
cles. 1. Envy not the appearance of happi- 
uess in any one ; for you know not his secret 
grief, 2. The sign without the substance, is 
nothing; the substance without the sign, is 
all things. 3. None are so innocent, as not 
to be evil spoken of; none so wicked, as to 
want all commendation. 4. We may kn'^w 
what we will not utter ; but we should nevw 
utter, what we do not know. 

344. The foUowmg lines afford a good ex 
ercise, in the placing and use of the gram- 
matical pause. 

I saw a peacock with a fiery tail 
I saw a blazing star that dropt down hail 
I saw a cloud begirt with ivy round 
I saw a sturdy oak creep on the ground 
I saw a pismire swallow up a whale 
I saw the brackish sea brim full of ale 
I saw a phial glass sixteen yards deep 
I saw a tvell full of men's tears to weep 
I saw man's eyes all on a flame of fire 
I saw a house high as the moon or higher 
I saw the radiant sun at deep midnight 
I saw the man, who saw this dreadful sight. 

343. Natural History — involves the 
study of all the productions of nature, ani- 
mal, vegetable and mineral; their qualities, 
relations and origin. It is divided into tluree 
kingdoms, giving rise to the corresponding 
sciences of Zoology, Botany and Mineralogy ; 
which are divided into classes, orders, genera, 
and species, founded on prominent distinc- 
tions; in which, what most resembles the 
earth, are placed nearest in relation to it. 

Anecdote. " How do you know," (said a 
traveler to a poor wandering Arab of the des- 
ert,) " That there is a God .?" " In the same 
manner" (he replied,) " that I trace the/oo/- 
nteps of an animal, — by the prints it leaves 
upon the sand." 

Nor let soft slumber — close your eyes, 
Before you've recollected thrice 
The train of actions— through the day ; 
Where have my /ee<— chose out the way ? 
What have I learned, where'er I've been, 
From all I've h«ard, from all I've seen ? 
What know I more, that's worth the knowing f 
Wnat nave I done, that's worth the doing? 
What have I sought, that I should shun? 
What duty— have I left undone ? 
Or into what new follies run? 
These %elf. inquiries— are the road, 
That leads to virtue— and to God, 



Proverbs. 1. P. asperity — engenders sto''". 
2. Laziness — grows on people ; it begins vn cob- 
webs, and ends in chains. 3. Many have done a 
wise thing ; more a cunning thing ; but very/ew— 
a generous thing. 4. What camiot be toW, had 
better not be done. 5. No patience, no true wis- 
dom. 6. Those that are careless of themselves, cmt 
hardly be mindful of others. 7. Contentment givee 
a crown, where fortune hath denied it. 6. Ha, 
who lives disorderly one year, does not enjoy hin> 
self for ^t'e. 9. Public men, should have pub.ic 
minds : or private ends will be served, at the puly- 
lie cost. 10. ilfi/tZness— governs belter than ange>. 
11. While there is life, there is hope. 12. Good 
men — are a public good. 

Importance of Observation. The ex- 
ternal world is designed, by its Creator, to 
aid essentially in developing the human 
mind. Ten thousand objects appeal to our 
observation ; and each one is a book — of the 
most interesting character, which can be had 
without nnoney, and without price. But we 
must attend to the animate, as well as to the 
in-animate world, — to men, as well as to 
things. We should not be ashamed to ask 
for intbrmation, when we do not understand 
the whys and wherefores ; nor fail of con- 
versing with every one, who can impart to us 
useful knowledge. 

Varieties. 1. Are christians prohibited 
the proper use of any natural good! 2. 
When the honor and interest of truth are 
concerned, it is our duty to use all lawful 
means — for its support and defence. 3. Tol- 
eration — is odious to the intolerant ; free- 
dom — to oppressors; property to robbers; 
and all kinds of ptvsperity to the envious. 
4. General Washington was born, Feb. 22nd, 
(0. S.) 1732; and died, Dec. 14th, 1797, aged 
67; 21 years after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 5. What is the most perfect Gov- 
ernment'.' that, where an injury done the 
meanest citizen, is considered an insult upon 
the constitution. 6. Grammar — speaks ; Di- 
alectics — teach truth ; Rhetoric — gives color- 
ing to our speech ; Music — sings ; Arithme' 
tic — numbers : Geometry — weighs ; and As- 
tronomy — teaches us to know the stars. 7. 
As the Apostle saith, so it is, viz: The in- 
visible things of God, and Divine Order, 
may be seen, and understood by those things 
which are made, in outward creation ; even 
( his eternal power and God-head. 
Words are like leaves ; and where they most abound^ 
Much fruit of sense beneath— is rarely found. 
False eloquence, like the prismatic glass, 
Its gaudy colors spreads-on ev''ry place ; 
The face of Nature— we no more survey ; 
All glares alike, without distinction— g-ni/ : 
But true expression, like th' unchanging sun^ 
Clears, and improves, whate'er it shines upon : 
It gilds — all objects, but it alters — nor^i. 
Expression — is the dress of thought, and stiU 
Appears more decent — as more suUai^ 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



87 



846. A Colon, (:) marks a pause of thre^ 
Boconds; or while one can count three, delib- 
erately. Principles — are tested by their ap- 
plication ; but even then, we must think, as 
well as feel, and ascertain the whys and 
wherefores, 1. Read the sacred Scriptures: 
they are the dictates of divine wisdom. 2. 
Harbor no malice in thy heart: it will be a 
viper in thy bosom. 3. Do not insult a poor 
man • his situation entitles him to our jnty. 
L He, that studies only man, will get the 
body without the soul : he that studies only 
books, will get the soul, without the body : 
wudom says, study both. 5. Partially deaf 
persons, more easily hear a moderately loud 
voice witli a clear articulation, tJian a very 
loud one, that is rapid and indistinct : so it 
IS with a weali voice, in addressing a large 
assembly. 

347. CoijfciDEiircE. Washington — was 
bom, Feb. 22d, 1732, was inaugurated, 
1789 and his term of service expired in the 
66th year of his age : John Adams was born, 
Oct 19, 1735; inaugurated, 1797; term ex- 
pired in the 66th year of his age: Thomas 
Jefferson was born, April 2d, 1743; inaugu- 
rated, 1801 ; term expired in the66tli year of 
his age: Madison wd.s born, March 5th, 1751 ; 
inaugurated, 1809; term expired in the 66th 
year of liis age : Monroe was born, April 2d, 
1759; inaugurated, 1817; term expired in 
tJie 66th year of his age : all these five presi- 
dents were men of the Revolution, and ended 
their term of service in the 66th year of theibr 
age. 

348. Breathing. When we sit at our 
case, and are not exercising the voice, our 
breathing is slow and regular; and the more 
we speak, work, or sing, the more frequently 
must we inhale fresh air ; because the expenr- 
diture is greater at such times : many persons 
fall victims to this neglect ; and little is our 
primary instruction in reading calculated to 
aid us in appropriate breathing ; the results 
of which are, exceedingly bad habits, induc- 
ing impediments in vocal efforts, disease and 
death. Oh, when shall we be wise, and un- 
derstand these things 1 How hard to learn, 
even by experience.' 

Anecdote. A Mutual Mistake. Two 
gentlemen were riding in a stage-cosich ; when 
wieof them, missing his handkerchief, rashly 
accused the other of having stolen it; but 
soon finding it, had the good manners to beg 
pardon for the affront; saying it was a mis- 
take : to which the other replied, with great 
readiness, and kind feeling, " Don't be \m- 
easy; it was a mutual mistake: you took 
me for a thief ^ and I took you, for a gentle- 
man." 

It is a vam attempt 
To bind the an:!:T'tiotis and unjust, by treaties ; 
Thcsfi — they elu-xe — a thousand specious ways. 



Proverbs. 1. Ltlgion ssy» — \ovQdU; and 
hate none. 2. Observe all those rules oi politeness 
at home, that you would airong strangers. 3. At 
the close of each day, carefully review your con- 
duct. 4. Avoid unpleasant looks. 5. Be not over 
anxious for money. 6. Acquire the useful— first : 
the brilliant — afterwards. 7. A virtuous youth^ 
will make a happy old age. 8 One ill example— 
spoils many good precepts. 9. It costs more to re- 
venge injuries, than to bear them. 10. For Ilia 
evidence of truth, look at the truth itself. 11. A 
friend is known, when needed. 12. Who robe i 
scholar, robs the public. 

ESxperience. In early youth, whUe yet 
we live among those we love, we love without 
restraint, and our hearts overflow in every 
look, word and action. But when we enter 
the vjorld, and are repulsed by strangers, 
and forgotten hy friends, we grow more and 
more timid in our approaches, even to those 
we love best. How delightful to us, then^ 
are the caresses of children ! All sincerity, 
all affection, they fly into our arms,- and 
then only, we feel the renewal of our ffrst 
confidence, and first pleasure. 

Varieties. 1. What is more revoltirig — 
tlian the idea of a plurality of Gods ? 2. An 
evil habit, in the beginning, is easUy sub- 
dued ; but being often repeated, it acquires 
strength, and becomes inveterate. 3. The 
bee and the serpent — often extract the samo 
juices ; but, by the serpent, they are conver- 
ted into poison ; whde by the bee, tJiey are 
converted into honey. 4. He, that aims at the 
sun, will not hit it, — ^but his arrow will fly 
higher, than if he aimed at an object on a le- 
vel with himself. 6. Is there not a place and 
state, for every one, and should not every one 
be in his proper state and place ? 6. Those 
little words, " fry," and " begin,^' have been 
great in their results: ^'Ican^f^ — ne^er did 
anything, and never will: "III try'' — haa 
done wonders. " The ministry of a??g-eZs — 
is that of supplying us with spiritual reason.% 
truths, and /(we-principles, whensoever we 
stand in need of them. 

Gold— many hunted, sweat— and bled for gold ; 

Waked all the night, and labored all the day : 

And what was this allurement, dost thou ask ? 

A dust, dug from the bowels of the earth, 

Which, being cast into X\iefire, came out 

A shining thing, that /oo& admired, and called- • 

A god ; and, in devout and humble plight. 

Before it kneeled, the greater— to the less. 

And on its altar — sacrificed ease, peace. 

Truth, faith, integrity; good conscience, friends, 

Love, chanty, benevolence, and all 

The sweet and tender sympathies of life; 

And to complete the horrid— murderous rite. 

And signalize iheir foUy, offered up 

Their souls, and an eternity of bliss, 

To gain them—ichat? an hour of dreamm^^ joy i 

A feverish hour— that hasted to be done^ 

And ended— in the bitterness of iro. 



88 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3*9, A Period, (.) shows that we should 
pause four seconds; or while we can count 
four, deliberately. 1. Envy no man. 2. 
Knovr thyself. 3. Guard against idtewess. 4. 
Vilify no person's reputation. 5. Abhor a 
falsehood. 6. Blessed are the poor in spint. 
l.Jesnawept. 8. Hurt not thyself. 9. Cher- 
ish the spirit of benevolence. 10. Perform 
y OUT daty faithfully. 11. Make a proper 
use of time. 12. Cultivate the affections. 
13. Do good to all. 14. Be punctual in 
your engagements. 15. Love humanity. 

6. Obey the commandments. 17. Live the 
Lord's Frayer. 18. Be holy oxiAjust. 19. 
^e perfect. 20. Live for immortality. 

250. Pytliagorus, about five hundred 
years before the Christian era, called the visi- 
ble universe — ^by the very expressive Greek 
name, ho kosmos — the order, which we 
translate — the world. The Platonic school, 
afterwards, withdrawing attention from gen- 
eral nature, and fixing it on the epitome — 
Man — ^began to call Aim — homikros kosmos, 
the miniature world ; or, order in miniature. 
How much useful and instructive history 
♦here is in the origin of v)ords! and it is 
gratifying to know, that these same subjects 
employed such minds as Plato's, more than 
two thousand years ago. 

351. The intellectual physiognomy of 
Chatham — was of a severe, and commanding 
order ; his genius — ^was eminently practical : 
and while no person — ever surpassed him, 
in tlie lofty aspiration and generous enthusi- 
asm of patriotism, few have equalled him, in 
their calm and christian application. His 
■private character, — shone with a lustre, very 
different from the unhealthy glare of political 
fame. His correspondence — presents him im- 
,1er an engaging aspect, and enables the rea- 
der to admire the husband and father, not 
less than the statesman and the orator. 

Anecdote. The Far Weft. "Pray sir, 
said one gentleman to another, " Is not In- 
diana— the Far West?'' "Oh no sir," was 
the reply. " Well, is not Illinois P'' " Very 
far from it." " Surely then, when we cross 
the Mississippi, you are in the Far West /" 
"No, not exactly." " PFAertf, then, w the Far 
West !" " Why sir, it is about a half a mile 
this side of sunset.'^ 

Beware, proud man, the frst approach to crime. 
Indulgence — is most dangerotis — hby, fatal, — 
Resist, or soon resistance is in vain. 
The^rsfr— leads to the second, then to the third 
'The. fourth succeeds, until,/omi7iar grown 
With vice, we start not— at our own misdeeds. 
Temptation comes, so clothed in speciousness, 
So full of seeming, we behold her not 
With apprehension, till her baneful pow^r 
Hub wrestled with our virtue : dreadful state! 
When vice steals in, and, like a lurking thitf, 
€ap6—l\ifi foundation of inUgrity. 



Proverbs. 1. Put jot off repentatiee—li'i an- 
other day. 2. Rashness — is the fruitful parent of 
misfortune. 3. Se^/'-exaUation — is the fooPs para- 
dise. 4. Sweet is the memory — of departed worth. 
5. The covetous man — is his own tormentor. 6 
Avail yourself of the wisdom, and experience of 
others. 7. Be ambitious of excelling, that you 
may do and get the greater good. 8. The frst step 
to greatness is — to be honest. 9. Truth — is the bch 
sis of all excellence. 10. Unlaicful love — general- 
ly ends in bitterness. 11. They ttiat hide, can find. 
12. A penny spared, is twice got. 

The Gentleman and liis Tenant. 
A COUNTRY gentleman — had an estate of 
two hundred pounds a year, which he kept 
in his own hands, tiU he found himself so 
much in debt, that he was obliged to sell one 
half to satisfy his creditors, and let the re- 
mainder to a farmer for one and twenty 
years. Before the expiration of his lease, the 
farmer asked the gentleman, when he came 
one day to pay his rent, whether he would 
sell the land he occupied. " Why, will you 
purchase itl" said the gentleman. " If you 
will part with it, and we can agree,'' rephed 
the farmer. "That is exceeding strange,'" 
said the gentleman. " Pray, tell me how it 
happens, that I could not live upon twice as 
much land, for which 1 paid no rent, and thai 
you, after regularly paying me a himdred s 
year for the half, are able, so soon, to pur- 
chase it." " The reason is plain," answered 
the farmer. " You sat still, and said, Go. 1 
stood up, and said, Come. You lay in bed 
and enjoyed your ease, /rose in the morn 
ing, and minded my business." 

Varieties. 1. Who should be more vir 
tuous and intelligent, than the Teacher, who 
is to educate, and form characters — for timt 
and eternity? 2. The happiness of every 
one — depends more on the state of his ow7i 
paind, ihan any external circumstance: nay 
more than all external things put together. 
8. Borrowed money — manes time short. 4. 
The lowest condition of life, with prudence, 
is better than the most exalted station, with- 
out it. 5. How absurd, to be complaining 
and tormenting ourselves, for what it is im- 
possible to avoid, or attain. 6. Pause, awliile, 
ye travelers on earth, and candidates for e!er- 
nity, and contemplate the universe, and the 
Wisdom and Leve of Him who made it. 7 
Where there is no tmison with God, the oy\ly 
source of order, love and light, there b nev 
ther order, or Inve, or li%ht, but their op}M> 
sites. S. Art — is long, life — is short. 
How terrible — is passion ! how our reason 
Falls down before it; while the lorturea/ram«, 
Like a ihtp — dashed by fierce encountering tides- 
And of her ytiat spoil'd, drives round and roM'id. 
The sport of ivind — and wave. 
Our passions— sXvf&ys fatal counsel give ; 
Through Sl fallacious glass — our wrongs — appear 
Still gr«oter— than they art. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



89 



asa. The Interrogation, (?) indicates a 
pause, equal to the Colon, or Period, accord- 
ing to circumstances. It is generally used as 
a sign of asking ^wes^tOTW.- though sometimes, 
it is one of the strongest modes of affirniation. 
1. Can you see? 2. Coxi yo\x hear? 3. Can 
you taste ? 4. Can you &mell ? 5. Can you 
feel? 6. Who are you? 7. What are you 
doin^? 8. Where a.Te you going ? 9. What 
is your destiny? 10. Who made you] 11. 
Of what are you thinking? 12. Whom do 
'■•ou love? 

853. Among the examples above, are, the 
first five questions, that are direct : because 
diey admit the answer, yes, or no ; all such 
interrogations require the voice to gUde up- 
vjard, in asking them ; the la^t seven questions 
are indirect ; because they do not admit the 
answer yes, or no ; all such interrogations re- 
quire the voice to glide downward,in asking 
them. You can test the theory thus: Can 
you see? Yes,- or no. Who are you 1 Yes,- 
or no. The former — makes sense ; the latter 
nonsense. Can you hear? Yes. Can you 
taste? No. What are you doing? Yes. 
Where are you going? No. However, it 
will be seen hereafter, that the sHdes of ftie 
voice, up, or down, may be reversed — in every 
instance, and yet make good sense. 

a54r. Direct Question in reference to our 
Living Temples. Is not the house, in which 
we live, a very curious building 7 Can we 
conceive of any form — more beautiful than 
the human form, when it has not been per- 
verted, or deformed? Who knows best, we, 
or our Creator, what is tlie proper shape in 
which we should bel Can we mend his 
works 1 Is any thing beautiful — that is not 
useful ? Were we not made right, and have 
we not, in a measure, unmade ourselves ? Is 
not OUR HOUSE a very convenient one, and 
its furniture admirably adapted to the wants 
of its occupant ? Would it not be well — fre- 
quently to take a view of the form, covering, 
apartments, furniture, employments, uses 
and abuses of this wonderful house of ours ] 

Anecdote. A Challenge. After the battle 
of Actium, Mark Antony — challenged Au- 
gustus, — who disarmed him in the following 
words. " If Antony — is weary of his hfe, 
there are other ways of despatch, besides 
fighting him ; and for my part, I shall not 
trouble myself to be his executioner.^^ 

There are some — Aeart-entwining hours in life, 
With sweet seraphic inspiration rife; 
When mellowing thoughts, like music on the ear, 
Melt through the soul, and revel in a tear ; 
A.nd such are they, when, tranquil and alone, 
We sit — and ponder — on long periods flown ; 
And, charmed by fancy's retrospective gaze, 
liive in an atmosphere — of other days; 
Till friends and faces, flashing on the min '., 
Cofueal tlie havoc— (tme has left behind 
12 



Proverl>8. 1. Manifest noerciiemmt, when a 
mistake is made. 2. Be shicere — in your profes- 
sions o{ friendship. 3. Cultivate a pure heart, a'ld 
you will have a pleasant countenance. 4. Nevei 
speak to the disadvanUif^e of any one, unless duty 
— requires it. 5. Avoid i ght and trifling conversa- 
tion. 6. A civil answer, to a rude speech — costs but 
littk, and is worth a good deal. 7. Dispel corrod- 
ing care; and consider it sinful—Xo give way lo 
passion. 8. C/iarwis— strike the sig,ht; but tTieritr- 
wins the soul. 9. Persons are to be estimated, ac- 
cording to their goodness, — not according to their 
dress. 10. The sincere and candid man, — has no- 
thing to conceal; for he speaks nothing but the 
truth. 11. Turn a deaf ear to angry words. 12. 
He who promises — runs in debt. 

liaconics. We esteem most things according 
to their intrinsic merit; it is strange man should be 
an exception. We prize a.horse for his stretigth and 
courage, — not for his furniture. We prize a man 
for his sumptuous palace, his great train, his vas* 
revenue; yet these are his furniture, not his mind. 

Varieties. 1. Which is the more impor- 
tant — and useful discovery, the balloon, oi 
the telegraph? 2. What is the cause of sea- 
currents 1 3. Will it take ages — to discover 
the truth ; or ages — to ackiwwledge it, when 
it is discovered! 4. What is meant by the 
words, a pure state of nature ? Do they not 
mean that state, in which the condition, cir- 
cumstances, and habits of men — are in strict 
accordance with the laws of his nature ? 5. 
Is not Hip-j90c-rartes called the Father of 
Medicine ? 6. If we are not happy, is it be- 
cause our Creator has not endowed us with 
the capability of becoming so f 7 What ia 
the difference — in reasoning from facts and 
experience, and reasoning from a mixture of 
truth and false flood ? Do not many — reason 
from the latter, instead of from the former? 

THE BEACON. 

The scene — was more beautiful— ^/or to my eye 

Than if day — in its pride — had arrayed it; 
The ^and-breeze blew mild, and the azure arch'd sky 

Look'd pure — as the Spirit that made i* 
The murmur rose soft, as I silently gaz'd 

On the shadowy wave'^s playful motion, 
From the dim distant hill, till thebeacon-fire blaz'fl 

Liko a star — in the midst of the ocean. 
No longer the joy of the sailor boy's breast 

Was heard in his wildly breath'd numbers, 
The seo-bird— had flown to her wat-e-girdled nest, 

The fisherman — sunk to his slumbers. 
One moment I look'd— from the hill's gentle slope^ 

All AwA'd— was the billow^s commotion, 
And thought— that the beacon look'd lovdy as iop«, 

That star — on life's tremulous ocean. 
The time— is long past, and the scene— is q/ow, 

Yet, when my head— rests on its pillow 
Will memory — sometimes — rekindle the st?ii 

That blazedr-on the breast of the billow. 
In life's closing hour, when the trembling soul flie^ 

And death— stills the heart's— last emotion, 
O then— may the seraph ofTnerey arise I 

liike a star— on Eternity^s ocean. 



90 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



a55. The exclamation Point (!) indicates 
about the same length of silence, as the In- 
terrogation: but the shde of the voice, is gen- 
erally dowmvard, from the 6th or Sth note, 
because tliere is a kind of an outflowing, and 
then an indraitnng of the mind, — an inflow- 
ing of the affections, that give rise to this man^ 
\festatio7i. 1. What a beautiful iafee/ 2. How 
delightful the music is ! 3. What a splendid 
piece of U)orkmanshi.p ! 4. How charming 
IS the prospect .' 5. What a majestic scene I 
6. How inimitable those strains are! 7. 
What a piece of work is man ! 8. How glo- 
rious ai-e all the works of God.' 9. What 
splendid views of heaven ! 10. How majes- 
tically — the Sun — wheels his mig\\ty round ! 
35G. Examples of Exclamation. 1. Fcv- 
thers! Senators of Borne / the arbiters of wa- 
twns ! to you I fly for refuge ! 2. Eternity ! 
thou pleasing, dreadful thought ! 3. Behold 
the daughter of innocence .' what a look I 
what beauty! what sweetness! 4. Behold 
— a great, a good man ! wliat majesty ! how 
graceful ! how commanding ! 5. 0, vener- 
able shade ! O, illustrious hero ! 6. Fare- 
well ! a lo7ig fareweU — to all my greatness ! 
7. It stands — solid and entire ! but it stands 
alone — and it stands amidst ruins ! 8. I am 
stripped of all ray hmior ! I lie prostrate on 
the eai'th! 9. Leave me! oh! leave me to 
repose ! 1 0. Hear me, Lord ! for thy lov- 
ing kindness is great ! 

257. Natural Tlieolog^y* From the ex- 
ternal andiniemal evidences afforded us, from 
creation, and the modes of existence, we as- 
sume, that man — is naturally a religious be- 
ing: the stamp of the Deity is upon him 
even before his birth ; and in every subse- 
quent stage of his existence, no matter what 
may be his social, moral or civil condition, 
that stamp — remains with him. It is not to 
be found on the Jew and Christian only, but 
on all men, in all ages, climes, and conditions 
of life. 

Anecdote. A Lawyer and Physician, 
having a dispute about precedence, referred 
the case to Di-og-e-nes, the old philosopher} 
who gave judgment in favor of the Lawyer, 
in these words: " Let the thief go before, and 
I'^t the executioner follow after.** 
The rill— IS timeless— to his ear, who feels 
No liarmony within ; the south wmd— steals 
As silent — as unseen — among the leaves. 
Who has no inward beauty, none perceives, 
Though all around is beautiful. Nay, more— 
In nature's calmest hour— he hears the roar 
Of winds, and flinging wares— put out the light, 
When high — and angry passwns meet in fight ; 
And, his own spirit into tumuk hurled. 
He makes a turmoil — of a quiet world : 
The fiends of his own bosom — people air 
W.Ji kir^Ared fiends, that hunt him— to despair. 
Not rural sighu alone— but rural sounds 
Exhilors'e the spirits. 



Proverbs. 1. Great designs, and small 
mea^is- have been tl e ruin of many. 2. He, is 
a slave to the greatest slave, who serves none but 
himself. 3. Correct the errc/rs of others, wh«n you 
can, and inspire them with the love of goodncs 
and truth. 4. It is the act of a base mind, to de- 
ceive, by telling a lie. 5. Liberality — consists *cs8 
in giving profusely, than in giving judiciously. 6. 
The head and/e«< coot ; the rest will take little harm. 
7. We know well, only what has cost us trouble to 
learn. 8. " Haste not, rest not ;" was the motto on 
Goethe's ring. 9. Keep your thoughts— close, and 
your couji-tenace — open, and you may go safely 
through the world. 10. With the humbk, there ia 
perpetual peace. 11. Long is the arm of the needy 
12. Poverty is an evil counsellor. 13. Delay — oflen 
makes one wise. 

War and Truth.. A wise minister would 
rather preserve peace, than gain a victory ; 
because he loiows that even the most success- 
ful war leaves a nation poor, and always more 
profligate, than before it. There are real evilf 
that cannot be brought into a list of indemn- 
ties, and the demoralizing influence of war ; 
not among the least of them. The triumphs 
of truth are the more glorious, chiefly, be- 
cause they are the most bloodless of all victo- 
ries, deriving their highest lustre from the 
saved, not from the slain. 

Tarieties. 1. It is the nature of truthy 
— never to force. 2. Is not the science of 
human nature, very comprehensive, as well 
as complicated and pi^ofound? 3. How can 
the mere knowledge of historical events- 
avail to the salvation of the soul? 4. What 
is meant by the maityr Stephen, seeing the 
HEAVENS oPENEu ; and, John's being in the 
spirit, on the Lord^s day ? 5. To see spirit- 
ual existences, must not the eyes of the un- 
derstanding be opened "J 6. There is but 
one law in being, which the Lord fulfilled, 
and went through, in the world : He passed 
through the whole circle — of both spiritual 
and natural ordeis and assumed all states, 
possible for man to be in, when in progression 
from the state of nature, — to that of perfecl 
grace; and by virtue thereof, can touch its — 
in all states of trial, we can possibly be in. 
'Tis the quiet hour — of feeling, 
Now — the busy day is past, 
And the tivilight shadows — stealing, 
O'er the world — their mantle cast ; 
Now, the spirit, worn and saddened, 

Which the cares of day had bowed, 
By its gentle influence — gladdened, 

Forth emerge.' from the cloud; 
While, on Memory''s magic pages. 
Rise our long ]ost joys to light. 
Like shadowy forms — of other ages, 

From the oblivious breast of night; 
And the loved — and lost — revisit 

Our fond hearts, their place of yore. 
Till we long with them to inherit 
Realms above — to part — no more. 
The patient mind, by yielding, overcomc4 



PRINCIPLES OF TLOCUTION. 



91 



S5 8. The Parenthesis ( — ) shows, that the 
words included within it, must be read, or 
spoken, on a lower pitch, and with a quicker 
movement, than the other parts of the sen- 
tence ; as though anxious to get through with 
the explanation, or illustrative matter — con- 
tained in it; and the parenthetical clause, 
generally, has the same slide, or injlexion of 
voice, as the last word of the sentence, imme- 
diately preceding it. 1. An honest man, 
(says Mr. Pope,) is the noblest work of God. 
2. Fride, (as the Scripture saith,) was not 
made for man. 3. The Tyrians were the 
first, (if we are to believe — what is told us by 
writers of the highest authority,) who learned 
the art of navigation. 4. Know ye not, 
brethren, (for X speak to them that know the 
law,) how that the law — hath dominion over 
a man — as long as he liveth ? 

359. That strong, hyperbolical manner, 
which we have long been accustomed to call 
the Oriental style of poetry, (because some 
of the earliest poetical productions — came to 
us from the East,) is, in truth, no more On- 
ental, than Oc-cirden-tal ,- it is characteristic 
of an age, rather than of a country, and be- 
longs, in some manner, to all nations, at that 
period, which gave rise to music and song. 

aeo. Mineralogy — treats of minerals,- 
their properties, composition, classification, 
and M5C5. A mineral — is an organic natural 
substance, either gaseous, as air; liquid, as 
water ; or solid, as earth and stones : it is in- 
separably connected with Geologt, which 
treats of the structure of the earth, and the 
masses that compose it ; also, of the changes 
it has undergone, and to which it is still ex- 
posed ; while its practical importance is re- 
cognized in Agriculture, Mining, and En- 
gineering, it ranks with Botany and Chemis- 
try in its recondite developments, and with 
Astronomy — in the sublimity of its themes 
and results, »s one of the most profound and 
interesting of the sciences. 

Anecdote. Fashion's Sake. Lord Mans- 
field, being willing to save a man, who had 
stolen a watch, directed the jury — to bring it 
'a value — ten pence. " Ten pence, my Lord !" 
,6ad the prosecutor ; " why, the yeiy fashion 
of it cost fifty shillings.'" His lordship re- 
[Aied, '^ Pej-haps so; but we cannot har>- a. 
•"oan for fashion's sake." 

I f;erwr2ic — ihe pilgrim's cause, 

Yet, for the red man — dare to plead : 

We — bow to Heaven's recorded laws, 

He — turu'd to Nature — for a creed ; 

Beneath the pillar'd dome^ 
We — seek our God in -prayer ; 

Through boundless woods — he loved to roam, 
And the Great Spirit — worshiped there. 
But one, one fellow-throb with its he felt ; 
To ofM Divinity — with tLS he knelt — 
Freedom! the self-same freedom — tve adore, 
Be<Je him — defend his violated shore. 



Proverbs. 1. Dtjcor^— reduces strength— v^ 

weakness. 2. No sweet, without some sweat : no 
pains, without some gains. 3. Whatever you do, 
do it to some purpose; whether conquering, or 
conquered. 4. We are inclined to believe thosewe 
do not know, because they have never deceived us. 
5. Gentleness — often disarms the fierce, and mt ta 
the stubborn. 6. Stake eve^i life, if necessary, ill 
the support of truth. 7. LisUn — to the vcice of 
experimental truth, and confide— in her opinioru 
ft. A good appetite — gives relish to tlie mo.st huvi' 
bit fare. 0. Tliere is no secret in the heart, thai 
our actions do not disclose. 10. AVhere there is a 
will, there is a way. 11. True valor — is fire; 
boasting — is smoke. 

Tlie Telescope. A spectacle-maker's boy, 
amusing himself in his fathers shop,hy hold- 
ing two glasses between \ns finger and thumb, 
and varying the distance, tlie weathercock of 
the church spire, {opposite them,) seemed 
to be much longer than ordinary, and appa- 
rently much nearer, and turned upside down. 
This excited the wonder of the father, and led 
him to additional experiments; and thence 
resulted that astonishing instrument, the tel- 
escope, as invented by Gal-i-Ze-o, and per- 
fected by Herschell. This is only o^ie instance, 
among thousands, that show great effects may 
result from small causes. 

Varieties. 1. Is not prejudice — invete- 
rate, in proportion to its irrationality.^ 2. 
The most delicate, and the most sensible, <yf 
all pleasures — consists in promoting the hap- 
piness of others. 3. Wit — sparkles as a me- 
tear, and like it, is transient; but genius — 
shines like a splendid luminary, marking 
its course in traces that are immortal. 
4. Men can have no principles, unlese they 
are revealed to them by Betty. 5. Is there " 
anything that melts — and conquers — hke 
l&ve? 6. Confessing a foUy, or crime, is 
an act of judgment: a compliment — we 
rarely pa^s on ourselves. 7. Spiritual truth, 
is the light of heaven : tlie good— proper to it, 
is the heat, or love thereof; to be filled with 
both, is the perfection of life, and true salva- 
tion; conferable, only, by the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the giver of eternal life, and our JRj^.- 
deemer and Savior. 

Besides,scAoo/-friend8hips are not always to be foun4 
Though fair in promise, permanent and sound; 
The most disinVrested and virtuou fm'mds, 
In early years connected, time unbinds : 
New situations— give a diff 'rent cast 
Of habit, inclination, temper, taste; 
And he, that seem'd our counUrjiari &\ first. 
Soon show.s the strong similitude rei-ersW. 
Young heads are giddy, and young hearts are warffs 
And make mistakes— i'or manhood to reform 
Boys are at best, but pretty finds unblown, [known' 
Whose scent and AMe.^— are rallier guess'd thai- 
EacA— dreams that eac/i— is just what he«j»i?mrj 
But learns his error— \n maturer years. 
When disposition, like a sail vinfurl'd. 
Shows all its rents and pauhts to the umta. 



92 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



261. The Rhetorical Pause— is dictated 
hy the thought and feeling, and is usually 
addressed only to the ear; it is here indicated 
generally, by a dash {—,) and its length — 
must be determined by the subject, and occa- 
sion; it is usually, however, about the length 
of a Semicolon, or Colon: and one thing 
must be distinctly observed, tliat the reader 
and speaker — is always to inhale breath — at 
every Rhetorical Pause, and generally, at 
each Grammatical Pause ; if the system be re- 
laxed, inhalation will be almost sure to take 
place. Indeed, one of the great secrets of 
reading, speaking and singing — for hours in 
succession, with effect, and without injurious 
exhaustion, consists in the proper manage- 
ment of the breath: not that there should be 
anything s^ijf and mechanical in the act; for 
all must be tlie result of the perfect freedom 
of nature. 

26*. The Rhetorical Pause always occurs 
either before or cfter — the important word, 
or words, of a sentence : if the significant 
word or phrase, is at the beginning, this 
pause is made immediately after it; but if 
such word or phrase, is at the end of the 
sentence, the pause occurs before it. The 
design of the pause is, in the first instance, 
to produce a retrospection of mind; and in 
the second, to excite attention and expecta- 
tion. Ex. L Industry — is the guardian of 
innocence. 2. Imagery — is the garb of poe- 
try. 3. To err — [& human; io forgive — Di- 
vine. 4. Prosperity — gains friends ; adver- 
sity — irks them. 6. Feelings — generate 
thoughts', and thoughts — reciprocate feel- 
ings. 6. Vanity — is pleased with admira- 
tion ; Pride — -with, self-esteem. 7. Dancing 
— is the poetry of motion. 8. Some — place 
the bliss in action; some — in ease; Those 
call it pleasure ; and contentment, these. 9. 
To hope for perfect happiness — is vain. 10. 
And now — abideth Faith, Hope, Charity; 
these three; but the greatest of these is — 
Charity. 

263. Individuals of both sexes, often com- 
plain of a very unpleasant sensation at the 
pit of the stomach ; some call it a " death-like 
feeling ;" others speak of it as if " the bottom 
had fallen out :" one of the principal causes is 
a want of the proper action of the breathing 
«ooaratus: the abdominal and dorsal mus- 
cles become relaxed, by wrong positions and 
want of appropriate exercise and food ; when 
their contents fall by their own weight, and 
the diaphragm does not, consequently, act in 
a healthy m inner. The remedy is a return 
to the laws 3f hfe and being, as nere exhi- 
bited 

Contnerue — distasteful truths may tell, 
But inark her sacred dictau — well ; 
Whoever — with her — lives at strife, 
their better friend — for life. 



Proverbs. 1. Pride- js the ■ ffsping oC folly 
and the plague oC fools. &. A bad mairs dislike^ 
is an honor. 3 The censure — of some persons — 
is praise; and their praise, condemnation — in 
the eyes of the world. 4. It is a base thing — to lie ; 
truth — alone, becomes the ingenuous rniiid. 5. 
Riches — either serve or rule, every one who posses 
ses them ; and thus, they are either blessings, or 
curses. 6. In cases where doubt exists, always 
lean to the side of mercy. 7. Poets — are born such ; 
orators — are made such. 8. Blalice — is a mean, 
and deceitful engine of mischief. 9. Nature — is 
superior to Art : have faith in her, and success is 
yours. 10. All rules and principles, to be of use, 
must be understood, and practiced. 11. The offen- 
der — rarely pardons. 12. Might too often makes 
right. 13. Truth has a good basis. 

Anecdote. Wl.en tlie painter, Lco-nar- 
di da Vinci, lay upon his death-hed, the king 
came to see .n.jn ; and out of respect, he rais- 
ed himself from the pillow ; but the eftbrt 
being too great, he fell back ; when the king 
caught him, and he expired in his arms. 
The king was much affected with the event, 
and left the chamber in tears; when his 7io- 
bles — endeavored to soothe him, saying, — 
" Consider, he was only a painier^^ " Yes, 
yes," replied the monarch, " I do ; and though 
I could make a tlxousand — such as you, yet 
God alone can make such a painter, as Leo- 
nardi." 

Justice. How many tediout ana ruinous 
law-suits — might have been avoided, had the 
parties concerned — patiently examined the 
facts, with coolness and deliberation; in- 
stead of giving way to the blindness oi inter- 
est and to passion, by which mutual hatreds 
have been generated, or blood spilled, — when 
a generous search after ti-uth, and a love of 
justice — would have prevented all the evil. 

Varieties. 1. ,What is requisite — for the 
right formation of character ? 2. The true 
disciples of nature — are regardless whx) ac- 
companies them, provided she be the leader : 
for nature, like truth, is immutable. 3. 
There is no pride — equal to theirs, who rise 
from poverty — to riches ; for some — have 
even forgotten their own. relations. 4. That 
form of government is best, which is best 
adapted to the state of the people, and best 
administered. 5. Cyrus, when young, be- 
ing asked — what was the first thing to be 
learned; replied, — To speak tlie truth. 6. 
The orator^s field — is the universe of mind 
— and matter : and his subjects — all that is 
— and can bo known — of God — and man, 
7. Every aspv-ation, desire, and thought — is 
heard and accepted — in heaven, when we sur- 
render our whole life to the Lord's goverrt 
ment and providence. 

Gather the rose-buds— while ye may, 

Old Tim£ — is still a-flying ; 
And that sximefoioer, that blooms to-day^ 
To-»nort5it»— shall l/e dyin^. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



93 



a«4:. Miscellaneous Examples of all 
THE Pauses. The pupil must not rely too 
much on these external indications of silence ; 
for they are only general rules : hence the 
necessity of being governed by the prompt- 
ings and guidance of his own feelings and 
thoughts, after bringing them in subjection 
to goodness and truth ; of which reason — 
always approves. 1. The ostestatious , fee- 
ble, harsh, or obscure style, is always faulty; 
and perspicuity, strength, neatness, and sim- 
plicity—are beauties — ever to be aimed at. 

2. Be wise to-day, 'tis madness to defer ; 
next day — the fatal precedent will plead. 
"^I'hus on, till wisdom — is pushed out of life. 

3. How noble 'tis, to own a fault ; how e;e- 
iierous, — and divine — to forgive itl 4. Who 
can forbear to smile witn nature ? Can the 
stormy passions— in the bosom roll, while eve- 
ry gale — is peace, and ev'ry grove — is melody ? 

865. 1. The evidence — that truth carries 
with it, is superior to all argument, and mira- 
cles : and it wants neither the support, nor 
dreads the opposition, of the greatest abil- 
ities. 2. True modesty is ashamed to do 
what is repugnant to reason, and common 
sense ; false modesty — to do what is oppos- 
ed to the humor of the company ; true mo- 
desty avoids whatever is criminal ; false 
modesty — whatever is unfashionable. 3. 
Some — live within their means ; some live up 
to their means — and some — live beyond their 
means. 4. "To what party do you be- 
long?" sasda noisy politician, to one whose 
soul — grasped the interests of his whole coun- 
try, " To what party do I belong ?*' repUed 
the patriot; "I belong to no party, but my 
country's party." 

Punctuate the following, by reading it correctly. 
There is a lady in this land 
Has twenty fingers on each hand 
Five and twenty on hands and feet 
All this is true wiihoui deceit. 

266. Botany — treats of plants — their 
structure, growth, classification, description, 
localities and uses. They are organized bo- 
dies, and endowed with life; but they dif- 
fier from animals, in wanting sensation and 
voluntary OToffon : they differ from minerals, 
in possessing life; and they contain organs, 
by which they assimilate new matter to in- 
crease their substance, and promote their 
growth. The study of botany is highly in- 
teresting and useful ; not only on account 
of the beauty and variety of plants, but of the 
important purposes to which they may be 
applied in sustaining life and curing disease: 
it is necessary to aid in the development of 
body and mind. 

Anecdote. One day, when the moon 
was under an eclipse, she complained thus 
to the sun for the discontinuance of his fa- 
vor; "My dearest friend," said she, "why do 
you not shine upon me as you used to do ?" 
"Do I not shine upon thee V said the sun ; 
'*! am very sure I intend it." " O no," re- 
plied the moon : " but now I se« the reason; 
Ihat dirty planet, the earth, has got between 
rs" 



Proverbs. 1. By deferring our repentance — 
we accumulate our sorrows. 2. Complaisance-— 
renders a superior — amiable, an equal — tigrtea- 
ble, and an inferior — acceptable. 3. A wound giv- 
en by a word, is often harder to be cured, than one 
made by the sword. 4. The human form is the 
noblest, and most perfect, of which we can cotV' 
ceive. 5. Intentions, as well as actions, must be 
good, to be acceptable. 6. Every scene iu life, is a 
picture; of which some part is worthy of atiert,. 
tion. 7. Receive instruction with gratitude. 8. To 
such as are opposed to truth, it seems hursh and 
severe. 9. Never reproach another for doing wrov^; 
unless you are sure he has done it. 10. Knowledge, 
to be a good thing, must be rightly applied. 11. Be- 
plies — are not always answers. 12. A chaste ey^. 
— ^banishes evil desires. 13. Respect and contempt, 
spoil many a one. 

Reftnement. It is a doubt, whether the 
refinements of modern times have, or have 
not, been a drawback upon our happiness: 
for plainness and simplicity of manners have 
given way to etiquette, formality, and de- 
ceit; whilst the ancient hospitality has no\* 
almost deserted our land ; and what we ap 
pear to have gained in head, we seem to 
have lost in heart, 

Varletien. 1 What is the difference be- 
tween the mternal and eajternal man? be- 
tween an mternal and external state of mind ? 
2. Love to God and love to man, — is the 
life and soul, of all sound philosophy; con- 
sequently, no one can become a philosopher, 
who is not a good man. 3. jRiches, and 
cares, are generally inseparable; and whoevei 
would get rid of one, must become divested 
of the other. 4. The acquirement of usefuJ 
knowledge, — is often difficult and trouble 
some ; but perseverance — will reward us foi 
our toil. 5. If we regard our present views 
— as an infallible test of truth, whatever 
does not conform to them, we set down as 
false, and reject it. 6. Ignorance of a fact 
— may excuse; but not ignorance of the law 
— which every one is supposed to be ac- 
quainted with. 7. Man's will, and under- 
standing, — are receptacles of life, not life 
itself; as is the reception, such is the persua- 
sion, faith, wisdom, light, and love. 
I ccLre not, Fortune ! what you me deny ; 
You cannot rob me of free nature's grace; 
You cannot shut the windows of the sky, 
Thro' which Aurora shows her Uright'ning face : 
You cannot bar my constant feet — to trace 
The wood and lawns, by living stream at eve: 
Let health my nerves and fiw&x fibres brace, 
And I their toys— lo the great children leave : 
OC fancy, reason, %irtue— nought can me bereave. 
Another day— is added lo the mass 
Of buried ages. l/O ! the beauteous »noon, 
Like a fair shepherdess, now comes abroad, 
With her full flock of stars, that roam around 
The azure meads of heaven. And O how charnwd^ 
Beneath her loveliness, creation looks ! 
Far-gleaming hills, and light-inweaving streams, 
And sleeping boughs, with dewy lustre clothed, 
And green-haired valleys— a.U in glory dressed,— 
Make up the pageantry oini^ht 



a4 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



aei. Delcvery and Painting. There 
J8 a striking analogy or correspondence, be- 
tween painting and delivery. We have, what 
are called, seven primary colors, and seven 
pitches of sou7id— though strictly speaking, 
but<Ar<5eofeach, Letters are un-conipound- 
ed paints; words like paints, prepared for use; 
aixl, when these words are arranged into pro- 
per sentences, they form pictures on the 
canvas of the imagination. Let the follow- 
ing beautiful landscape be sketched out in 
the mind: " On a mountain, (stretched be- 
neath a hoary willow) lay a shepherd swain, 
— anu view'd the rolling billow." Now 
rsoiew it; and see every thing as it is — the 
mountain covered with trees ; the shepherd, 
recUning under the willow tree, with his 
flock nearby, some feeding, and some lying 
down; and what is he doing ? Looking out 
upon the ocean, covered with pleasure boats, 
vessels, &c. In this way, you may behold, 
with the mind's eye, (for the mind has its 
eye, as well as the body,) the ideas of the au- 
thor ; and then picture out whatever you 
hear and read, and give to it life, habitation, 
and a name; thus you will see the thoughts, 
receive the light, and catch, or draw out their 
latent heat; and having enlightened and warm- 
ed your own mind, you will read and speak 
from your own thoughts andfeeli7igs, — and 
transfer the living, breathing landscapes of 
your mind to others, and leave a perfect 
daguerreotype likeness on the retina of their 
mind's eye : you fed and think, and there- 
fore speak ; and thus you can memorize, so 
as not to forget : for you will have it by 
heart. 

»68. La Fayfette. I see the marshals 
of Napoleon (gorged with the plunder of Eu- 
rope, and stained with its blood) borne on their 
flashing chariot-wheels — through the streets 
of Paris. I see the ministers of Napoleon 
filling the highest posts of trust and honor — 
under Louis the XVIIL ; and I see the friend 
of Washington, {La Fayette,) glorious in his 
noble poverty, looking down from the calm 
and placid height of his consistency and his, 
principles, — on their paltry ambition, and its 
more paltry rewards. 

Anecdote. Means of Happiness. Socra- 
tes, when asked his opinion of the king of 
Persia, and whether he judged him happy, — 
replied, " he could not tell what to think 
of him ; because, he knew not how much he 
was furnished with virtue and learning.'''' 

Magic, wonder-beaming eye ; 

In thy narrow circle — lie 

All our varied hopes — and fears, 

Sportive smiles — and graceful tears; 

Eager wishes, — ^wild alarms, 

Rap'id feelings, — potent charms, 

frit and genius, taste and sense, 

S ltd through thee — their influence. 

When lovers meet — in adverse hour, 

Tislike the sttn-glimpse— through the shower, 

A watery ray — an instant seen, 

The darkly charging clouds — between. 



Pi'overbs. 1. The act — does not ccnalitutf. 
guilt in the eye of the law so much as the design. 2. 
A certain degree of modesty and reserve, in young 
persons, is a sure passport to the good will of their 
superiors. 3. The diligent and industriouB — ge- 
nerally prosper; while the indolent — pine in want. 
4. Keep your passions in subjection ; for unless 
they obey you, they will govern you. 5. In in> 
parting to a friend— a. knowledlge of our mitfor 
tunes, wc5 often feel them lightened. 6. The body 
may be enslaved ; but no human power -lan con- 
trol the mind, without its consent ^ A flowery 
path— is not that which conducts us to glory. 8, 
Let us use, not aAuie — the good things of life. 9. 
A good reputation — is preferable to a girdle of gold, 

10. Lofty towers— tumble with a tremendous crosA. 

11. Dig not your grave with the teet/i. 12. April 
showers, make M&y flowers. 

Snjoyment. When I walk the streets, 1 
use the following natural maxim, viz. that he 
is the true possessor of a thing who enjoys it 
and not he that owns it without the enjoy - 
ment of it ; to convince myself that I have a 
property in the gay part of all the gilt chari- 
ots that I meet, which I regard as amuse- 
ments, designed to delight my eyes, and the 
imagination of those kind of people, who sit 
in them, gaily attired, only to please me. 1 
have a real, and they only an imaginary, plea- 
sure from their exterior embellishments. 
Upon the same principle, I have discovered 
that I am the natural proprietor of all the 
diamond necklaces, the crosses, stars, bro- 
cades, and embroidered clothes, which I see 
at a play or 6?r«^-night, as giving more natu- 
ral delight to the spectator, than to those that 
wear them. And I look on the beaux and 
ladies, as so many paroquets in anaviary, or 
tulips in a garden, designed purely for my 
diversion. A gallery of pictures, a. cabinet f 
or library, that I have free access 16, I think 
my own. In a word, all that I desire is the 
use of things, let who will have the keep 
ing of them. By which maxim I am grown 
one of the richest men in the world ; with 
this difference, that I am not a prey to my 
own cares, or the envy of others. 

Varieties. 1. Can we be responsible, 
without being endowed v/\thfreedom, and ra 
tionality ? 2. Perfect freedom is the birth- 
right of man, and heaven forbid that any hu- 
man authority should infringe upon it ; but 
in the Exercise of this right, let us be humble 
and discreet, and never do wrong. 3. If the 
roots be left, the grass will grow again. 4. 
Brutes — have a language peculiar to them- 
selves ; so have deaf and dumb persons. 5. 
There are merchants— with the sentiments, 
and abilities, oi statesmen; and there are \\er- 
sons in the ranks of statesmen, with the con- 
ceptions and characters of pedlars. 6. The 
natural world is a world of dreams; for no 
thing is — as it appears ; but the spiritual 
world — is a yvorldo^ realities, where we shall 
see as we are seen, and know — as we are 
known. 7. The granary^of all heavenltf 
seed, is the Word of God; the ground — is 
our will, in which that seed must be sown. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



95 



360. This Word - Painting, being a sub- 
ject of such great importance, and one that 
is inseparably connected with emphasis, we 
wUl dwell upon it a little longer, and apply 
ii practically; for — unless we get into the in- 
ternals of the subject, all our efforts will be 
nearly unavailing. A very good way to 
perfect ourself in this style of painting, is — to 
close the eyes, after having memorized the 
words, (or get some one to read them delibe- 
rately,) and infix the thoughts and feelings 
of the author in the mind, aqd let there be a 
commingling of them with your own, in such 
a way, that there will be an entire re-produc- 
tion, and re-formation of them, — a new crea- 
tion. The effect of this kind of exercise on 
the mind, wUl be like that of the warm sun, 
and refreshing rain, in developing and per- 
fecting vegetation. 

THUNDER STORM ON THE ALPS. 

Far along 
From peak to peak, the rattling crags among, 
Leaps the live thunder I not from one lone cloud, 
But every mountain — now, hath found a tongue. 
And Jwro— answers through her misty shroud. 
Back to the joyous Alps., who called aloud. 
Thy syit'ii— Independence,— \&i me share. 
Lord of the lion heart — and eagle eye 1 
Thy steps I follow, with my bosom bare. 
Nor heed the storms that howl across the sky. 

Tis greatly wise — to talk with our past hours, 
And ask them— what report — they bore to heaven ; 
And kow they mtg-A( have borne— more welcome news ; 
Their amu'ers— form— what men—experiertce call. 

370. Chemistry — treats of the composi- 
tion of uU material substances, their sensible 
properties and relations, and the effects pro- 
duced upon them — by cohesion, affinity, light, 
heat, and electricity. Its 'ttudy — reflects light 
upon all these effects, and is subsidiary to the 
natural and medical sciences : indeed, its ap- 
plication extends throughout the wider range 
of all the physical arts; and hence, ranks 
among the most useful of the sciences. If the 
fair sex — would understand this subject, only 
80 far as it relates to house-keeping, they 
would see, that there is no necessity of hav- 
ing poor soap, or bad bread, or of making 
other mistakes in their culinary preparations. 

' Anecdote. Mad Man. A man, who was 
Qi parently more of a wit — than a marf-man, 
but who, notwithstanding, was confined in a 
rnarf-house, being asked how he came there, 
answered — "Merely a dispute of words; I 
eaid that all men were mad; and all said 
/ was ma ! ; the majority — carried the point, 
Qud here j aw." 

Walls of brass — resist not 
A noble undertaking, — nor can vice — 
Raise any bulwark— to make good a place, 
Where virtue— seeks to enter. 
Lovers say, the heart — hath treble wrong, 
When it is barred— the aidance of the tongue. 



Proverbs. 1- He, whose txiienditure is more 
than his income, vek\x%t hepoor; but he that receives 
more than he spends, must be rick. 2. Wiiat 
some speakers fail in, as to depth, thfy make up 
as to length. 3. Money, earned with iirtle labor, is 
generally spent with little consideration. 4 We 
dften lose those things that are certain, while we 
pursue others that are doubtful. 5. He, who 
knows nothing, doubts nothiu'r. 6. Many per- 
sons feel an irreconcilable enmity — towards those 
whom they have injured. 7. Without sweat and 
labor, no work is perfected. 8. AccumuJated 
wealth— hjings care, and a thirst for increasing 
riches. 9. Whether in prosperity, or adversity, 
we should always endeavor to preserve equa- 
nimity. 10. Do not grieve for tnai which is irre- 
coverably lost. 11. Use soft words, and hard 
arguments. 12. A full purse never lacks friends. 

Dissimulation. Dissimulation in youth, 
is the forerunner of perfidy in old age ; its 
Jirst appearance — is the fatal omen of grow- 
ing depravity, and future shame. It degrades 
parts and learning, obscures the lustre Oi 
every accomplishment, and sinks us into con- 
tempt. The path of falsehood is a perplexing 
maze. After the first departure from sin- 
cerity, it is not in our pc^er to stop ; one ar- 
tifice unavoidably leads on to another ; till, 
as the intricacy of the labyrinth increases, we 
are left entangled in our snare. 

VARIETIES. 

Pom— is perfect misery, the worst of evils ; 

And excessive, overturns all patience. 

'Tis base — to change with fortune, and deny 

A faithful /rienrf, because in poverty. 

Who lives to nature, — rarely can be poor ; 

Who lives io fancy, never can be rich. 

JtfMsic- resembles poetry ; in each— 

Are nameless graces, which no methods teach- 

And which a master's hand alone — can reach 

Bright-eyed /a7icy— hovering o'er, 

Scatters— from her pictured urn. 

Thoughts — that breathe, and tcorrfs— that burn 

If good — we plant not, vice — will fill the place, 

And rankest tceeds — the richest soil — deface. 

But the good man, whose soul is pure, 

Unspotted, and of pardon — sure, 

Looks thro' the darkness of the gloomy mgkt. 

And sees the dawning — of a glorious light. 

Would you taste the tranquil scene ? 

Be sure your bosom — be serene ; 

Devoid of hate, devoid oC strife. 

Devoid of oW that poisons life. 

And much it 'vails you— in their place, 

To graft the love— of human race. 

How deep — yon azure — dyes the sky, 

Where orbs of g-oW— unnumbered lie 

While, through their ranks, in silver pride, 

The nether crescent— seems to glide .' 

Thou sun, said I, fair light! 
And thou, enlightened earth, so fresh and gay! 
Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains. 
And ye that live, and move, fair creatures, tell, 
Tell if you can, how came I thus, how here ? 



96 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



371. Rtthm — poetical measure, or verse; 
of wnich there are various kinds. Prose— is 
tnan's natural language, which is rather 
laose and unconfined. Poetry— originates in 
the affections, prose in the thoughts, of the 
human mind; tho' some poems are occasion- 
ally prosaic, and some prose— :poe^tc;/eeZ- 
ing predominates in the former,— thought, 
in the latter. Our rules for reading and 
speaking are the same, whether in prose or 
poetry : for in all cases, the manner must be 
adapted to. the matter,- the sound to the 
sense .- in other words, the mind's perception 
ajidfeeli7ig of the matter, must dictate the ap- 
propriate manner ; " suit the actix)n to the 
word, the word to the action ; and o'erstep 
not the modesty of nature.'''* 
Yon cloud is bright, and beautiful— ii floats 
Alone in God's horizon ; on its edge 
Thfc stars seem hung like pearls : it looks as pure 
As 'twere an angel's shroud,— the white cymar 
Of purity, >ust peeping through \is folds 
To give a pitying look— on this sad world. 
Go visit it, and find, that all ib false ; 
Its glories— dite hut fog, and its white /orm 
Is plighted to some coming ihunder-gust ; — 
The rain, the wind, the lightning, have their source 
In such bright meetings. Gaze not at the clouds. 
However beautiful. Gaze at the sky. 
The clear, blue, tranquil, fixed, and glorious sky. 

ii72. AoRicuLTUKE — is the art of cultiva- 
ting the ground ; it include^, also, the rear- 
ing and management of domestic animals; 
it is sometimes called Farming, and Hus- 
bandry: and, although simple in its opera- 
tions, it derives great benefit from Machinery, 
—whence it takes its implements ; from 
Chemistry, — whence it derives a knowledge 
of soils, and the means of fertilizing them ; 
from Botany, — which teaches a knowledge of 
the plants — to be cultivated or destroyed; 
and from Zoology — which teaches the habits 
and peculiarities of the animals it rears, and 
the means of improving them for use — and 
profit. 

Anecdote. Kosciusko, the hero of Poland, 
wishing to make a present to a Clergyman, 
sent it by a young man, and desired him to 
take the h/jrse, which he AimseZ/ usually rode. 
)n his return, the younf man said — he 
would never ride his horse again, unless he 
gxvehis purse at the same time; for, said he, 
"as soon as a poor man on the road takes off 
his hat, and asks charity, the horse immedi- 
ately stops, and will not stir, till something- 
is gi ven the pe/i/ioner,- and as I had but lit- 
tle money with me, I was obliged, when it 
was gone,to feign giving something, in order 
to satisfy the horse.'''* 

Cursed be your senate ; cursed your constitution ; 
The curse of growing factions— and divisions- 
Still vex your aouncils, shake your public safety, 
\nd make the rcbes of government— you wear, 
Wattful to you, as these chains are — to me. 



Proverbs. 1. Truth— is but another na«ta— fox 
fact. 2. There is a mental, as well as civil com- 
monwealth. 3. The end of learning, is useful- 
ness, — not reputation. 4. Study the principles of 
things, — as well as their uses. 5. Common sense 
— which is very wn-common, is the best sen.sc 
in the world. G. JVo one can hit a mark, without 
aiming at it; and skill is acquired, by repeated 
attempts. 7. Never do anything with indifference; 
and do everything as perfectly as possible. 8 
Never cut out a piece of a newspaper, till you 
have looked on the other side. 9. In prosperity, 
— prepare for a change; in adversity, — hope for 
one. 10. Haste — is a poor apology ; take time, and 
do your work well. 11. Personal effort — seldom 
fails to obtain its object. 12. Some people never 
have enough. 

Autumn. It was a glorious day in aw- 
tumn. The sky, of unsullied blue, glowed 
like a sapphire. The universal air — was fill- 
ed with stillness. Not a breeze whispered — 
not a bird flapped its wing. It was the tri- 
umph of repose — when the undying energies 
of man — slumbered for a moment, — when 
even the conflict of his passions was suspend- 
ed. Beautiful, melancholy autumn ! whose 
ruddy ripeness — whispers of decay; whose 
richest tints — mingle with the " sear and yel 
low leaf," as if the lusty year — had toilea 
through youth and manhood for wealthy 
which overflows, just when.waning life — in- 
dicates, that tlie power of enjoyment — is pae»- 
ing away. 

Varieties. 1. What is the difference — 
between reading and reflection ? 2. To look 
away from principles, and see only their ap- 
plication, tends to idolatry. 3. Suspicion is 
the effect — of the association of ideas — mis- 
directed by the imagination; it never exists 
— without a shade of insanity. 
Thjo' deep, yet clear ; tho' gentle, yet not dull , 
Strong, without ro^e,— without overflowing— full. 
5. In what manner- is uniformity in events 
— depending, apparently, on contingent cir- 
cumstances, to be accounted for ] 6. Only 
by appealing to first principles — can we n. 
caver, or maintain — the spirit and essence, 
of genuine wisdom, and intelligence. 7 The 
greatest degree — of self-abasement, if real, is 
the nearest approach to the Divine Presence. 
^ray, shrink not— from the word " Farewell,^' 
As if 'twere Friendship's ^naZ knell : 

Such fears— may prove but vain : 
So changeful— ia life's fleeting day, 
Whene'er we sever, Hope may say, \ 

We part, to meet again. 
Even the last parting— eartft can know. 
Brings not unutterable wo 

To souls, that heavenward soar ; 
For humble Faith, with steadfast eye. 
Points to a brighter world on high, 
Where hearts, that here— at parting eigh, 

May meet, — to part no more. 
Duties -are otcrs ; consequences— are OodPs 



TRTNCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



sn 



I 



873. The three philosophical divisions of 
Poetry (as well as of Prose) in relation to the 
mind, are — RELIGIOUS, having reference 
to the supreme Being, and what is above us 
in the scale of creation ; the social and ci- 
VI?, or middle; what is around us, and 
within, relating to the great family of man : 
and the external, which refers, principally, to 
the kingdom of Nature, which is below us ; 
vii. the animal, vegetable, and mineral : (do 
not include mankind in the animal king- 
dom; they are human; it is sensualism 
which has degraded man to rank with anir 
mals.) The common divisions of Poetry are 
— Pastoral, Lyric, Didactic, Satire, Sonnets, 
Descriptive, Epic, Tragic, and Comic; to which 
some add, Sacred, Classic, Romantic, Elegiac, 
Mythologic, Eclogue, Ballad, and Epitaph. 

ay*. Management of the Breath. From 
what we have said, yx)U see the importance 
of attending to this subject. Very few per- 
sons — breathe sufficiently often, when read- 
ing, speaking, or singing. AU tlie directions 
the autlior has seen on this subject — are at 
variance with truth and nature. There are 
Si few instances, when a long breath is neces- 
sary ; but they are very rare. To acquire a 
long breath, exercise on all tlie difficulties of 
respiratioJi, — and pursue a similar course 
for strengthening a weak voice ; also, practice 
long quantity, vfoMn^ up hill, and running, 
when reciting. In the following, breathe at 
least once, while reading each period. " He 
died young, (breathe,) but he died happy. 
His friends have not had him long, (breathe,) 
but his death — ( breathe ) is the greatest 
trouble and grief, (breathe,) they ever had. 
He has enjoyed the sweets of the world — 
(breathe,) only for a little while, (breathe,) 
hut he never tasted its bitters.'''' The writer 
is aware of being, in this respect, in opposi- 
tion to authorities ; but he cannot be influ- 
enced by that, so long as he is persuaded that 
truth and nature are with him. If one does 
not breathe sufficiently often, he will be al- 
most sure to speak too rapidly : and, as the 
object of Elocution is — to convince and per- 
suade, how can one expect to do this, if he 
does not give his hearers time to think, or 
reason, about what he says? How can a 
Jury — keep pace with a lawyer, whose lan- 
guage rides post-haste 1 If his reason, and 
arguments, are hurled upon the ear, like 
flashes of lightning upon the eye, how can 
they be remembered, or produce the intended 
effect ? If one does not breathe at the proper 
times ai>d places, the sense is not fully con- 
veyed, and the lungs are injuriously affected. 
Too unfrequent breathing, and rapid speak- 
mg, must be avoided ,• but beware of the op- 
posite extreme, unless you wish to lull your 
hearers to sle^p. 

Ask of mother earth — why oaks — were made — 
Taller and stronifsr— than tl\e loeeds they shade. 
BRONSON 7 



Proverbs. 1. Never begin things, nnd then 
leave them unfinished. 2. Have a plac3for every 
thing: and wlien you have usei it, put it hack 
again. 3. Proverbs— hevix age ; and he, wlio would 
do xvell, may see himself in them, as in a looking- 
glass. 4. Politetiess — costs nothing, and may do 
much good. 5. Tediousness—'is often fatal to our 
object. 6. Where there is no hope, there is no en- 
deavor, 7. Unequal friendships — are easily dis- 
solved. 8. Slotli— consumes faster than labor. it- 
Lost time — IS never found again ; and time enough 
yet, is always little enough. 10. Industry— payj 
debts; desj^air— increases them. 11. Troops o( fu- 
ries — march m the drunkard's triumph. 18. Skc 
cess — consecrates the foulest crimes. 

Anecdote. The Boys and Frogs. VKs 
trangc tells us, in his fables, that a number 
of boys were one day watching frogs at the 
side of a po7id ; and that when any of them 
put their heads above the water, the boys 
pelted them doivn again, with stones. One 
of the frogs, appealing to the humanity of 
the boys, made this striking observation,— 
"Children, you do not consider, that though 
this may be sport to you, it is death to tis." 

Folly a-nd "Wisdom. Many parents — 
labor hard, and live sparingly, tii&t they may 
give their children a start in the world : but 
setting a son afloat with money left to him — 
is like tying bladders under the arms of one 
who cannot swim ; and ten to one he will 
drown ; but teach him to sfwim, and he will 
never need bladders: give a child a good edu- 
cation, and it will give him such a start — aa 
will secure usefulness and victory in the race 
he is to run. 

Varieties. 1 . Is it possible — for a created 
being to merit any thing — at the hands of 
God ? 2. The instincts of animals — are their 
laws of life ; they seem to be sensible of their 
ends of being, and the means of attaining 
them. 3. Truth — is that resemblance to, or 
conformity with Nature, that is presented to 
the mind, by the relation of ideas, whether 
simple, or complex. 4. There is a divinity — 
shapes our ends, rough hew tliem as we will. 
5. 'Tis better, to be lowly born, and range 
with humble livers — in' content, than to be 
pricked up — in glittering grief, and wear a 
golden sorrow. 6. Whatever is seen, by the 
bodily eye, or perceived by the outward senses, 
is but an effect — from the spiritual world, and 
a true representative of some principle there- 
in, and proper to it ; for that world is in the 
human sow/, — and mind. 

I ramble— by the evening sea 
The ZigAt-house— glimmering from afur 

And fleecy clouds — are scouring /ree 
O'er rising moon, and twinkling star; 

In distonce— floats the waning sail^ 
Or brightly gleams the plashing oar, 

And mingles— with the .shining gale 
The hiUow—mnrmarmg on the shore, 

But one thing wants the wanderer there- 

A kindred soul, the scene to share. 



96 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



a 75. Empliasls. This is a very impor- 
tant part of our subject ; and unless the pu- 
pU is certain, that he perfectly understands 
Accent, he is advised to review it again. Ac- 
cented syllables, are to other syllables, in the 
same word, what emphatic syUables, are to 
words in the same sentence,— hence, it may 
be seen, that as the idea— is always associa- 
ted with the accented vowel, and changes, 
when tlie seat of accent is changed ; as in 
^u-gust, and &\x-gust ; so, the mind's eye — 
always accompanies the emphatic word Ex. 
Doctor Johnson, (says Cicero,) was a great 
orator. Thus emphasised, we make Cicero 
say, that Dr. Johnson — was a great orator. 
Corrected, thus: Dr. Johnson says — Cicero 
was a great orator. Practice on this sentence, 
tUl every thing appertaining to correct em- 
phasis is familiar. All tlie words {in this 
book, printed in different type, are more or 
less emphatic : and some are emphatic that 
are in the common type. 

376. Emphasis — is an increase of accent 
on the accented vowels of important words, 
the more perfectly to convey the sense of the 
autlior. There are only two ways of ma- 
king it : which are the same as in accent ; viz : 
by STRESS and atrANTiTx. First, by stress : 
Ex. 1. The difference — ^between what is true 
— and false, good—axid. evil, is very great. 

2. Some reports — oxetrue: others — dire false. 

3. Truth tells us, that certain affections — 
are exnl : but False says, they are good. 4. 
Good men — love, and practice, what is good 
and true ; but wicked men — love, and prac- 
tice, what is false, and evil. 5. Heaven — 
consists of all that is good and true; but 
Hell — consists of all that is false, and evil. 

a 7 7. Horticulture — or Gardening, is 
the art of preparing and cultivating gardens, 
including pZeasure-grounds, and ornamental 
shrubbery : its close relation to Agriculture, 
renders it difficult to distinguish between 
them. As involving principles of ta^te, and 
elements of beauty, it may be classed with 
the Fine Arts; but its connection with the 
Useful Arts — presents a stronger relation; 
and, whether considered in reference to use- 
fulness, or ornament, it deserves much at- 
ientvm, and exerts a salu^y influence over 
ita votaries. 

Anecdote. Working a Passage. An 
Irishman, having applied to work his passage 
on a canal-boat, and being employed to lead 
the tujrses on the tow-path ; on arriving at the 
place of destination, declared he would sooner 
go on foot, than work his passage in America. 
Honest index— of the soul, 
Nobly scorning all control, 
Silent language~e\eT flowing, 
Every secrnt thought avowing, 
Pleasure's seat, — Love''s favorite throne, 
Boery triumph- -i« thy own. 



Proverbs. 1. Every act of rtoknce— lead* 
to difficult restate . 2. The house of a true friend- - 
is always a sure asylum. 3. It is sweet — to soothe 
the wretched, a^d mitigate their misfortunes 4 He 
has done the mischief, and I bear the blame. 5. 
It is common to fools — to mention their neighbor's 
faults; while they are forgetful cf their own. 6 
Endeavor to conquer adverse circumstances ; aiid 
not submit to them. 7. It ia wise — to derive know 
ledge, even from an enemy. 8. He, who flies froir. 
judgment, confesses the crime imputed to him. 9. 
We are generally willing to believe — ^what %%•« 
wish to be true. 10. Let justice be done, Iho' tied 
heavens fall. 11. The more riches a. fool has, the 
foolisher he is. 12. When the heart — is past hcp^ 
the/ace— is past shame. 13. Despair—haa ruined 
many a one. 

Pmiosopliy of Mind. No philosophy of 
the mind can be valuable, that does not pro- 
pose an inquiry into the connection between 
mind and matter. Attention to the subject 
of our own consciousness, alone, excludes the 
possibility of their being well observed, be- 
cause the conditions of their being well seen 
— are neglected. That there is a direct con- 
nection between mind and matter, the soul 
and body, is an indisputable fact ; and it is 
perfectly idle, to pretend to examine the qual- 
ities of the former, without reference to the 
latter. The comprehension of the action of 
mind and the reaction of matter, involves 
the true principles of Intellectuttl Philosophy 
and Psychology. 

Varieties. 1. Which is the most desira- 
ble, to know and understand much; or, to 
make a right use of what we know and ui> 
derstand] 2. The Jew — asks a sign; the 
Greeks — seek after wisdom. 3. Do not the 
shadows of great thoughts, sometimes fall 
on our minds ? 

Vf ho friendship— Wiih. a knave has made 

Is judged a partner — in the troAe ; 

Tis thus, that on the choice of /nmrfj, 

Our good, or evil name— depends. 

5. Envy no man's good, or truth: seek not 
to be him. If less than thee, give mat wnicn 
he asketh of thee, at all times ; if more than 
thee, envy not: neither seek to depreciate, • 
and beware of rashly condemning what is 
above thee, — ^lest thou materially hurt thyself. 
6. Vfe may'as soon take fire — into the bo- 
som, without being burned, or touch tar 
without being defiled, as to frequent and at'- 
light in — ^bad company, without a stain upon 
our moral character. 

MY SISTER. 

Mine eyes— have seen the beautiful, 

Mine ears— have heard their thrilling voise-. 
My Aeart— has felt their potent rule— 

The /ears of hope, the hope oi joys — 
But neucT— has my sight approved 

A/atVer— than my sisUr—no .' 
fione other sound — so much hath moved 

As, her '^dear brother,'''' spoken low. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



99 



I 



5B78» INVOLUNTARY Efforts. Let no one 
imagine, that it is the design of this system to 
make arbitrary readers, and speakers; far 
from it : if the system were not founded in 
NATURE, such might be the result. By malt- 
ing use of the principles here developed, we 
fit urn to truth and nature ; provided we have 
wandered from them ; consequently, the ef- 
fort becomes involuntary : as was the case 
witli the whistling of little Jimmy, in school ; 
who, when his teacher was about to correct 
him, exclaimed, " No, no ; it was not I that 
whistled, it whistled itself.^^ No one can be 
a good reader, or speaker, till the eflfort be- 
comes involuntary ; he must will, and it sliall 
be done. Unfortunately, some think they 
must do some great thing; whereas, they 
have only to wash, and be clean. 

379. Eric, or heroic poetry, has for its sub- 
ject the exploits of some hero, or heroes, of 
national celebrity ; Lyric poetry is designed 
to be set to music, as psalms, hymns, odes 
and songs ; Elegiac poetry involves solemn, 
or mournful subjects; Epitaphs are inscrip- 
tions on ^om&-stones; Pastoral poetry treats 
of rural affairs, and the social affections; it is 
appropriate to shepherds ; Didactic poetry is 
designed to convey instruction; Satyric 
poetry is fbr reproving the vices, errors and 
follies of the world, by holding them up to 
ridicule ; Descriptive poetry describes inter- 
esting subjects, mental or natural; and 
Romantic poetry has for its subjects, tales, 
romances, md novels, probable, or supemat 
ural. 

aSO. Cause and Effect. Such are the de- 
fects of our education, that we are brought up 
almost as ignorant of our bodies and minds, 
as of the man in the moon : the consequence 
is, we are imposed upon by the shoe-maker, 
the tailor, the mantua-makeT, the carpenter 
and Joiner, the caftme^-maker, the miller and 
baker, the cook and the washer, and by al- 
most every body else : we are a race of abusers 
of one another. When we get a pair of shoes, 
the first question is, how well do they look \ 
So also of the coat and dress, the house, the 
chair, the fiour, and bread, &c., &c. Oh, 
when shall we be wise, and understand the 
things that so nearly concern our temporal 
welfare 1 Having eyes, we see not aright; 
naving ears we hear wrong : our feelings, 
taste, and smell — betray us, because they are 
perverted. The enemy comes in upon us like 
di flood, and who will hft up a standard against 
him' 

GENERATIONS OF MAN. 

Like leaves on trees— the race of man is found, 

Now, green in youth, now, withering on the ground. 

Another race the following spring supplies ; 

They fall successive, and successive rise: 

So — generations— in their course decay, 

So- flouT'sh these, when those— aca passed away. 



Proverbs. 1. It is well not wily to stem pure ; 
but, to be pure. 2. Aim at desert, rather than re- 
ward. 3. If you are in a thriving way, stick to it, 
and let well enough, alone. 4. Tn^es— often de 
cide much — concerning the character of a person. 
5. Believe yowrsei/' capable of learning what otAers 
have learned. 6. A"oid all extretnes ; and lie-,, 
and act, in the golden medium. 7. The loaded 
tree — always bends with its fruits ; asrirtt^— 
stoops beneath humility. 8. Without frugaifijf, 
none can be rich; and with it — few can be poor. 
9. The used key — is always bright. 10. Man is 3 
being who makes bargains; one dog never ex- 
changes bones with another dog. 11. You can d* 
it, if you only think so, and try. 12. Quick be- 
lievers — need broad shoulders. 

Anecdote. New Character. Lord Hardy, 
who was so much addicted to the bottle, as to 
be always under the influence of liquor, pre- 
vious to a masquerade night, inquired of Foot, 
" what new character he ought to appear in '?" 
" New character," said the other, — " suppose 
you go sober, my lord," He took the hint of 
the comedian, and actually reformed. 

Industry. If industry is no more than 
habit, 'tis at least an excellent one. " If you 
ask me, which is the real hereditary sin of 
human nature, do you imagine I shall answer 
pride, or luxury, or ambition, or egotism ? 
No ; I shall say — indolence. Who conquers 
indolence, will conquer all the rest." Indeed, 
all good principles must stagnate, without 
mental activity. 

Varieties. 1. A prime minister — was 
asked, how he could perform such a vast 
amount of business, and yet, have so much 
leisure ? He replied, I do every thing at the 
time. 2. Would wings — be folded in the 
worm, if they were not one day to enable it 
to fly ? 3. The perfection of religion and 
science — ^will be united; their sphere of ope- 
ration ascertained, and their periods of vicis- 
situdes known in that better age, which is 
approaching. 

Let fools — the studious despise ; 
There's nothing lost, by being wise. 
Whatever perils — ^may alarm, us. 
Kind words — will never harm, us. 
6. Pure, and undefiled religion, is the sheet- 
anchor of happiness, the perfection and glory 
of human nature ; its essence — is a conscience 
void of offence toward God, and man. 7. 
There is a providence in every pulsatum, and 
in all the particulars that concern it : as the 
sun — never ceases to shine, so the Lord- 
never ceases to bless. 
There is a voice — I shall hear no more — 
There are tones, whose music, for me, is o'er, 
Sweet as the odors of spring were they, — 
Precious and rich — but, they died away; 
They came like peace to my heart and ear — 
Never again will they murmur here; 
They have gone— like the blush of a sumtner moTtli 
Like a crimsan c^owd— through the sunset bom«. 



100 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUT ON. 



881. EMPHAfiis. Words are emphatic, 
when opposition is expressed, or understood; 
that is, when our words are contrasted, and 
when we wish to enforce our ideas, so as to 
produce their desired effects. As, Oratory — 
involves feelings, thoughts and words; so, 
docs it also involve ends, or purposes, causes, 
and effects; beyond which, human minds 
cannot travel. We may illustrate emphasis, 
by what is called lever-power ; the resistance 
to be overcome, or the effect to be produced ; 
tlie lever a.s a medium, and \he weight .'thus, 
1 will, or desire, to accomplish a certain ob- 
ject : here, is the region of ends, or pur- 
poses ; then, I devise ways and means, and 
determine how it is to be done ; here, is the 
region of causes: ond, finally, I put the pur- 
pose in operation, through the means, and 
thus accomplish my object ; which, of course, 
is the region of effects. Here is the philoso- 
phy of oratory. 

388. Examples of Emphasis bt Stress. 
1 . It is not so easy to hide our faults, as to con- 
fess — and avoid them. 2. Never attempt to 
raise yourself, by depreciating the merits of 
others. 3. As fools — make a mock at sin, so 
do the ignorant — often make a mock at 
knowledge. 4. They are generally most ri- 
diculous thejuselves, who see most to ridicule 
in others. 5. Wherever educatio7i is neg- 
lected, — depravity, and every kind of action, 
that degrades mankind, are most frequent. 
6. The first three volumes ; not, the three^rs^ 
volumes; there is only one— first. 7. The 
first three, and the last two verses ; not, the 
three first, and two last. 8. To be truly — 
happy, man must be good, and renounce such 
enjoyments as are grounded in the love of 
evil. 9. There is a natural body, and there 
is a spiritual body. 10. Flesh — and blood — 
cannot inherit the kingdom of God. 

883. Rule. Emphasize the important 
word, or words, with such a degree and kind 
of stress, or expulsive prolongation of sound, 
as to convey the entire sense and feeling, m 
the best manner, and give each idea its rela- 
tive importance. Example and definition. 
" Emphasis — is the index of my meaning, 
and shows more exactly, what I wish the 
hearers to attend to — particularly." Indeed, 
it is to the mind what the finger is to the eye : 
when we wish a person to see any tiling, we 
naturally point to it : thus, are the manifesta- 
tions of tlie mind made by the emphasis, or 
X^omting of the voice. 

They are sleeping.' Who are sleeping? 
Mortals f compassed round with woe, — 
Eyelids, wearied out with weeping, 

Close for very weakness now : 
And that short relief from sorrow.. 
Harassed nature — shall sustain, 
Till they wake again — to-morrow, 
Strengthened— to contend with pain! 



Proverbs. 1. We muat submit to authorifif 

till we can discover, or see—rutsons. 2. Be not sat 
isfied with the results and applications oi know 
ledge; but search for its /owniains. 3. Youth — i, 
not a time to cast aivay stones, but to gailier them 
4. Instead of naturalizing nature, we should nat 
uralize art. 5. The understanding — is a r^finink 
vessel, in which knowledge is purified. 6. En 
deavor to acquire such knowledge, as will enabU 
you to judge correctly yourself. 7. Time — ce 
stroys the speculations of man, but confirms the 
judgments of Nature. 8. No evil propensity is r-c 
powerful, but that it may be subdued, by propel 
means. 9. No one is so great, or so small, but 
that he is capable of giving, or receiving— benefits 
10. Be civil— \o the great,— bux intimaU—w\i\\ the 
good. 11. No religion— is better than an unnatu- 
ral one,. 12. Immoderate sorrow — is a species of 
suicide. 13. Pay what you oxf^e. 14. Greatthieves 
punish little ones. 15. The absent party is al- 
•wsiysfaulty. • 

/ Anecdote. If a private gentleman, in 
Cheshire England, about the year 1730, had 
not been overturned in his carriage ; it is 
possible, that the United States, instead of 
being a free Republic, might have remained 
a dependent colony: that gentleman — was 
Augustus Washington, who was thus thrown 
out of his carriage, into the company of a 
lady, who afterwards became liis wife, emi- 
grated with him to Virginia, and, in 173-2, be- 
came the mother — of General Washington 

liaconles. When we see birds, at tlie 
approach of rain, anointing their plumage 
with oil — to shield olF the drops, should it 
not remind us, when the storms of conten- 
tion threaten us, to apply the oil of for 
bearance, and thus — prevent the chilling 
drops from entering our hearts.^ 

Varieties. 1 . Did mankind fall sudden- 
ly, or by degrees ? 2. While/reedom — is true 
to itself, every one becomes subject to it ; and 
even its adversaries are instruments in its 
hands. 3. The preservation of health — de- 
pends, principally, on proper diet, early re- 
tiring, and early rising, temperance in eat- 
tng, and drinking, proper exercise, and per- 
fect cleanliness. 4. By a vicious action, we 
injure our miiid, as we should our body, by 
drinking poison, or inflicting a tvound upon 
it. 5. What is liberty ? Willing, thinking, 
speaking, and doing — what we understand / 
provided, we violate no law, or principle 
6. Mental pleasures — never cloy; unhkf- 
those of the body, they are increased by repe 
tition, approved by reason, and strengthened 
by enjoyment. 7. Evil action, contrivance:. 
and speech, is but the manifestation of the 
nature of evil ; and that it should be made 
manifest, is consistent with divine inten 

tions. 

Freedom— ia 
The brilliant gift of heaven ; 'lis reason's sdf. 
The kin — to Deity. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCTf 7?PN> . 



101 



984. Emphasis. There are only ifit^o ways 
of making emphasis, but as many ways of 
exhibiting it, as there are pitches, qualities, 
and modijications of voice — in Speech and 
Song : all of which are very simple, and a 
kncwledge of them easily acquired, by the 
persevering student. In every sentence, there 
is a word, or words, on which the sense de- 
pends, as the body — on the heart; the voice and 
gestures, only, can exhibit it Emphasis, not 
only illustrates, but often amplifies the sense 
of the author ; and that i« the best emphasis, 
which does this the most effectively,- indeed, 
there are times when, through the emphasis, 
one may make words mean — more than they 
were designed to mean by the author. 

385. Emphasis by expulsive stress. 1. He 
who cannot bear a joke — should never give 
one. 2. Avoid a slanderer, as you would a 
scorpion. 3. A wager — is a.fooPs argument. 
4. He that is past shame, is past hope. 5. 
What is worth doing at all, is worth doing 
well. 6. Men of principle, ought to be prin- 
cipal men. 7. Aim at nothing higher, till 
you can read and speak, deliberately, clearly, 
and distinctly, and with proper emphasis: all 
vther graces will follow. 8. The head, with- 
out the heart, is like a steam engine, without 
a boiler. 9. As love — thinks no evil, so envy 

-speaks no good. 10. Variety, delights,- 
and perfection, delights in variety. 

386. Music The cultivation, and frequent 
practice of music, in schools of every grade, will 
have a strong, and decidedly beneficial influ- 
ence on the habits of the pupils. By using 
the same words, and singing the same pieces 
in concert, their thoughts will be directed in 
the same channel, and their affections eleva- 
ted together ; and they will naturally be led 
into closer association and sympathy with 
each other. Well chosen music may be made 
an efficient auxiliary, guiding and controlling 
the feelings and actions in the school-room, 
and contribute essentially, to the proper man- 
agement of its concerns. It was in accord- 
ance with this principle, that a certain poet 
wisely said, "Let me make the songs of the 
nation, and I care not who makes its lav-s.^^ 

887. Geography — comprises a general de- 
scription of the earth ; and, especially of the 
nations, by which it is inhabited, in reference 
to their position and extent ; their produc- 
tions and resources ; their institutions and 
improvements ,- their maimers and customs ; 
including the subject of statistics, voyages, 
and travels. It is a term, that admits of al- 
most indefinite extension; for in describing 
a nation, allusion must be made to its ton- 
f;uage, laws, religion, arts, and literature ,- 
nnd in treating of the earth, and its produc- 
xwns, we may include the whole range of the 
pnysical sciences. 

True love— is never idle, 

12 



Froverbs, 1. It is 9. fraud— lo conceal fraud. 
2. NevtUTvattempi Jq do itos til ir^sc-;at.f nee. 3. 
He, lab^rsin'r.cir*, '*ho'oi»d<!a«^,ors'to pJ-JMe every 
body. 4. To the resolute and persevering — noth- 
ing 13 difficult. 5. Thieves— are game for the 
penitentiary, and often, for the gallows. 6. Kind- 
ness — begets kindness, and love — begets love. 7. 
The drop — hollows the stone, not by he force, but 
by falling often on the same spot. 8. A man who 
aspires to be an orator, must study by night, as 
well as by day. 9. There is no sauce equal to 4 
good appetite. 10. To wicked persona — the vir- 
tue of others — is always a subject of envy. 11. A 
man would not be alone, even in paradia. 12. 
Weigh right, if you sell dear. 

Anecdote. Br. Johnson — observed to 
Mackli?i, in a sneering manner, that literary 
men — should converse in the learned lan- 
guages ; and immediately addressed the dra- 
matist in Latin ; after which, Macklin — ut- 
tered a long sentence in Irish. The Doctor 
again returned to the English tongue, saying, 
" You may speak very good Greek ,- but I am 
not sufficiently versed in that dialect — to con- 
verse with youjiuently." 

Of Dress, &-c. A creature, who spends 
its time in dressing, gaming, prating, and 
gadding, is a being originally, indeed, of the 
rational make ; but who has sunk itself be- 
neath its rank, and is to be considered, at 
present, as nearly on a level with the mon- 
key-species. 

Varieties. l.What was the design of 
God, in making matiy 2. How absurd, to 
have half a dozen children, with different dis- 
2)Ositions, and capabilities, and yet, give them 
all — the same education I 3. Are not bigot- 
ry, and iiitolerance — as destructive to luo 
rality, as they are to common sense? 4. 
Observations, made in the cloister, or m the 
desert, will generally be as obscure — a:? the 
one, and barren — as the other; to become 
orators, or painters, we must study originals, 
5. Which side of a pitcher has the handle? 
The outside, of course. 6. If a book really 
needs the patronage of a great man ; it is a 
bad book ,- and if it be a good book, it doea 
not need it. 7. To sow the seeds of order — 
we mustbe just ; and so, also, to water them *, 
but beware that self- — enter not into the ai"* 
tion. 

Before the gate there sat, 
On either side, a formidable shape. 
The one seemed woman — to the waist, and fair^ 
But ended /omZ, in many a scaly fold, 
Voluminous and vast ; — a serpent arm'd 
With mortal stings. 

The other shape. 
If shape it might be caWd, that shape had none. 
Or substance might be call'd, that shadow seemed 
For each seem'd each, black it stood as night. 
Fierce as ten furies,— terrible as hell, 
And shook a dreadful dart. 

You think this cruel ; take it for a ruf^, 

JVV» creature—smarts so little— an a fool. 



102 



PRIKCiPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



ass. Remember that Emphasis— xs to 
tvords,'m -^i ^en-ferice ^haf. accent is to letUrs 
or syliable^Sy in'3, woMy and, as' proper Uc- 
cent — on a right vowel, will impart an impe- 
tus to the voice, in going through the word; 
so, true emfiiasis on the same, will give an 
i;npetus in delivering the sentence, so as to 
ultimate the end you have in view. Again, 
the length of long vowel sounds, in emphatic 
words, is, to the same vowels, in accented 
words, what accented long ones are, to uwac- 
cented long ones: similar observations might 
be made in reference to force — on emphatic 
short vowels, and accented and W7iaccented 
Kliort ones. 

289. The vanous effects, produced by 
changing the seat of Emphasis, from one 
word to another, may be seen in the follow- 
ing sentence, of emphatic memory ; provided 
it be read according to the notation. " Will 
you ride to town to-day?" That is: will 
you ride, or will you not ? " Will you ride 
to town to-day 1 " That is : will you ride, or 
will you send some one. " Will you Hde to 
town to-day 1" That is: wiU you ride, or 
walk? "Will you ride to town to-day?" 
That is : will you ride to town, or will you 
ride somewhere else? "Will you ride to 
town to-day?" That is: will you ride to 
town to-day, or to-morrow ; or, next week ? 
By using other modifications of voice, as many 
shades of meaning may be given, even to this 
short sentence, as there are letters in it. 

390. Application-. It is incredible, how 
much may be accomplished by diligence, and 
industry. The present state of the world, en- 
liiihtened by the arts and sciences, is a living 
proof, that difficulties, seemingly insuperable, 
may finally be overcome. This considera- 
tion ought to stimulate us to industry and 
application. We do not know our own 
strength, till we try it; nor to what extent 
our abihties will carry us, till we put them to 
the test. Those who want resolution, often 
desist from useftil enterprises, when they 
have more th^ half effected their purposes: 
they are discouraged by difficulties and dis- 
appointments, which ought rather to excite 
tlieir ardor, and cause them to redouble their 
efforts to succeed. 

Anecdote. While Athens — ^was governed 
by the thirty tyrants, Socrates, the pMloso- 
pher, was ordere<? to assist in seizing one 
Leon, a man of rank and fortune, whom 
they determined to put out of the way, that 
they might enjoy his estate; but Socrates 
positively refused: saying, "I will not wil- 
lingly assist — m an unjust act." "Dost 
thou think," (said one of them,) "to talk in 
this high tone, and not to suffer?" "Far 
from it," replied he; "I expect to suffer a 
thousand ills; but none so great — as to do 
vunjustly.^ 



Proverbs. 1. IFi'srfom— excelleth folly, as 
much as light excels darkness. 2. Opinion ia 
free; a.\iA. conduct alone — amenable to the law. 
3. Some — affect to despise — what they do not un- 
derstand. 4. In trying to avoid one danger, wc 
sometimes fall into another. 5. Dectincy — is the 
natural characteristic of virtue, and the decc > 
live coloring of vice. 6. Never despair ; rpeak 
the commanding word, " I will," and it it done. 
7. Never chase a lie ; for if you keep quiei, {eruth 
— will eventually overtake it. 8. A punctual 
man, is rarely a poor man ; and never — a man of 
doubtful credit. 9. Persons of fashion, starve 
their happiness, to feed their vanity ; and their 
love, to feed their pride. 10. There is a great 
difference — between repeating a maxim, or pro- 
verb, and a practical observance of it. 11. Dis- 
enses — are the interest of sensual pleasures. 12. 
The half is often better than the whole. I'J. Jus- 
tice — should rule over all. 

Bigots. Bigots, who are violent, positive, 
and intolerant, in their religious tenets, ought 
to feel very much humbled, when they reflect, 
that they would have been equally so for any 
other religion, had it been the religion of their 
parents, or of the country in which they had 
been born and educated. 

Varieties. 1. Why is a toZe-bearer — like a 
&ricfe-layer1 Because he raises stories. 2. 
When you have nothing to say, say nothing; 
for a weak defence — strengthens your oppo- 
nent: and silence — is better than a bad re- 
ply. 3. We might enjoy much peace, and 
happiness, if we would not busy ourselves, 
with what others say and do. 4 Never think 
of yourself, when reading, speaking, or 
singing ; but of your subject ; and avoid an 
artificial, and grandiloquent style of delivery 
5. It is not enough— to be left to the tuition 
of Nature, unless we Icnow what lessons she 
teaches. 6. Morals — too often come from 
the pulpit, in the cold abstract ; but men 
smart under them when good laivyers are 
the preachers. 7. When we become perfect 
ly rational, and act wholly from ourselves- 
in consequence of it, we are accountable tor 
all our actions, and they are then imputed to 
us, if evil, — but not before. 

Where the gentle streamlets flow, 
Where the morning rfeto-drops glow, 
Where the zephyrs— wing their flight. 
In the cool and welcome night. 
Whispering through the fragrant grovt 
To the heart, that " God is love," 
Where the light cloud skims the sky. 
Worship ! ^'Ood is passing by !" 
Hoary /oresi, rugged rock. 
Roaring torrents, earthquake's shock. 
Mighty tempests, lightning's glare, 
• Ocean, raging in despair. 

And the dcseri— lone and drear, 
Wake the soul of man to fear ; 
And when thunder rends the sky. 
Tremble 1 ''God is passing '" 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



103 



891. Emphasis. If your articulatwn, 
and pronunciation, be clear and correct, and 
you are free fiom all unnatural tones, and 
other bad habits, nothing can prevent your 
Bucceeding in this important art, if you per- 
fect yourself in Emphasis : hence, the reason 
of dwelling on the subject so long, and of 
giving such a variety of examples. But re- 
mem oer, that books, rules, teachers, or all 
ccmibined, cannot make orators of you, w^ith- 
rut you throw your whole heart and soul 
into the exercises, and let your zeal be ac- 
cording to knowledge. Become independent 
of your hook, and speak from memory, as 
soon as possible ; then, you will be left to the 
promptings and guidance of your own mind, 
and become //•ee. 

a 93. 1. Men live, and j^rosper, but in mu- 
tual trust, ?ind confidence of one another's 
truth. 2. Those, who are teaching our youth 
, — to read with science and effect, are doing 
much to increase the power, and extend the 
infiue7ice— of standard authors. 

Peace — is the happy, natural state of man ; 

War — his comiption, and disgrace. 
To native gmi?/s— would you prove a friend ! 
Point out his faults — and teach him how to mend. 

Let us 
A ct with prudence, and with manly temper, 
As well as manly^rmness ; 
Tis God-like magnanimity — to keep, 
When most provoked, our reason — calm, and clear. 

Notes. The ancients very properly called man a micro- 
e^m, Oi- little wirrld. But what were this world— without a sun, 
to impart to it light and heat ? Of what use the iorfy— without 
llie soul ? Of what use the house, without the inhabitant ? and 
of what use words, without thought and feeling ? And of what 
nse are all these, if they cannot be made manifest ? The body — 
ic the mind's servant, and depends on its care, as the mind itself 
does on the Father of mind. Body, smd sout—jre best taken care 
of, when both ire minded together. 

393. Architecture — teaches the art of 

building ; and is one of the most useful, as 
well as ancient, of all the arts: it demands 
much more attention, than it has ever re- 
ceived ; especially, in this country : and many 
— would save time, labor and money, and 
have better houses, as to comfort ond appear- 
ance, if they would make themselves ac- 
quainted with this important art. Most 
persons will find it much to their benefit, to 
call upon an architect, when about to erect a 
haildmg of importance. 

Anecdote. King James I., of England, 
went out of his way one day, to hear a noted 
preacher. The clergyman, seeing tlie king 
enter, left his text — to declaim against swear- 
ing; for which vile practice — the king was 
notorious. After service, the king thanked 
him for his sermon; and asked him, what 
connection swearing had with his text. The 
minister replied, " Since your majesty came 
out of your way, thro' curiosity, I could not, 
in compliance, do less than go out of mine — 
to rr.eet vow." 



Proverbs. 1. remperanee— arjdtntcn.fcrance 
— reivard, and punish themselves. 2. Riches — are 
servants to the wise,— hut tyrants '..o fools. 3. Nono 
can be great, who have ceased tc he virtuous. 4. 
Money — does no good, till it is distributed. 5. If 
you have one true friend, think yomseM happy. 6. 
Silks, and satins, often put out the kitchener*. 7. 
Hunger — looks into the working-man's house ; but 
dare not enter. 8. When the well is dry, people 
know the worth of waUr. 9. Business— makes a 
man, as well as tires him. 10. For the evuience of 
truth, look at the truth itself. 11. Better go away 
longing, than loathing. 12. Of saving — cometh 
having. 13. God — never made a hypocrite. 

Reading, Writings, and Speaking. 
Habits of literary conversation, and still more, 
habits of extempore discussion in a popular 
assembly, are peculiarly useful in giving us 
a ready and practical command of our know- 
ledge. There is much good seiise in the fol- 
lowing ajjhorism of Bacon : ^'Reading makes 
a full man, writing a correct man, a.nd speak- 
ing a ready man." 

Varieties. 1. Through an affected con- 
tempt — for what some call Zt/^Ze things, mam' 
remain ignorant — of what they might easily 
know. 2. A harmless hilarity, and buoyari 
cheerfulness — are not unfrequent concomi- 
tants of genius ; and we are never more de- 
ceived, than when we mistake gravity — for 
greatness, solemnity — for science, and pom- 
posity for erudition. 3. It is better to have 
recourse to a quack, who can cure oui dis- 
ease, tho' he cannot explain it, than to one 
who can explain, but cannot cure it. 4. Ear- 
ly rising — not only gives us more life, in the 
same number of years, but adds to the num- 
ber ; and not only enables us to tnjoy more 
of existence, in the same measure of time,\>vA 
increases also their raeasure. 5. For hie 
honesty, there was no winter in't ; an au- 
tumn 'twas, that grew the more, by reaping 
6. Let us admire the results of truth, while 
we ascend to the source of truth. 7. Look 
first inwardly, for the coming of the Lord^ 
and of his kingdom; and when certainly 
found there, then look in outward nature, foi 
a harmony agreeing with it ; but not before. 
Tell me not, in mournful numbers, 

Life — is but an empty dream, ! 
For the soul is dead, \\\dX slumbers, 

And things are not — what they stem. 
Life is real! Life is earnest! 

And thegraf*— is not its goal; 
Dust thou art, to dust returnest. 

Was not spoken — of the souJ. 
Not enjoyment, and not sorrow, 

Is our destined end or way ; 
But to act, that each lo-morroio 

Finds us farther— than to-day. 
Let us, then, be up and doing, 

With a heart for any fate ; 
Still achieving, still purstiing, 

Learn to labor, and to waiL 



104 



PR1^C1PLES OF ELOCUTION. 



S04:. Emphasis -is sometimes exhibited 
by changing the seat of accent. 1. What is 
done, cannot be undone. 2. If he di'd not do 
it diredly, he did it i/idirectly. 3. There are 
probably as many mvisible as msible things. 
4. Did he act honestly, or rfishonestly '.' 5. 
There is a difference between giving, and/or- 
giving. 6. Does he speak ^stinctly, or w- 
distinctly? 7. Better be untaught than ill- 
taught; and better be alone, than in bad 
company. 8. He that cwcended, is the same 
ȣ he that descended. 9. Pure religion rais- 
es men above themselves; irreligion — sinks 
them to the brute. 10. ^imiritxxAe— -joins ; 
ciissimilitude — separates. 

295. Emphasis — ^by changing the seat of 
accent, in words of the same structure, and 
of different structure, to convey the full 
meaning. 1. To do, and to u7i-do — is the 
common business of the world. 2. Reason, 
truth, and virtue — are the proper measures 
of praise, and <Zis-praise. 3. Mind, and voice 
— act, and re-6^ct upon one another. 4. We 
may have «m-sibility without manifesting ir- 
ritability. 5. Some things are con-venient; 
while others are in-convenient. 6. It is ne- 
cessary to observe the division, and the sub- 
division. 7. In the suitableness or wn-suit- 
ableness, in the proportion or dis-proportion, 
which the desire bears to the cause, and the 
object, consists the propriety, or iw-propriety, 
the 'rfe-cency, or iw-decency — of the conse- 
quent action. 
U 296. DxsPEPSiA. Many persons of the 
present day do not chew their food like a man, 
but bolt it vjhole, like a boa-constrictor: they 
neither take the trouble to dissect, nor the 
time to masticate it. It is no wonder they 
lose their teeth, for they rarely use them ; and 
their power of digestion, for they exhaust it 
by overeating. They load their stomachs, 
as a drayman does his cart, as full as it will 
nold, and as fast as they can pitch it in ; and 
then complain that their load is too heavy. 

a6T. Zo-oL-o-GT. Almost every child — is 
a naturalist : hence, among the earliest plays 
of childhood, the observation of the habits of 
different animals, holds a prominent place. 
How delighted are they with dogs, eats, calves, 
lambs, sheep, oxen, and horses! What a 
pity, that so much pains should be taken in 
an imperfect education, to sever their young 
minds from these interesting objects ; so well 
calculated to induce close observatitm, and 
open new fountains in the youthful mind ! 
But how greatly are these studies increased 
invaluf, by adding the treasures of Botany, 
and Mineralogy, beautiful flowers, and pre- 
cious stones/ What a glorious world, and 
how admirably designed — to jid in the de- 
▼dopment of body and mind. 

Eye nature's walks, shoolfolley, as ix flies, 
And catch the manners — living, as they rise. 



Pi'overbs. 1. Many, who possess much, m- 
joy but little. 2. Never sound the trumpet of yout 
ownfame. 3. Faction— is the banc of society. 
4. Religious contention— is Satan's harvest. 5. 
Sell not virtue to purchase wealth. 6. The dis- 
course of flatterers, is like a rope of honey. 7 
Truth may languish, but it never dies. S. Under- 
take — no more than you can perform. 9. Value a 
good conscience more than praise. 10, We are 
bound to be honest, but not to be ricA. 11. He is 
idle, that might be better employed. 12. The more 
laws — the more offenders. 

Anecdote. Sailor and Highwayman, A 
stage — was once stopped by a highwayman, 
who, being informed by the driver, that there 
were no inside passengers, and only one on 
the outside, and he a sailor, — the robber pro- 
ceeded to exercise his functions upon the 
bold and honest tar; when, waliing him up, 
Jack demanded to know what he wafiied : tc 
which the son of plunder replied, — " Your 
money;" "You shan't have it," says Jack. 
''No.^'^ rejoined the robber, '' then I'll blow 
your brains out." " Blow away, then ; I may 
as well be without brains, as without money 
Drive on, coachee .'" 

Independence. Always form your own 
opinion of a person, and never allow anoth- 
er, even your most intimate //-iend, to judge 
for you; as he may not have half the power 
of discruninating character, that you yourself 
possess. Never allow yourself to be talked 
out of any thing — against your better Judg- 
ment; nor talked into any thing; unless you 
see clearly, that the reasons advanced — ars 
more powerful than your own. 

Varieties. 1 . If your principles zxefalse^ 
no apology can make them righi; if fovrnded 
in truth, no censure can make them wrong, 
2. Do your best to do your best, and what 
you lack in power, supply with will. 3. Ev- 
ery plant that is produced, every child that is 
born, is a new idea ; a fresh expression of the 
wisdom and goodness of our Creator. 4. 
When I see a tight laced girl, or woman, I 
think, — well, there goes another fool. 5. Can 
one passion, though it predominate, actwitJi- 
out assistance of the other passions '.' 6. The 
state of the three kingdoms in nature, speak 
the same at all times ; as also the state of ev- 
ery nation, and what is passing in it; aU 
these things are a language, as are 
many smalUbr particulars, tho' attended by 
none. 

There wil come, 
Alike, the day of trial — unto all, 
And the rude world— w'lW buffet us aiiKe ; 
Temptation — hath a music — for all ears; 
And mad ambition — trumpeletli to all , 
And ungovernable thought, wiXhiw, 
Will be in every bosom— eloquent : 
But, when the silence — and the calm come Oft 
And the hi jh seal — of character — is set, 
We shall not otf— je similar. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



105 



SOS. Emphasis, by changing the seat of 
Accent, and, of course, the Emphasis too. 
1. Does he pronounce coxrtctly, or incorrect- 
ly 1 2. In some kinds of composition, |?Zatfs- 
ibility is deemed as essential as _pro6ability. 
3. Docs that man speak rationally, or trra- 
tionallyl 4. We are not now to inquire 
into the justice, or the injustice, the honor, 
or the dishonor of the deed; nor whether it 
was lawf\x\, or unlawful, wise, or wnwise-, 
but, whither it was actually committed. 5. 
He who is good before invisible witnesses, is 
eminently so before mible ones. 6. This 
corrwptible — must put on incorruption, and 
this mortal — immortahty 7. What fellow- 
ship hath rig-A/eousness, with wnrighteous- 
ness l or what communion hath light — with 
rfarfenessi 8. We naturally love what is 
agreeable, and hate what is disagreeable. 

a99. It is surprising, how few, even of our 
better readers, emphasize the right ivords, in 
a proper manner ; this is more especially the 
case in reading, than in speaking; and yet 
children emphasize, correctly, everything that 
is the result of their own feelings and 
tlioughts. Incorrect emphasis, always per- 
verts the sense ; and, to the hearer, it is like 
directing a traveler in the wrong road. Ex. 
1. "Dr. Syntax told Jack, to saddle his ^orse; 
and Jack saddled him." Thus emphasized, 
there is no possibility of doubt, but that Jack 
— put the saddle on the Doctor. Place the 
emphasis on saddled, and you will get the 
true meaning. 2. Now, therefore, the said 
John, (says the said Thomas,) is a thief. 3. 
Now, therefore, the said John, says the said 
Thomas is a thief. Apply emphasis in a va- 
riety of ways, to other examples. 

300. CoNSTRtrcTiox OF Houses. How 
little attention is paid to the construction 
of our dwellings ! They seem to be built, 
principally, for their looks; and without 
regard to health, and comfort. Our sleep- 
ing apartments — appear to be of second- 
ary ccmsideration : they are generally made 
small ; are poorly ventilated, with low 
ceilings, while all ingress and egress of air 
is carefuUy prevented. It would be much 
better to reverse this arrangement, and have 
our dwelling apartments constructed like our 
sleeping apartments; for the /ormer are often 
ventilated through the day. Beware of Zoiy 
stories, or low ceilings: houses with attic 
stories, or half stories, or garrets, used for 
sleeping or study rooms, are hot-beds of dis- 
ease and death; excellent places, with the 
addition of highly seasoned /ood, and a plenty 
of coffee, to generate bilious and other fevers. 
Fine economy this ! and then pay the physi- 
cian a few hundred dollars a year, to cure, or 
kill you ! 

The !)€«<— sometimes, from virtnt's path recede; 

But if the intent be good, excuse the deed. 
14 



/Pi'overbs. 1. One may hav c a thousand ao 
quaintances, and not mie real friend among them 
all. 2. The richer a country is in talent, and good 
seme, the happier will it be. 3. Always to spmk 
— what we think, is a sure way— to acquire the 
habit of thinking and acting with propriety. 4. 
AU^neri/— is a signof Zt«/mess. 5. In proportion 
as we know ourselves, we are enabled to know 
others. 6. The government — and people — should 
never regard each other, as opposite parties, 7 
Time and labor — change amulberry-leaf into satin. 
8. As virtue — is its own reward; so vice — is ita 
own punishment. 9. It is torture, to enemies, to re- 
turn their injuries with kindness. 10. Cast thy 
bread upon the waters ; for thou shalt ^^nd! it, after 
many days. 11. lie, may find fauli, who cannot 
\mend. 12. A bird is known by its note, and a man 
— by liis talk 

Anecdote. iVb rank in life — precludes the 
efficacy — of a well-timed compliment. When 
Queen Elizabeth, who was highly accom- 
plished, both in mind and person, asked an 
embassador, how he liked her ladies, who at- 
tended on her ; he replied, " It is hard to judge 
of stars — in presence of the sun." 

An Honest Means of getting a Living. 
There seems to be but three ways for a nation 
to acquire wealth ; the first is by war, as the 
Romans did, in plundering their conquered 
neighbors, — this is robbery ; the second, by 
commerce, which is generally cheating ; the 
third, by agriculture, the only honest way, 
wherein a man receives a real increase of the 
seed thrown into the ground, in a kind of 
continual miracle, wrought by the hand of 
God in his favor, as a reward for his innoceni 
life and his virtuous industry. 

Varieties. 1. Should not evei-y one be- 
ware of the evils, attendant on his own con 
dition 1 2. Children, as well as adults, are 
benefitted by their own conjectures and reas- 
onings ; even about things and principles, 
that they cannot as yet comprehend. 3. 
What does education mean, but the regene 
ration of the mind P 4. The present famihes 
of mankind — seem but the wrecks and ruins 
of men ; like the continents, that compose the 
earth. 5. How apt we are — to make our^ 
selves — the measure of the universe; and 
with the span of one life, or the world's his- 
tory, to crowd the magnitude, and extent of 
the works of God ; these are but parts — of 
one stupendous whole. 6. Our bodies are 
neiy-formed every seven years. 7 Only, that 
external worship is proJltahU, in which an 
internal feeling, and a sense of what is said 
and done, exists ; for without such sense, it 
must needs be merely external. 

Lo ! like a glorious pile of diamonds bright 
Built on the steadfast cliff, the loaterfaU 

Pours forth its gems of pearl and silver light ', 
They sinJ:, they rise, and, sparkling, cover all 

With infinite refulgence : while its song. 

Sublime as thunder, loUs the woods alop^. 



i06 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



301. Emphasis — may be exhibited by 
stress, and higher pitch .- that is, force and 
loudness of voice, and elevation to the upper 
notes of tne scale. 1. Little minds — are 
tamed — and subdued — ^by misfortunes; but 
^.reat ones — ^rise above them. 2. Virtue 
— leads to happiness; vice — to misery. 3. 
Truk liberty — can exist — only where jvs- 
TicT.-— -is impartially administered. 4. Tyr- 
axnt — is detestable — in every shape; but in 
none so formidable, as when assumed and 
exercised, by a number of tyrants. 5. Froum 
ixniGSTANTLT, upon the first dawjjikg — of 
an attempt, to alienate any portion of this 
Union from the rest: the Uxiok — it must 
be preserved. 6. Dru^jkes^nkss — destroys 
more of the human race, and alienates more 
propei'ty, than all the other crimes on earth. 
7. A day, an hour — of virtuous liberty, is 
worth a whole eternity in bondage. 8. I tell 
youjtho' (5) you; tho' all the (6) world; tho' 
an angel from (8) HEAVEN — declare the 
truth of it, I could not believe it. N. B. The 
words in small capitals have both stress and 
elevation. 

308. Strong Poists. There are, in all 
kinds of sentences, paragraphs, speeches, 
&c., what may be called strong points, which 
are to be shovm, principally, by the voice: 
fience, the importance of throwing all weak 
parts into the 6ac/e-ground, and bringing out 
the strong ones — into the /ore-ground. Now 
if the little words, that are insignificant, are, 
in their pronunciation and delivery, made 
significant, the proper effect will be destroy- 
ed. Therefore, we should never make prom- 
inent such words as are not emphatic ; and 
especially, such words as at, by, of, for, from, 
in, on, up, with, &c., unless they are contras- 
ted with their opposites: as — of, or for; by, 
or ifirough ; from or to ; in or out ; on, or 
under ; up, or down, &c. 

303. Recitations. Fveqwent recitations, 
from memory, are very useful, as they obhge 
'.-■.2 speaker to dwell on the ideas, which he 
wishes to express, discern their particular 
meanings, and force, and give him a know- 
ledge of emphasis, tones, &c., which the 
pieces require : and they will especially re- 
lieve him from the influence of school-boy hab- 
its — of reading differently from conversation, 
en similar subjects, and afford far greater 
ecope for expression and gestures. 

304. Ethics. Moral Philosophy, — treats 
of our duties to our Maker, to our fellow- 
men, and to ourselves; and the reasons by 
which those duties are enforced. Its great 
object seems to be — to promote the cause of 
virtue, by showing its reaso?iab!eness, excel- 
lence and heanly, and the melancholy effects 
of neg-lectiu'^ or fornaliiug it. 

Honor— 19, an isie.— whose rocky coast 
VV^hen once abamloned, is forerer lost. 



Proverbs. 1. He, who goes no further than 
bare jtistice, stops at the beginning of virtue. 2. 
The blameless— should not bear the effects of vl-^ 
3. The faults, and misfortunes of others, should 
serve as beacons, to warn us agahist the causes, 
by which they have been ovenvhelmed. 4. Sonu 
—have such a love for contention, that they will 
quarrel, even with a. friend, for a T?mtter aevoid of 
all importance. 5. The human mind— can ac- 
complish almost any thing that it determines to ef- 
fect ; for patience, and perseverance, surmount every 
surmountable difficulty. G. Keep your appetite-— 
under the control of reason. 7. The indulgencta 
of a satirical disposition — is always dangerous : 
it betrays a malicious spirit, a bad heart, and of- 
ten creates enmities, and dislikes, that no lapse of 
years can soften, and d£ath—ca.n hardly extinguish 
S. While the tongue and expression of some — 
seem to be honied, their heart — abounds with vine- 
gar. 9. Superfuity—o^ten leads Xo profusion. 10. 
Characters — in everj' other respect virtuous and 
amiable, if tmged with haughtiness and reserve, 
become odious. 11. Solitude— dulls thought ; too 
micch society— dissipates it. 12. The longest life- 
is but a parcel of moments. 13. Without pru' 
dence, fortitude is mad. 

Anecdote. A paver, who had often dun-: 
ned a Doctor, was one day answered by him, 
— " Do you pretend to be paid for such ivm-k ? 
You have spoiled my pavement, and covered 
it with earth — to hide its defects:' " Mine ia 
not the only bad work, that the earth hides 
as your practice abundantly proves," — re- 
joined the man. 

Liegendary Tales. In countries, where 
education and learning abound, legendary 
and miraculous tales lose ground; exciting 
but little i7iterest, and less belief, and at last 
almost becoming a dead letter. Mankind, in 
a state of ignorance, with little education, 
[ are credulous, and fond of the marvellous -, 
and there have not been wanting, in all ages, 
men of craft and invention, to gratify tJiat 
passion in others, and turn it to their own 
advantage. 

Varieties. 1. The Bible — has truth for 
its subject, the nnnd for its object, and tne 
Father of mind for its Author. 2. Such is the 
arrangement of Divine Order, in the govern 
ment of the universejthatno evil can hejyrac 
ticed, or intended, without eventually falling 
on the contriver. 3. A knowledge of man's 
physical organization, as well as mental, is 
essentially requisite for all, who would suc- 
cessfully cultivate tiie field of education. 4. 
Experience — is the knowledge of every thmg 
in the natural world, that is capable of be- 
ing received through the medium of the senses. 
5. Where liberty dwells, there — is my coun- 
try. 6. Intemperance — drives wit out of the 
head, money out of the pocket, elbows out of 
the coat, and health out of the body. 7. In 
the choice of a wife, take the obedient daugh* 
ter of a good mother. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



107 



305. EMPHAsia — is made, secondly, by 
quantity and force ; i. e. prolongation of 
sound, and stress of voice, on either high, low, 
or medium pitches. 1. Roll on, — thou dark 
— and deep blue ocean — roll ; Ten thous- 
and fleets SWEEP — over thee in vain. 2. 
Let our object be — our country ; our whole 
country; and nothing but — our country. 
3. I warn you — do not dare — to lay your 
hand on the constitution. 4. Hail ! Univer- 
sal Lord ! Be bounteous still — to give us 
o>-LT GOOD ; and if the night — have gathered 
— aught of evil — or concealed — disperse it 
now, as ligM — dispels the dark. 5. A Deity 
— believed — is joy begwi ,• a Deity — adored 
— is joy ADVANCED, — a Deity — beloved — 
is joy matured. 6. Prayer — ardent — opens 
'leaven; lets down a stream ot^ glory — on 
the consecrated hours of mak, — in audience 
— with the Deity. N. B. The first Ex. is 
an instance of the lowest division of subjects 
— the Natural; the second and third, of the 
middle division — the Human ,- and the fourth 
and fifth, of the upper — the Divine : see pre- 
vious article on this subject. 

306. Sheridan, of whose oratorical pow- 
ers, every elocutionist has heard, after having 
excited a great interest among his friends, 
who were filled with hope at liis prospects^ 
made a signal /ai^wre, on his first appearance 
in Parliament; insomuch, that he was en- 
treated never to make another attempt. He 
nobly replied — " I will ; for by Heaven, it is 
in me, and it shall come out:' He did try, 
and his eflforts were crowned with success. 
In like manner, almost every orator ikiled at 
first ; but ftrseverance made them oaore than 
conquerors. It is not unfrequent that the 
most abashed, and ill-omened, succeed the 
best. Take courage ,• let your motto be " on- 
ward and UPWARD, and true to the line." 

My crown is in my heart,--not on my head; 
Nor decked with diamonds, and Indian stones : 
Nor 10 be seen ; my crown — is called — Content; 
A crown it is— that seldom kings enjoy. 
If there is a Power above us, 
(And that there w— all Nature— cries aloud, 
Tliro' all her works,) He— must delight in virtue; 
And that which He delights in — must be happy. 
He hath a heart — as sound as a bell, 
A lul liis tongue — is the clapper ; 
For wliat his heart — thinks, his tongue — speaks. 
Wiiere'er ihou journeyest — or whate'er thy eare, 
My heart shall follow, and my spirit — share. 
5. American Literature — will find, that the 
intellectual spirit — is her tree of life ; and 
the union of the states, — her garden of 
Paradise. 6. God — is our Father ; and al- 
though we, as children, may be ever so 
guilty, his compassion towards ns- -fails not ; 
and he will pity, forgive, and counsel, advise, 
teach, and lead us o it of evii whenever we 
sincerely wish it. 



Proverbs. 1. A desire to resist opj ression — 
is implanted in the nature of man. 2. The faulta 
and errors of others, are lesson* of caution — to oiir- 
selves. 3. No shield is so impe7ieirable, no security 
so ^ectual, as a mind — conscious of its innocence. 

4. Our most delightful enjoyments— are always 
hable to interruptioti. 5. If our passions are not 
kept under control, they will soon master us 6. 
Those things that are unbecoming, are unsxfe. 7 
Ardent spirits — have drowned more people, ti»an 
all the ivaters in tlie world. 8. He, is never f.rcfl 
of listening, who wishes to gain wisdom 9. All 
true religion relates to life; and the life of 'itai re- 
ligion is — to do good t'rom a love of it. iw. A wi*J 
man is a great ivonder. 11. Be courteous to ail, 
and intimate with few. 12. Defile not your mouth 
witli sxvearing. 

Anecdote. Law Practice. A lawyer told 
his client, that his opponent — had removed 
his suit to a higher coitrt : " Let him remove 
it where he pleases, (quoth the client ;) my 
attorney w'lW follow it — for money:'' 

Common Sense. It is in the portico of 
the Greek sage, that that phrase has received 
its legitimate explanation ,- it is there we are 
taught, that " common se7ise'" signifies " the 
sense of the common interest:^ Yes ! it is the 
most beautiful ti'uth in mm-als, that we have 
no such thing as a distinct or divided interest 
from our race. In their welfare is ours, and 
by choosing the broadest paths to effect their 
happinesss, we choose the surest and the 
shortest to our own. 

Varieties. 1. The universe — is an cw> 
pire,- and God — its sovereign. 2. The smooth- 
ness of flattery — cannot now avail, — cannot 
save us, in tliis rugged and awful crisis. 3. 
I had much rather see all — industrious and 
enlightened, — than to see one half of man- 
kind — slaves to the other, and these — slaves 
to their passions. 4. The condition of scof- 
fers, is of all — the most dangerous ; as well 
from the particular ste^eof mind, that consti 
tutes their character, as because they are in- 
capable of conviction — hy argument ; who 
ever knew such a one converted to the truth? 

5. Watch against, and suppress — the first 
motions of spiritual pride ; such as — prone- 
ness to think too highly of yourselves, or a 
desire to have others think highly of you, on 
account of your spiritual attainments. 6. 
How many villains — walk the earth with 
credit, from the mere fulfilment of negative 
decencies. 7. Study history, not so much for 
its political events, as for a knowledge of hu 
man nature. 

Away ! away to the mountain's brow, 

Where the trees are gently waving; 
Away ! away to the mountain's brow, 

Where the stream is gently laving. 
Away ! away to the rocky glen, ' 

Where the deer are wildly bounding; 
And the hills shall echo in gladness agnia 

To the hunter's bugle sounding. 



108 



PRINCIPLES OF i<:LOCUTION. 



307. QCATTTITTAXIJ RHETORICAL 

Pa ctse. 1 . Dwell on such words as are expres- 
Bive of the kindlier affections, with a slow 
and adhesive movement of voice, as if you 
parted with the ideas reluctantly. 2. Very 
deliberate subjects require more or less of 
quantity in their emphasis: so also do tlie 
sublime, the grand, and the solemn ; partic- 
ularly, the reverential, the grave ; so also do 
earnest entreaty, prayer, deep pathos, &c. 
Ex. "Join — all ye creatures — to extol — Him 
— first; Him — last; Him — midst, and — 
without end.^^ " Mary ! dear — departed 
shade. Where is thy place of blissful rest ? 
Seest thou thy Imer — lowly laid? Hear'st 
thou ihe groans, that rend his breast'?'^ 

308. Read, or rather speak from memory, 
these lines with quantity, and on the lower 
pitches of voice. 

Night, (sable goddess) from her ebon throne, 
1)1 rayless majesty, now stretches/ar 
Her leaden sceptre — o'er a slumbering world. 
Silence — how dead ! and darkness — how profound : 
Nor eye, nor listening ear, an object finds. 
Creation — sleeps. Tis — as if the general pulse 
Of LIFE — stood still, — and Nature — made o-patise, 
An awful pause, — prophetic of her end. 

309. iMPORTAJfT CoifSIDERATIOKTS. If 

the evils of tight lacing, and tight dressing 
could only stop with the guilty, one consola- 
tion would still be left us ; but even this is 
denied us : no ! there is not even one drop 
of joy to be cast into our cup of bitterness — 
the draught is one of unmingled gall : the 
human form divine is sadly deformed; the 
fountain of innumerable evils and diseases is 
opened by this suicidal practice ,• and thous- 
ands of human beings are yearly coming 
into life, cursed from head io foot, from mind 
to body, with the awful effects of this infer- 
nal fashion, which originated in the basest 
passions of the human heart. Oh, who can 
measure the accumulating woe, which this 
accursed custom ha,s entailed, and is yet en- 
tailing on the human race ! 

Anecdote. To prevent Suicide. A Hi- 
bernian Senator, speaking on the subject of 
preventing suifide, said, — " The only way I 
can conceive, of stopping the business, is, — 
to make it a capital offence, punishable with 
death." 

O how weak 
la mortal, man ! How trifling — how confin'd 
His scope of vision ! — PufPd with confidence, 
Y{\b phrase — grows big with immortality; 
And he, poor insect of a summer''s day, 
Dreams of eternal honors to his name ; 
Of endless gloi-y, and perennial bays. 
He idly reasons of Eternity, 
As of the train of ages, — when, alas ! 
Ten thousand thuipand of his centuries 
Are, in comparisc a a little point, 
Too trivicU for account. 

Unlearn the enla you nrve learned 



Proverbs. 1. You cannot appease snv-^ 
even by sacrificing virtue. 2. The envious man 
grows base, by contemplating the success of an- 
other. 3. A government, that undervalues the af- 
fections of the people, and expects to find a firm 
basis in terrors, will be mistaken, and short-lived 
4. He, who passes over a crime, unreproved, oi 
unpunished, encourages its repetition. 5. He, 
who controls his passions, subdues his greatest 
enemy. 6. He, alone is wise, that can adapt him- 
self to all tlie contingencies of life; but ihe fool — 
vainly contends, and struggles against the stream. 
7. The ways of the lazy— are as a hedge o'" 
thorns. 8. To a lazy man — every exertion is pain 
fill, and every movement a labor. 9. Innocence — 
and mysteriovsness — seldom dwell together. 10. It 
-3 folly— Xo expect justice— oX the hands of tlie 
unjust. 11. Grea« are the charms of nofe%. 12. 
Custom — is no small mutter. 13. Consider thy 
ways, and be wise. 

Humbugs. All new developments of 
truth — are called, by many, who do not ap- 
preciate them, or dare to think and act for 
themselves — " Humbugs f and this dreadful 
name — has no doubt had the effect — to lead 
some — to condemn them, without farther in 
quiry. But the worst of all humbugs, the 
most deplorable of all delusions — is that, 
which leads men to shut their eyes to the 
truth, lest they should be laughed at — for 
acknawledging it. 

Varieties. 1. Is not this world — a world 
of dreams, and the spiri^world— a world of 
realities ? 2. Some are only in the love of 
knowing what is good, and trtte; others, of 
understanding them ; and others — of living 
according to them ; to which class do I be- 
long 1 3. Xerxes — whipped the sea, because 
it would not obey him. 4. That, which some 
people pride themselves in, often becomes 
the cause of their undoing ; and what they 
very much dislike, becomes the only thing 
that saves them. 5. Possession — is eleven 
points of the law : hence, never let a valua- 
ble thing go out of your possession, without 
an ample security. 6. The world below — 
is a glass, in which we may see the world 
above : remove the vail, and see where sjnrit, 
and matter are connected. 7. The heart-Mt 
prayer, only, is available ; and to produce it, 
there must be deep-Mt want ; arid the strong- 
er it operates, the more perfect, and accepta- 
ble must be the prayer. 

"Oh ! tell me, step-dame Natxire, tell. 
Where shall thy wayward child abide? 

On what fair strand his spirit dwell, 
When life has spent its struggling tide? 

Shall hope no more her taper burn, 

Quench''d — in the tears that sorrow sends T 

Nor from ihe feast, misfortune spurn 
The wishful wretch, that o'er it bends?" 

" Can storied urn, or animated bust. 

Back to its mansion, call the fleeting breaiJi 

Can honor''s voice — provoke the silent dii.tt? 
Oxflatfry soothe the dull, cold t»r ofieathi 



PRINCIPLES OF ELC^UTION. 



109 



319. ETSvajiSis— by prolongation, and de- 
pressed monotone : that is, quantity of voice 
on the first, second, or third note : it is some- 
times used in the grave and sublime, and pro- 
duces astonishing effects. Monotony— occvlts 
when the voice is inflected neither up nor 
down, but is confined to a few words. The 
figures refer to the notes of the diatonic 
scale. The following free translation of a 
paragraph from one of Cicero's o ations, will 
serve as a good illustration: but no one 
should attempt it, without committing it to 
memorj'. 

311. (COMMEKCK ON THE FOUIITH JfOTE.) 

*' I appeal to you — ye hillSf and groves of 
(5) Alba, and your demolished (6) altars ! I 
call you to (8) with-ess! (4) whether your 
(5) altars, your (6) divinities, your (8) pow- 
ers . (o) which Clodius had polluted with all 
kindsof (6) loickedness, (5) did not (4) avenge 
themselves, whevi this wretch was (3) extir- 
pated. (1) And thou, hply (2) Jupiter! (3) 
from the (4) height of this (5) sacred (6) 
mount, whose lakes — and groves — he had so 
often (3) contaminated.^* 

COLUMBIA ! Columbia ! to glory ariie, 

The quun of the world, and the child of the skies; 

Thy genius commands thee ; with raptuic oehold, 

While ages — on ages thy splendors unfold. 

Thy reign is the last — and the noblest of time ; 

Most fruit ful thy soil, most inviting thy dime; 

Let the crimes of the east—ne^er encrimson thy name ; 

Be freedom, and science, and virtue — thy/ame. 

3 la. The only way in which children, or 
adults, can be taught to read, or speak, natu- 
rally, is — to memorize short or longer sen- 
tences, and deliver them in a perfectly intelli- 
gent, impressive, and unrestrained manner. 
Abcdarians: first teach them the sounds of 
the vowels; then of the consonants, inter- 
spersing the exercises with select, or original 
sentences. Ex. " Time and tide — ^wait for 
no man." Or, if it is a rainy day, " This is 
a very rainy day." If pleasant, "This is a 
delightful day." Which sentences, after be- 
ing recited in concc^ t, should be spoken by 
the class individually. In this way, even 
small children may be taught a great variety 
of things, natural and spiritual ; and an im- 
mense field of usefulness opened before the 
mind of the real teacher : i. e. one who teach- 
es from the love of teacliing ; and no others 
should engage in it. 

NoteSt I. Remember— the figures, placed before word-* in 
sentences, indicate the pitch of voice, and have reference to the 
diatonic note ; they are aids to break up the monotonou* delivery. 
?. Still continue your efforts to smooth the apparent roughness of 
Mae notations, in regard to the dash, (— ) pauses, (,;:?!) and 
Emphasis : glide out of the mechanical into the natttraL 

There is, in every human heart, 
Some— not completely barren part. 
Where seeds of truth — and love might grow, 
And flowers — of generous virtue blow ; 
To plant, to toatch, to water there — 
Thia — be out duty, and'Oiir rare. 



Proverbs. 1. A mind conscious of its inl'-ff- 
rity, — is a most noble possession. 2. In acquire 
ing knowledge, consider how you may render it 
useful to society. 3. Avoid undue excitement on 
trivial occasions. 4 When engaged in a good 
cause, never look back. 5. Poverty — is no excuse 
for sinning: 6. Never repeat in one company, 
what is said in another; for all conversation, is 
tacitly understood — to be confidential. 7. Let 
reason — go before every enterprise, and cot^Tuel — 
before every action. 8. Look on slanderers— ns 
enemies to society ; as persons destitute of Aon(?r, 
honesty, and humanity. 9. Divisions, and in- 
tentions — are upheld by pride, and self-love. 10. 
Patience, when subjected to trials that are too 
severe, is sometimes converted into rage. IL 
Avoid matcA-makers. 12. Virtue — is often 
laughed at. 

Anecdote. Lord Albermarle — ^was the 
lover of Mademoiselle Gaucher, (Gaw-s/tay.) 
As they were ivalking together one evening, 
he perceived her eyes fixed on a star, and 
said to her " Do not look at it, my dear ,• I 
cannot give it you." *' Never," says Mar- 
mon^eZ, " did love — express itself more deli- 
cately.''* 

TtKw — is law — ^law — is law; and as in 
such, and so forth, and hereby, and aforesaid, 
provided always, nevertheless, notwithstand- 
ing. Law — is like a country riance,* people 
are led up and down in it, till they are tired. 
Law — is like a book of surgery ; there are a 
great many desperate cases in it It is also 
like physic ; they that take the least of it, are 
best off. Law — is like a homely gentlewo- 
man, very well to follow. Law — is also like 
a scolding wife, very bad when it follows us 
Law — is like a new fashion, people are be- 
witched to get into it: it is also like bad 
weather, mos^*people are glad when they g«t 
out of it. 

Varieties. 1 . Are we not apt to be proud 
of that, which is not our own ? 2. It is a less 
crime — to gnaw a man's j^ng-ers with your 
teeth, than to mangle his reputation with 
your tongue. 3. It is better to yield grace- 
fully, than to be held up as a spectacle of 
vanquished, yet impertinent obstinacy. 4. 
Really learned persons — never speak of hav- 
ing finished their education: for they con- 
tinue students, as long as they live. 5. Equivo- 
cation — is a mere expedient — to avoid telhng 
the truth, without verbally telling a lie. 6. 
True philosophy and contempt of the Deiiy, 
are diametrically opposed to each other. 7. 
Sensual good, has sensual truth for its object ; 
natural good has an order of natural truths 
and spiritual good has spiritual /rwM, agree* 
ing with the spiritual sense of the Bible. 

"So flocks, that range the valley free. 

To slaughter— do I condemn : 
Taught by that power, that pities me, 

I learn to pity them. 



no 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



313. Rules. It is impossible to give 
rules — ^ibr reading every sentence, or indeed 
any sentence ; much more is left to the pupil, 
than can be written. All that is here at- 
tempted — is, a meagre outline of the subject ; 
enough, however, for every one who is deter- 
mined to succeed, and makes the necessary 
application; and too much for such as are 
of an opposite character. The road is point- 
3d out, and all the necessaries provided for 
the journey J but each must do the traveling, 
or abide the consequences. Be what ought 
to be, and success is yours. 

(3) No radiant pearl, which crested fortune wears, 

(4) No gem, that twinkling, hangs from beaiUy's ears: 

(5) Nor the bright start, which night's blue arch adorn, 
(ft) Nor rising mn— that gi!ds the eternal mom,— 

(8) Shine— with nich lustre, as the tear that breaks, 
(C) For other's woe, down virtue^ manly cheek. 

In reading, (rather reciting) these beautiful 
lines, the voice commences, as indicated by 
the figures, gradually rises, then yields a lit- 
tle; tUl it comes to the word ^ shine,'' which 
is on the 8th note ; and then it gradually de- 
scends to the close; because such are the 
thoughts, and the feelings. Get the inside ,- 
never live out of doors ; grasp the thoughts, 
and then let the words flow from feeling. 

314* Opening the Mouth. This is 
among the most important duties of the elo- 
cutionist, and singer ,• more fail in this par- 
ticular, than in any other : indistinctness and 
stammeHng are the sad effects of not open- 
ing tlie mouth wide enough. Let it be your 
first object to obtain the proper positions of 
the vocal organs: for which purpose, practice 
the vocal analysis, as here presented. The 
first effort is — separating the lips and teeth ; 
which will not only enable you to inhale and 
exhale freely, through the nose, when speak- 
ing and singing, but avoid uneasiness in the 
chest, and an unpleasant distortion of ihe fea- 
tures. The second is, a simultaneous action 
of the lips, teeth, and tongue: let these re- 
marks be indelibly stamped upon your 
memory ; for they are of immense practical 
importance. 

Anecdote. Alexander and the Pirate. 
We too often judge of men — by the splendor, 
and not the merii of their actions. Alexan- 
der — demanded of the Pirate, whom he had 
taken, by what right — he infested the seas ? 
•^By the same right," replied he boldly, 
"that you enslave the world. J— am called a 
robber, because I have only one small vessel ,- 
but you — are called a conqueror, because you 
command great ^ee^s and navies.^'' 
The best contrived deceit — 

Will hurt its own contriver i 
And perfidy — doth often cheat — 
Its author's purse— of every stiver. 
The man, that's resolute, and just. 
Firm to his ■principles — and truat. 
No; hope$, not fears,- -can bind. 



Proverbs. I. A great fortune, in the handa 
otafool, is a great mis-fortune. 2. Too many 
resolve, then re- resolve, and die the same. S. 
Never give the tongue full Jiberty, but keep it 
under control. 4. Character—is the measure of 
man and woman. 5. We may die of a surfeit, as 
well as of hunger. 6. Truth — is an ornament, 
and an instrument. 7. If we meet evil company, 
it is no reason we should keep it. 8. Provide 
for the worst, but hope for the hest. 9. Though 
he is wise, that can teach the most, yet he, that 
learns, and practices what he learns, is wiicr. 
10. Never be without good hoohs. 11. Time— 
is the herald of truth. 12. Manners make the 
man. 13. Dissembled holiness, is double ini- 
quity. 14. Conscience — is in the chamber of 
justice. 

Oratory. Eloquence — may be considered 
as the soul, or animating principle of dis- 
course; and is dependent on intellectual 
energy, and intellectual attainments. Elo- 
cution — is the embodying f(yrm, or represen- 
tative power ; dependent on exterior accom- 
plishments, and on the cultivation of the or- 
gans. Oratory — is the complicated and vital 
existence, resulting from the perfect harmony 
and combination of Eloquence and Elocution. 

Varieties. 1. Is there not the same dif- 
ference — between actual and hereditary evil, 
as between an inclination to do a thing, and 
the commission of the act ? 2. Whoever has 
flattered his friend successfully, must at once 
think himself a knave, and his friend a fool. 

3. Unfriended, indeed, is he, who has no 
friend good enough — to tell him his faults. 

4. If those, who are called good singers, 
w^ere as sensible of their errors in reading, as 
they would be, if similar ones were made 
in their singing, they would be exceedingly 
mortified, and chagrined. 5. The sacred 
light of Scripture — should be shed upon the 
canvas of the world's history, as well as on 
that of humanity. 6. The theology of crea- 
tion — ^was revealed to the earliest ages,- and 
the science of creation, is now beginning to 
be revealed to us. 7. What is most spiritual 
— is most rational, if rightly understood ; 
and it also admits of a perfect illustration — 
by rational and natural things: to follow 
God, and to follow right — and pure reason^ 
is all one ; and we never give offence to Him^ 
if we do that, which such a reason requires 

THE PROGRESS OF LIFE. 
I dreamed— I saw a little rosy chUd, 

With flaxen ringlets— in a garden playing; 

Now stopping ha-e, and then afar Oj^' straying, 
Aaflower, or butterfly— hit feet beguiled, 

Twas changed. One summer's day I stept aside. 
To let him pats ; his face — and manhood seeming, 
And that full eye of Wue— was fondly beaming 

On a fair maiden, whom he called ' his Bride .'" 
Onu more ; 'twas auiuwin, and the iheerful^re 

I saw a group — of youthful /orww surrounding. 

The room — with harmlese pleasantry resounding, 
And, in the midst, I marked the smiling Sire, 

The heavens were clouded ! and I heard the taru.. 

Of a «2ot«— movioi;: MI— the white haired man wv ffms. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



li 



315. As Emphasis is the same thing as 
Accent, only more of it ; so, it is inseparably 
connected with the Pauses; indeed, what- 
ever distinguishes one word from the others, 
may be called Emphasis; which is some- 
times only another name for Expression : it 
IS, at least, one of the mediums of expression. 
Hence, Emphasis is often exhibited in con- 
nection with a Rhetorical Fause, placed be- 
fore, or after, emphatic luords, which may 
be elevated, or depressed,-wiih force and quan- 
tity, according to sentiment. When this 
pause is made after the important word, or 
words, it causes the mind to revert to what 
was last said; and when it is made before 
such word, the mind is led to anticipate 
something worthy of particular attention. 
The book is full of illustrations. 

316. Ex. 1. Benevolence — is one of the 
brightest gems— in the crown of christian per- 
fection. 2. Meiody — is an agreeable succes- 
sion of sounds; Harmony — an agreeable 
concordance of sounds. 3. Homer — was the 
greater genius ; Virgil — the better artist : 
in one, we most admire the man; in the other 
— the work ; Homer — hurries us with com- 
manding impetuosity ; Virgil — leads us with 
an attractive majesty. Homer — scatters with 
a generous jfW'o/Msiow ; Virgil — bestows, with 
a careful magnificence. 4. What man could 
do, is done already ; (8) Heaven — and (5) 
earth — ^will witness, — if — R-o-m-e — m-u-s-t 
f-a-ll, — that we are innocent. 

Note* Prolong the words with the hyphens between the 
Jcrterj. 

31 T. Political Economy — teaches us 
to investigate the nature, sources, and proper 
uses of national wealth; it seems to bear the 
same relation to the whole country, that Do- 
mestic Economy does to an individual /a?ni- 
ly : for, tho' it generally relates to the wealth 
of nations, it leads us to examine many points 
of comfort and well-being, tliat are closely 
connected with the acquisition, and expendi- 
ture of property. Its connection with legis- 
lation and government are self-evident ; yet 
every one may derive important lessons, from 
a knowledge of its facts and principles. 

Anecdote. All have their Care. Two 
merchants, conversing together about the 
hardness of the times, and observing a flock 
of pigeons, one said to the other, — "How 
happy those pigeons are ! they have no bills 
and acceptances to provide for." " Indeed," 
said the other, "you are much mistaken; for 
they have their bills to provide for as well as 
we." 

When adverse tmndr — and waves arise, 
And in my heart — despondence sighs ; 
When life — her throng of cares reveals, 
And weakness — o'er my spirit steals, 
Grattfut—l hear the kind decree, 
'That, as my day, my strength— Bhall bo." 



Proverbs. 1. NoJiing 'jvercomes passion- 
sooner than silence. 2. Precepts — may lead, but 
examples — draw. 3. Rebel not against the dictates 
of reason and conscience. 4. Sincerity — is the pa- 
rent of truth. 5. The loquacity of fools — is a let' 
ture to the wise. 6. Unruly passions — destroy thfl 
peace of the soul. 7. Valor — can do but little^ 
wfithout discretion. 8. Modesty — is one of the chi^f 
ornaments of youth. 9. Never insult the poor, 
poverty — entitles one to our pity. 10. Oar reputa 
tion liirtue, and happiness— greatlj depend on the 
choice of our companions. 11. Wisdom — ^ia lie 
greatest wealth. 12. Pride— is a great thief. 

liaconics. No more certain^ is it, that the 
fiower was made to waft perfume, than that 
ivoman's destiny — is a ministry of love, a Ufe 
of the affections. 

Varieties. • 1. Those authors, (says Dr. 
Johnson,) are to be read at scfiooljthat supply 
most axioms of prudence, axidmost principles 
of moral truth. 2. The little and short say- 
ings of wise and excellent men, (saith Bishop 
Tillotson,) are of great value ; like the dust 
of gold, or, tlie least sparks of diamonds. 3. 
The idle, who are wise rather for this world 
than the next', are fools at large. 4. Let all 
your precepts be succint, and clear, that 
ready wits may comprehend them. 5. None 
— better guard against a cheat, than he, who 
is a knave complete. 6. Scarcely an ill — to 
human life — belongs; but what our follies 
cause, or mutual wrongs. 7. What our Lord 
said to all, is applicable to all, at all times ; 
namely, " watch,'^ — and it appears to relate 
to the admission of every thought and desirt-, 
into the mind. 

THE MOTHER PEKISHING IN A SXOW-STORM. 
" In the year 1821, a Mrs. Blake perished in a snow-storm in ths 
night-time, while traveling over a spur of the Green Moxitiiia 
in Vermont. She had an infant vrith her, which was found aliiw 
and well in the morning, being carefully wrapped in the mother'i 
clothing." 

The cold lomrfs— swept the mountain''s height, 

And pathless — was the dreary wild. 
And, 'mid the cheerless hours of night, 

A mother wander'd — with her child : 
As through the drifting snow she press'd, 
The babe — was sleeping — on her breast. 
And colder still the winds did blow. 

And darker hours of night came on, 
And deeper grew the drifting snow : 

Her limbs — were chill'd, her strength — was grntc- 
"Oh, GodP'> she cried, in accents wild, 
" If /must perish, save my child. '^^ 
She stripp'd her mantle from her breast. 

And bared her bosom to the storm, 
And round the child — she wrapped the vest, 

And smiled— to think her babe was wann 
With one cold kiss— one tear she shed, 
And sunk — upon her snowy bed. 
At dawn— a. traveler passed by, 

And saw her— 'neath a snowy rati; 
The frost of death— was in her eye, 

Her cheek was cold, and hard, and pale, 
He moved the robe from off the child, 
The babe look'd up-<:nd sweetly smiled ' 



112 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



318. Emphasis, in connection with the 
Rhetorical Pause. 1. A. friend — cannot be 
known — in prosperity ; and an enemy can- 
not be hidden — in adversity. 
Passions — are winds — to urge us o'er the wave, 
Reasox— the ncdder— to direct— or save. 
He — raised a mortal — to the skies, 
She — drew an angel — down. 
4. Charity — suffereth long, and is (3) kind : (4) 
charity — envieth not ; (5) charity — vaunteth 
not itself; (3) is not puffed up,- (4) doth not 
behave itself (5) unseemly; (6) seeketh not 
her own ; (5) is not easily (4) provoked ; (3) 
thinketh no evil; (5) rejoiceth — not in (4) 
iniquity f but (5) rejoiceth in the truth; (4) 
heareth all things ; (5) believeth all things, (6) 
hopeth all things; (7) endureth all things; 
(6) CHARITY — (8) NEVER faileth. 

319. The Three Degrees of Speech. 
There are three different modes in which one 
may read and speak; only two of which, un- 
der any circumstances, can be right. The 
first is — reading and speaking by word, 
without having any regard to the sentiment; 
tlie second is — ^reading or speaking only by 
word and thought ; and the third is — read- 
ing and speaking by word, thought and. feel- 
ling — all combined, and appropriately man- 
i fested. In the Greek language, we find these 
three modes definitly marked by specific 
words, such as talleo, eipo and EIRO. Chil- 
dren are usually taught the first, instead of 
the third, and then the second and third — 
Cfmibined: hence, very few of them ever 
have any conception of the meaning of the 
words they use, or of the subject matter about 
which they are reading: they seem to regard 
these as something foreign to the object. 
Here we again see the natural truth of an- 
other scripture declaration : " The letter kil- 
Leth: the spirit giveth life." 
And from the prayer of want, the plaint of ivoe; 
Oh ! never, never— turn away thine ear : 
Forlorn, in this bleak wilderness helow, [hear. 

Ah ! wliat were man, should Heaven— refuse to 
To others do — (the law is not severe;) 
^Vllat— to thyself— thoa wJshest to be done; 
Forgive Xhy foes, and love thy parents dear, 
And friends and native land; nox those alone,[own. 
4JZ human weal, or woe, learn thou to make thine 
Anecdote. Mahomet — made his people 
^«heve, that he would call a hill to him ; and, 
^rom the top of it, otTer up his jyrayers for the 
ohsen'ers of his law. The people assembled ; 
Mahomet called the hill again and again to 
wme to him ; and the hill not mooing, he 
was not at all abashed at it; but put it off 
with a jest; saying— " If the hill will not 
come to Mahomet, he — v\ill go to the hilV 
When people — once are in the xorong, 
Eacli line they add— is much too long; 
'Who fastest walks, but walks astray, 
Is only/itrf/jes^ . from his way. ■ 



Proverbs. 1. Every thing— tends to 
us. 2. Always have a good object in view. 3. Ac- 
tions—s\\o\x\6. be led by knowledge ; and knowledgt 
followed by actions. 4. It is better to be saved with- 
out a precedent, than damned by example. 5. There 
is no security among evil companions. 6. Never be 
unwilling to Uach, if you knoio ; nor ashamed to 
learn, if you can. 7. Better yourself when young ; 
you will want rest in old age. 8. When you find 
yourself inclined to be ot<ry, speak in a hvj tone 
of voice. 9. ^ear— and/orfcear— is excellent phi- 
losophy. 10. Seek— and. practice— \\iQ truth, and 
you are made— forever. 11. Lookers (m see, more 
than players. 12. Wake net a sleeping lion. 

liaconics. Sincerity — should be the pru- 
ning-knife ot friendship, and not the mon- 
ster scythe — of an unfeelmg rudeness, Vihich, 
for one weed that it eradicates, mows down a 
dozen of those tender fimuers, which bloom- 
only on our affections. 

Varieties. 1. Our Orators, (says Cicero,) 
are, as it were, the actors of truth itself; 
and the players are the imitators of truth. 
2. Whence this disdain of life, in every 
breast, but from a notion — on their minds 
impress'd, that all, who, for their country die, 
are bless'd. 3. You'll find ihe friendship of 
the world — is show ; all — outward show. 
4. Errors, like straws upon the surface flow: 
He, who would search for pearls — must dive 
below. 5. What you keep by you, you may 
change and mend; but words, once spoke, 
can never be recalled. 6. Let thy discourse 
be such, that thou mayest give profit to oth- 
ers, or, from them receive. 7. Beware of ever 
exceeding the boundaries of truth, in any 
form; for the mind loses strength, whenev- 
er it puts its foot beyond the circle, or passes 
the boundari£s. 

THE HARVEST MOON. 

All hail ! thou lovely queen of night. 

Bright empress of the stary sky! 
The meekness — of thy silvery light 

Beams gladness — on the gazer's eye, 
While, from thy peerless throne on high 

Tliou shinest bright — as cloudless noon, 
And bidd'st the shades of darkness fly 

Before thy glory— Harvest moon ! 
In the deep stillness of the night, 

When weary labor is at rest, 
How loi^ely is the scene I — how bright 

The wood — the latvn — the moutttain^s breast 
When thou, fair moon of Harvest, hast 

Thy radiant glori/ all unfurled, 
And sweetly smilest in the west, 

Far dozen — upon the silent world. 
Shine on, fair orb of light.' and smile 

Till autumn months — have passed away. 
And labor — huXh forgot the toil 

He bore — in summer\s sultry ray; 
And when the reapers— end the day, 

Tired with the burning heat of noon. 
They'll come— with spirits light and gay, 

And bUss thee— lovely Harvest Moon I 



\ 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



113 



\ 



390. ExpuAsis — by a pause just before, 
or afta; the important word. The pause be- 
fore — awakt-ns curiosity, and excites expec- 
tation ; after — carries back the mind to what 
was last said. How would a tyrant, after 
Having ruled with a rod of iroji, and shown 
compassion to none, speak of his own deatfi, 
in allusion to the setting sun, in a tropical 
climate ; where the sun is severely hoi as long 
as it shines, and when it sets, it is very soon 
dark? 1. (5) "And now- -my race — of ter- 
ror — rmi, (6) Mine— be the eve — of tropic (6) 
sun; No pale (6) gradations — quench his 
ray ,• (6) No twilight (7) dews — his W7'aih al- 
■ lay : (4) With (5) disk, (like battle target)— 
red, (6) He rushes — t' his burning bed, (5) 
Dyes the wide wave — with bloody (6) light ; 
Then sinks — at once — (2) a7id all is (1) 
night J'' The last clause, pronounced in a 
deep monotone, and a pause before it, adds 
much to its beauty and grandeur. 2. " Will 
all great Neptune's ocean — wash — this blood 

■clean — from my hands'! No: these, my 
nands, will rather the multitudinous sea — wi- 
carnadine: making the green— {!) one red.''^ 
Macbeth's hands are so deeply stained, that, 
to wash them in the ocean, would make it red 
with blood. 

SATAN, LAMKNTIltG THE LOSS OF HEAVEN, A3rD 
INVOKING HELL. 

*' Is tJiis the region, this the soil, the clime,'''' — 
**aid then the lost archangel, ^^ this t}\i seat, 
That we must change — for heaven f 
This the mournful gloom — 

For that celestial light ? Fareivell, hafpy fields, 
W'nexQ joy— forever dwells. Hail, horrors, — hail 
Infernal world ! And thoxi — profoundest /jeZ?, 
Receive — thy new — possessor .'" 

THE DKUNKARD. 

" Hand ine the boivl — ye jocund hand,"' — 

He said, "'twill rouse my mirth;" 
But conscience — seized his trembling hand, 

And dashed the cup — to earth. 
He looked around, he blush'd, he laugh''d, — 

He sipped the sparkling wave; 
'ii it. he read, — "who drinks this draught, 

Shall fill — a murderers grave." 

He grasped the bowl, — to seek relief; — 

No more — his conscience said ; 
His iosow-friend — was sunk in grief, 

\\'\s children — begged for bread. 
Thro' haunts oi horror — and of strife, 

He passed down — lifers dark tide; 
ffe otrsed — his beggared babes — and wife, 

He cursed his God, — and died! 

3ft 1. Cueation. If we studied creation 
more, our minds would much sooner become 
:i eve loped; then, the heavens, the earth, the 
water, with their respective, various, and nu- 
merous inhabitants, the productions, natures, 
sympathies, antipatldes ; their uses, benefits 
and pleasures, would be better understood by 
U8 : and eternal ivisdoni, power, majesty and 
fioodness, would be very conspicuous, thro' 
BilONSON. 8 



their sensible and passing forms; the worlds 
wearing the marks of its Maker, whose stamp 
i*5 everywhere visible, and whose chcs'octer 
is legible to all, who aie willing to under- 
stand, and would become happy. 

Proverbs. 1. An oftk tree— 'is not felled witfl 
a blow. 2. Bewfare of him, who is obliged to 
guard his reputation. 3. Concealing faults — is 
but adding to them. 4. Defile not your mouth with 
impure wor<^s. 5. i^nvt/— pre> 3 on ifce//'; fatUTji 
— is nauseous — to the truly wise. 6. Glutton:/ - 
kills more than the sword. 7. Hasty resolution* 
seldom speed loell. 8. Inconstancy — is the attend- 
ant of a weak mind. 9. Keep good companif, 
and be one of the number. 10. While 07U is 6ast?, 
none can be entirely free and noble. 11. Sin — is 
the parent of t/isease. 12. Oftener osi, than rfecicte 
questions. 13. Avoid all superfuities. 

Anecdote. Witty Reply. A gentleman 
lately complimented a lady, on her improved 
appearance. "You are guilty of flatten/,-^ 
said the lady. "Not so," replied he; "for 
you are as plump as a partridge.''^ "At 
first," said she,—" I thought you guilty of 
flattery only ; but I now find you actually 
make game of me." 

Mark to Hlt« Never forget, that by your 
advancement, you have become an object of 
envy — to those whom you have outstripped 
— in the race of life, and a tacit reproach — to 
their want of energy or capacity, which they 
ne\er forgive. You must, therefore, lay youi 
account — to be made a mark for " envy, ha- 
tred, and malice, and all uncharitableness.'^ 

Varieties. 1. We hav three orders, or 
degrees of faculties; the gious, cm/ and 
scientific; the first, regaius the Deity; the 
cecond. Humanity ; and the third, Nature ; 
i. e. the Workman and his works. 2. It is 
the object of the Bible— to teach religious, ra- 
ther than scientific truths. 3. Cannot our 
minds— he imbued with the spirit of heaven ; 
or tainted with the breath of Hell ? 4. In 
man, we see blended the geological, the vege- 
table, and animal : to which is superadded, 
the human ,• all harmonizing, and yet each 
successive series predominates over the pre- 
ceding one; till at length, the human rises 
above every thing ; ear^A— passes away, and 
heaven— is all in all. 5. Let your trust be so 
implicit— in the Divine Providence, that all 
things will be disposed for the best, after yov; 
have done the part assigned, that your only 
care shall be, how you may perform the 
greatest amount of g-ood,of which your being 
is capable. 

This world's a hive, you know, 'tis said, 

Whose bees-nre men, {'tis tnte asfunny,) 
And some— fill cells— with bitter bread, 
While oth(i-s gather sweetest honey; 
Yet each, alike, his duty does, 

Each— brings what's needful for the orft^.- 
Though divers wai/s— they hum and buz, 
Yet all obey the common moth«r. 



114 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3^2, Emphasis. On every page may be 
found nearly all the principles of elocution ; 
and in aiming at a compliance with the rules 
given, great care must be taken to avoid a 
ttiff, and fonnal mode of reading and speak- 
ing. We must never become enslaved to 
thought alone, w^hich rules witli a rod of iron : 
but yield to feeling, when it is to predomi- 
nate : in a perfect blending of feeling, thought 
and action, there is all the freedom and grace- 
fulness of nature ; provided they are in har- 
mony with nature. It is better to be natural, 
than mechanically correct. Every thought 
and feeling has its peculiar tone of voice, by 
which it is to be expressed, and which is ex- 
actly suited to the degree of internal feeling : 
in the proper use of these tones, most of the 
life, spirit, beauty, and effect of delivery con- 
sists. Hence, emphasis, or expression, is al- 
most infinite in variety ; yet none should be 
discouraged; because we cannot do every 
thing, is no reason why we should not try to 
do something. 

333. Miscellaneous. 1. In your con- 
versation, be cautious what you speak, to 
whom you speak, how you speak, when you 
epeak ; and what you speak, speak wisely, 
and truly. 2. A fooVs heart — is in his tongue ; 
but a vjise man's tongue — is in his heart. 3. 
Few things — engage the attention — and af- 
fections of men — more than a handsome adr 
dress, and a graceful conversation. 4. For 
one — great genius, who has written a little 
book, we have a thousand — little geniuses, 
who have written great books. 5. Words — 
are but air ; and both — are capable of much 
condensation. 6. Nature — seldom inspires 
a strong desire for any object, without fur- 
nishing the abUity— to attain it. 7. .4Z^— is 
not g-oZd— that glitters. 8. If I were an 
American— as I am an Englishman, while 
d^ foreign troop — was landed in my country, 
I never— would lay down my arms; no,— (6) 
never.' (A) never! (2) never! 9. The price 
of Liberty — is eternal vigilance. 10. The 
true dfsciples of Nature, are regardless who 
conducts them, provided she be the leader,- 
for Nature, hke truth— is immutable. 
There is a tide— in the affairs of men, 
Which, taken at the /ood,— leads on to fortune ; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life- 
Is l)ound in shallows— and in miseries : 
On such a full sea — are we — now afloat, 
And we must take the current, when it serves, 
Or lose our ventures. 

Anecdote. One thing at a time. The 
famous pensioner of Holland, who was the 
greatest genius of his time, and a fkmous pol- 
itician, on being asked, how he could trans- 
act such a variety of business, without c&n- 
fusion, replied, that he never did but one 
thing at a time. 

Fnu to /««— the truth comes out. 



Proverbs, 1. The foreknoivleJge ot an ap 
proaching «Jt7, is a benefit of no small magnitudt 
2. We may get a world of false love, for a Utile 
honesty. 3. The love of mankind — may be good 
while it lasts; but the love of God— is everlasting. 
4. Too many condemn the just, and not a few 
justify the witked. 5. Some people's threats — are 
larger than their hearts. 6. Discreet stages-make 
short journeys. 7. Imitate the good, but avoid the 
evil. 8. Rather do good, without a pattern, than 
evil, by imitation. 9. Prize a good character above 
any other good, 10. Well qualified teachers— are 
benefactors of their race. 11. Plain dealing is a 
jewel. 12. Per/ecrlove— casteth out /ear. 

Science. Science, the partisan of 72o coun- 
try, but the beneficent patroness of all, has 
liberally opened a temple, where all may 
meet. She never inquires about the country, 
or sect, of those who seek admission; she 
never allots a higher, or a lower place, from 
exaggerated national claims, or unfounded 
national antipathies. Her ivfiuence on the 
mind, like that of the sun on the chilled 
earth, has long been preparing it for higher 
cultivation and farther improvement. The 
philosopher of one country should not see an 
enemy in the philosopher of another ; he 
should take his seat in the temple of science, 
and ask not who sits beside him. 

Varieties. 1. Is not the innocence of 
flowers enough to make wicked persons ilutsh 
— to behold it] 2. Are there not as many 
beautiful flowers in the other world, as there 
are in this ? 3. Those are the best diversions, 
that relieve the mind, and exercise tlie body, 
with the least expense of time and money. 
4. Give us knowledge of our own, and we 
vf'iW persevere. 5. Let us call tyrants — ty- 
rants: and maintain, that freedom comes 
only, by the grace of God. 
Truth— needs no champion; in the infinite deep 
Of everlasting Soul— hex strength abides : 
From Nature's heart — her mighty ^wises leap. — 
Through Nature's veins, her strength, undying, tides 
Peace— is more strong than war; and gentle>iess. 
'When force were vain, makes conquests o'er the 
AndLOVE lives on, and hath a power to hless, [wave ; 
WheQ they, who loved, are hidden — by the grave. 
Tis not a century — since they. 
The red men, traversed here, 
And o'er these pleasant hills and vales. 

Pursued the bounding deer; 
Here, too, that eloquence was poured 

Around the council light, * 

That made the sturdy warrior bold, 

And ready for the fght! 
And oft they came — exulting back. 

The husband, sire and son. 
To vaunt before their savage shrina 

The ill— their hands had done ! 
Yet, of their mortal weal or woe, 

No trace '« left to-day ; 
For. like thefoam. upon the wave, 
Thev all nave passed auav ; 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



115 



334 Shotjiing, or High and Loud — im- 
vlying force of utterance. The last words of 
Marmion afford excellent means, when me- 
morized, for the student to try the compass of 
his voice upwards, as well as its power on 
high fitches. It is not often that these hi^rh 
and almost screaming notes are required in 
public speaking : yet, there are times, espe- 
cially in the open air, when they may be in- 
troduced with great effect. And it is always 
well to have an inexhaustible capital oi voice, 
as oi money ; indeed, there is no danger of 
having too much oi either, provided we make 
a proper use of them. In giving the word of 
command, on occasions offre, erecting build- 
ings, on the field of battle, martial exercise, 
&.C., power and compass of voice are very 
desirable. 

335. 1. " The war, that for a space did 
fail, Now, trebly thundering, swell'd the 
gale, And (10) " btanley !" (6) was the cry: 
A light on Marmion's visage spread, and 
fired his glazing eye : With dying hand, 
above his head, he shook the fragment of 
his blade, and shouted (8) " VICTORY !" 
(9) Chak&e! Chester, (10) charge! On, 
(11) STANLEY— (12) OiV.'"(3) Were the 
last words of Marmion. 2. (6) Liberty ! 
(8) FREEDOM! (5) Tyranny is dead! 
(6) Run (7) hence ! proclaim it about the 
streets! 3. The combat deepens'. (4) 
"ON ! ye brave! Who rush — to (6) glo- 
ry, — or the (3) grave; (9) Wave — Munich ! 
all thy (10) BANNERS wave ! (8) And charge — 
with a,l thy (3) chivalry." 

936, Constitutional Law, in its ex- 
tended sense, includes the study of the con- 
stitutions, or fundamental laws of the vari- 
ous Nations: i. e. the structure, and mechan- 
ism of their government, and the appoint- 
ments, powers, and duties of their officers. 
The United States Constitutional Law, may 
be considered under five different heads ; 
viz : Legislative Power, Executive Power, 
Judicial Power, State Rights Restrictions, 
and United States Statutes and Treaties. 
The Legislative power is vested in a Co?i- 
gress, consisting of a Senate and House of 
Jiepresentatives, elected by the people, or 
their State Legislatures ; the Executive pow- 
er, in a President, who holds his office four 
years ; the Judicial power, in a Supreme 
Court, which consists of one Chief Justice, 
and eight Associate Justices, and in such 
inferior courts, as Congress may ordain, or 
establish. State rights and restrictions — are 
powers not delegated by the Constitution to 
the United States, nor prohibited by it to the 
States, bat reserved to the States, respect- 
ively, or to the people. 

Anecdote. Patience. A youth, who was 
a nupil of Zeno, on his return home, was ask- 
ed by his father, " what he had learned V 
The lad replied, " that will appear hereaf- 
ter.'''' On this, the father, being enraged, beat 
his son ; who, bearina; '\X patiently, and with- 
3u; complaining, said, " This have I learn- 
J<1, to endure a parent's anger." 

Rather suffer wrong than do wrong. i 



Proverbs. 1. A\)\\Xer jest — is tie poison of 
friendship). 2. Be ever vigilant, but never suspi- 
cious. 3. Cheerfulness — is perfectly consistent 
with true piety. 4. Demonstration — is the best 
mode of instruction. 5. Entertain not sin, lest you 
like its company. 6. Finesse — is univorthy of a 
liberal mind. 7. Good counsel — is above all pric^,. 
8. Hearts— ma.Y agree, tho' heads— differ. 9. Idle- 
ness— is the parent of want, shame, and misery. 
10. Learn to live, as you would wish to die. 11. 
Co7Uent— is tlie highest bliss. 12. Vex not yourself 
w^hen ill spoken of. 

Force of Habit. Habit — hath so vast a 
prevalence over the human mind, that theie; 
is scarcely any thing too strange, or too 
strong, to be asserted of it. The story of 
the miser, who, from long accustoming to 
cheat others, came at last to cheat himself, 
and with great delight and triumph picked 
his 0W71 pocket of a guinea, to convey to hie 
hoard, is not impossible or improbable. In 
like manner it fares with the practisers of 
deceit, who, from having long deceived 
their acquaintance, gain at last a power of 
deceiving themselves, and acquire that very 
opinion, however false, of their own abili- 
ties, excellences, and virtues, into which 
they have for years, perhaps, endeavored to 
betray their neighbors. 

Varieties. 1. Eternity, (wrote a deaf 
and dumb boy.) is the Z//etime of the Deity. 
2. No evil can be successfully combaited, or 
removed, but from the opposite good, from a 
desire for it, and an attachment to it ; i. e. 
till the mind is perfectly willing to relinquish 
the evil. 3. A man's ruling love — governs 
him; because, what he loves, he continues 
to will. 4. Sweet harmonist, and beautiful 
as sweet, and young as beautiful, and soft as 
young, and gay as soft, and innocent tis gay. 
5. Had Caesar genius ? he was an oratcr / 
Had CiBsnr judgment ? he was a politician .' 
Had Caesar valor ? he was a conqueror > 
Had Caesar feeling ? he was a friend ! 6. 
Music — is one of the sweetest flowers of the 
intellectual garden; and, in relation to its 
poioer — to exhibit the passions, it may be 
called — the universal language of nature. 
7. Whatever the immediate cause may be, 
the effect is so far good, as men cease to do 
evil, they learn to do well. 

THE FISHERMAN. 

A perilous life, a.id sad — as life may be, 
Hath the lone fisher — on the lonely sea; 
In the wild waters laboring, far from home, 
For some poor pittance, e'er compelled to roam! 
Feio friends to cheer him — in his dangerous it/e, 
And none to aid him — in the stormy strife. 
Companion of the sea and silent air, 
The lonely^s/icr thus must ever fare ; 
Without the comfort, hope— with scarce a. friend. 
He looks through life, and only sees — its end! 

« Thou art, O God! the life and light 
Of all this wondrous toorld we see; 

Its gloio by day, its smile by night, 
Are but refections — caught from thee! 

Where'er we turn, thy glories shine, 

And all things bright and/aiV— are lAtn<.» 



116 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3«iy. Speaking the Gauntlet. We 
have all heard of the practice, that prevails 
^ among some tribes of Indians, called "nm- 
mng the gauntlet;" when a company ar- 
range themselves in two rows, a few yards 
apart, and their prisoner is obliged to run 
between them ; when each throws his hatchet 
at him ; and if he passes through without 
being killed, he is permitted to live. In the 
important exercise, here recommended, each 
member of the class, after making some 
proficiency, memorizes and recites, a strong 
and powerful sentence, and the others try to 
put out, or break down, the one that is 
speaking, by all sorts of remarks, sounds, 
looks, and actions ; tho' without touching 
him : and the gauntlet speaker, girds up ihe 
loins of his mind, and endeavors to keep the 
fountain oi feeling higher than the streams: 
and so long, he is safe; but alas for him, 
that shrinks into himself, and yields to his 
opponents . 
But t/tis,— and ills severer— \i& sustains : 
As gold — the^re, and, as unhurt remains : 
When most reviled, altho' he feels the smart^ 
It wakes — to nobler deeds — the wounded heart. 
The noble mind — unconscious of a fault, 
No fortune's /rown — can hend, or smiles — exalt: 
Like the firm rock — that in mid-ocean — braves 
The war of whirlwinds, and the dash of waves: 
Or, like a tower — he lifts his head on high — 
And fortune's arrows — far below him fly. 
3'28. McuTHiNO. Some — think that 
words are rendered more distinct, to large 
assemblies, by dwelling longer on the sylla- 
bles ; others, that it adds to the pomp and 
solemnity of public declamation, in which 
they think every thing must be different 
from private discourse. This is one of the 
vices of the stage, and is called theatrical, 
in opposition to what is natural. By "trip- 
pingly on the tongue," Shakspeare probably 
means — the bounding of the voice from ac- 
cent to accent ; trippingly along from word 
to word, without resting on syllables by the 
way. And, by "mouthing,"''' dwelling on 
syllables, that have no accent, and ought 
therefore to be pronounced as quickly as is 
consistent with a proper enunciation. Avoid 
an artificial air, and hold, as it were, the 
mirror up to nature. See the difference in 
the following, by pronouncing them with 
the accent, extending thro' the whole word, 
in a drawling tone, and then, giving them 
properly: con-7ec-ture, en-croac^-ment, hap- 
pi-ness, graf-i-tude, /or-tu-nate-ly ; which 
is very far from true solemnity, which is in 
the spirit; not alone in the manner. 

Anecdote. A student in college — carried 
a manuscript poeift, of his own composition, 
to his tutor, \ox his inspection. The tutor, 
after looking it over, inquired the author's 
reason, for b^inning every line vpith a capi- 
tal letter, "Because it is poetry," said the 
student. " It is.'" said the teacher, " I de- 
clare, I should not have thought it." 
By frequent use — experience — gains its growth, 
But knowledge— Q.ies from laziness and slotfi- 



Proverbs. 1. Soft hands, and soft hrcins^ 
generally go together. 2. Let time be the judge, 
and common sense the jury. 3. Cherish an ar- 
dent love of nature and of art. 4. The region 
beyond the grace, is not a solitary one. 5. Eacb 
night — is the past day's funeral: and each wiorn — 
its resurrection. G. Better be exalted by humility, 
than brought low by exaltation. 7. Tight-lacing — 
is a gradual suicide, and tends lo enkindle im- 
pure desires. 8. Good manners — are always be- 
coming. 9. The candid man has nothing to con* 
ceal; he speaks nothing but truth. 10. Plate 
said — read much ; but read not many books. 11. 
Marry in haste; repent at leisure. 12. If you will 
not keep, ycu cannot have. 13. Prune off useless 
branches. 

Government. It is time that men should 
learn to tolerate nothing a7icient, that reason 
does not respect, and to shrink from no nov- 
elty, to which reason may conduct. It is 
tinie that the human powers, so long occu- 
pied by subordinate objects and inferior arts, 
should mark the commencement of a new 
era in history, by giving birth to the art of 
improving government, and increasing the 
civil happiness of man. It is time, that le 
gislntors, instead of that narrow and das- 
tardly coasting, which never ventures to 
lose sight of usage and precedent, shotild, 
guided by the polarity oi reason, hazard a 
holder navigation, and discover, in unex- 
plored regions, the treasure of public feli- 
city. 

Varieties. 1. Did not Mr. Pitt, by the 
force of his eloquence, raise himself to be 
the prime minister of England ? 2. A rich 
man's son — generally begins — where his 
father left off; and ends — where his father 
began — peimyless. 3. A proneness to talk 
01 persons, instead of things, indicates a 
narrow, and superficial mind. 
The world — may scorn me, if they choose ; I care 
But little for their scoffings : I may sink 
For moments ; but I rise again, nor shrink 
From doijig — what the f aithfuljiean inspires - 
I will not fatter, fawn, nor crouch, nor wink 
At what high mounted wealth, ox poiver desires; 
I have a loftier aim — to which my soul aspires. 

Be humble — learn thyself \o scan; 

Knoiv — PRIDE — was never made for man. 
6. Where there is emulation — there will be 
vanity; and where there is vanity, there 
will he folly. 7 £acA man has his proper 
standard to /^ /if under, and his peculiar rfw^y 
to perform : one tribe's office — is not that 
of another: neither is the inheritance the 
same. 

I wander — by the mountain's side, 
Whose jjeais— reflect the parting iay, 

Or stoop — to view the river glide 
In silvery ripples — on its way. 

The turf is green, the sky is blue, 
The sombre trees— \n silence rest, 

Save where a songster — rustles through 
The drooping foliage — to^his nest; 

Yet 07ie thing — wants the pilgrim tber©— 

A kindred soul, the scene to share. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



117 



320. Revisioiv. Before entering on a con- 
sideration of the Injledions, and other higher 
modifications of voice, the pupil is a^ain ear- 
nestly solicited— to review all the principles, 
that have heen brought forward ; especially 
ell that relates to Accent, Pauses, Emphasis, 
and tlie alphabet of music, or the eight notes ; 
and, in tliis revision, be careful not to corir 
found one principle with another ; as stress 
with quantity, high sounds with loud ones, 
end low ones with feeble. Remember, that 
stress is a quick blow, or ick-tus of the voice ; 
quantity — length of sound ; high sounds — on, 
or above the sixth note; loud ones— halloo- 
ing ; lo7v sounds— on, or below the third note ; 
feeble ones, softly, as from weakness. Prac- 
tice the examples, till you make Xhemfit you, 
and produce on yourselves and others, the de- 
sired effects. 

330. I came to the place of my birth, and 
said ; " The friends of my youth— Vfhexe are 
theyl" And echo answered, — " Where?'''' 
2. When the Indians were sohcited to emi- 
grate to the West, they replied ; What I shall 
we say, to the bones of our fathers— Arise I 
and go with us into o. foreign land? 

The truly lovely — 
Are not the/air, who boast but o^ outward grace, 
The nought, but beautiful of form and face ; 
They — are the lovely — they, in whom unite, [light. 
Earth's fleeting charms — with virtue''s heavenly 
Who, tho' they wither, — yet, w'nh faded bloom — 
Bear their all of siveetness — to the tomb. 

Notes. I. Such is the careless and ignorant manner in 
which many have been permitted to come up, instead of being 
lroti.z,ht up, that it will often be found necessary to use a variety of 
means to become divested of bad habits and their consequencer. 
2. Probably the lungs suffer more than any other part of the 
body, by being cooped up in a small cavity. To enlarge the chest, 
?ide-\vise, practice the elevation of the elbows to a horizontal plane 
nearly level with the shoulders, and commence gently tapping the 
breast between the shoulders, the ends of the fingers of both hands 
neing nearly together ; and then, during the exercise, strike back 
from the sternum towarc^each shoulder, drawing the hands far- 
ther and farther apart, till the ends of tlie fing-ers reach the arm- 
pits, and even out on the arm, without depressing the elbows: 
try it, and you will see and know. 

Anecdote. Flying To; not From. Some 
years ago, a person requested permission of the 
Bishop of Salisbury, in England, to fly from 
the spire of his church. The good bishop, 
with an anxious concern for the man's spiri- 
tual, as well as temporal safety, told him, he 
"vas very welcome to fly to the church ; but 
hi' would encourage iw one to ^y from it. 

THE BUTTEEFLT. 

Child of the sun! pursue thy rapturous flight. 
Mingling with her thou fcv's?— in fields of light ; 
And, where the flowers oi Paradise unfold, 
triuaff fragrant nectar — from their cups of gold, 
Inhere shall thy wings, rich as an evening sky, 
Expand — and shut — in silent ecstasy. 
V"et, wert thou once a worm, a thing, that crept 
On the bare ear^, then wrought atotnb, and slept ; 
And such — is man; ioon, from liis cellof c/ay, 
\o burst a seraj 'i.~\n the blaze of day. 



Proverbs. 1. Pn'i.'e— is the greatest cnemj* 
to reason ; and discretion — the great opposite of 
pri:le. 2. The u-ise — shape their apparel to Jiie 
body; the proud — shape their body to their appa- 
rel. 3. A sound and vigorous mind, in a healthy 
body, is an invaluable possession. 4. Experience — 
is the mother of the arts. 5. He, is never tired of 
listening, who wishes to gain knowledge. 6. Uet* 
ter consider for a day, than repent for a year. 7. 
Economy — is the foundation of liberality, and tha 
parent of tndepenc/enc«. 8. Use no totacco, if you 
would be decent, clean, and healthy. 9. The path 
of literature is more difficult, than that which letds 
to fortune. 10. That which is well dcMe, is Urtae 
done. 11. Of a little— tois a little. 12. A hasiy 
man — never wants woe. 

Providence. If a man lets his hand lie 
in the ice, it is highly probable Providence 
will ordain it to be frozen ; or if he holds it 
in the j^e, to be burnt. Those who go to sea, 
Providence will sometimes permit to be 
drowned ; those, on the other hand, who ne- 
ver quit dry ground. Providence will hardly 
suffer to perish in the sea. It is therefore 
justly said, " Help yourself, and Heaven wUl 
help you." The truth is, that God lias helped 
us from the beginning; the work of the 
master is completed ; and, so far as it was 
intended to be so, perfect; it requires, tliere- 
fore, no farther extraordinary aids and cor- 
rections from above ; 'ii& further development 
and improvement in this world is placed in 
our own hands. We may be good or bad, 
wise or foolish, not always perhaps in the 
degree which we, as individuals, might 
choose, were our wills perfectly free, but so 
far as the state of the human race, imme- 
diately preceding us, has formed us to decide. 

Varieties. 1. Is animal, or human mag- 
netism, true? 2. When the spirit is deter- 
mined, it can do almost ff«/ything; therefore, 
never yield to discouragement in doing, or 
getting, what is good and true. 3. What 
temptation is grea/er, than permitting young 
persons, and especially young jnen, in this 
degenerate world, to liandle much money, 
that is not their own. 4. Exhibit such an 
example in your dress, conversation, and 
temper, as will be worthy of imitation. 5. 
We often hear it said, "that people, and 
things, are changed^'' Is it not ourseli-€J> 
that have changed! The heart— makes all 
around, a mirror oi itself. 

Real glory — 

Springs from the silent conquest of 5ttrse^t'CJ, 

And, without that—fhe conqueror is nought, 

But the Jirst slave. 
7. Every word, spoken from affection, leaves 
an everlasting impression in the mind ; every 
thougtit, spoken from affection, becomes a 
living creation ; and the same also, if not 
spoken,— if it be fully assented to by the mind. 
When the stem dies, the leaf, that grew 
Out of its heart, must perish too. 



HP 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



331. EvJ RT emotion of the mind has its 
own external manifestation ,- so that no one 
emotion can be accommodated to anotlier. 
Observe the native eloquence of a hungry 
child, when asking for a piece of bread and 
tiutter; especiall}^ the third or fourth time ; 
and mark its emphasis, and tones: also the 
qualities of voice, with which it expresses its 
grief, anger, joy, &c. The manner of each 
passion is entirely different ; nor does it ever 
Hpply one for another ,- indeed, children in 
tlieir own efforts, always make the proper 
emphasis, inflections, and gestures; and they 
are graceful in all, when under the sole influ- 
ence of nature. Thus, from nature, unso- 
phistocated, may be derived the whole art of 
speaking. The author is free to acknow- 
ledge, that he has learned more about Ij^ue 
eloquence, from children, and the Indians, 
and his consequent practice, than from all 
other sources. 

333. Cicero — copied, and imitated, every 
body ; he was the very mocking-hixA. of el- 
oquence, which is his greatest distinction, 
and glor]) : for who so various ass^e ; who so 
sweet, so powerful, so simply eloquent, or so 
magnificently JZowwg-, and each, and all, by 
turns '{ His mind was a perfect pan-harmon- 
ican. Your original writer, — your original 
character, has no sympathies ; h« is heart- 
Dound, &ram-bound and hp-hovmd ; he is tru- 
ly an oddity ; he is like no-body, and no-body 
is like him; he feeds on self-adoi^ation, or 
the adulation of fools ; who mistake the ora- 
cles of pride and vanity, for the inspirations 
of genius. 

3:J3. There are some, even in this enlight- 
ened age, who affect to desjyise the acquisi- 
tion of elocution, and other important and 
useful accomplishments; but such persons 
are generally very awkward themselves, and 
dislike the application and practice, that are 
necessary to render them agreeable and im- 
I)ressive speakers. It is an old adage — that 
many — despise that, which they do not pos- 
sess, and which they are too indolent to at- 
tain. Remember the fox and the grapes. 

Anecdote. A colonel was once com- 
plaining, that from the ignorance, and i?iat- 
iention of the officers, he was obliged to do the 
whole duty of the regiment. Said he, " I am 
my own captain, my own lieutenant, my own 

comet, and" "Your owti trumpeter, ^^ 

Baid a lady present. 

NOW came still evening on, and twilight gray 
Had, in her sober livery, all things clad. 
Silence — accompawied ; for beast, and bird, 
They, to their gi-assy couch, these— to their neat 
Were sunk, all, but the wakeful nightirigale ; 
She, all uight long, her amorous descant sung ; 
Silence — was pleased. Now glow'd thefirtnoimnt 
With Viv'ws sapphires : Hespenis, tha^t Ud 
Thi starry host, rode brightest ; till 'he moon, 
Rising in clouded majesty, at length 
Apparaut queen, unvail'd her peerless light, 
and # er ttc- dark her silver mantle threw. 



Proverbs. 1. A wise governor, would rather 
preserve peace, than gahi a victory. 2. It is 
sometimes a benefit to grant favors, and at other 
times, to deny them. 3. An angry person is an- 
gry with hijnseif, when he returns to reason. 4. 
Uherever you are, conform to the usual cus- 
toms a.i\d irian7iers of the country, 5. To encourage 
the u7iioort/iy, is to promote vice. 6. Ingratitude 
to the benevolent — generally ends in disgrace. 7. 
Esteem virtue, tho'in &foe: abhor vice, the' in a 
friend. 8. The more one speaks cf himself, th« 
iass willing is he, to hear ano^Aer talked about. 
9. Is'ature — is always conteut with herself. 10. 
I'orm \ our opinions of a person, by his question*, 
rather than by his answers. 11. Say — can wis- 
dom — e'er reside, with passion, envy, hate, or 
pride ? 12. In a calm sea, every man is pilot. 13. 
A good Z//e— keeps oil wrinkles. 

Debt. There is nothing — more t/> be 
dreaded, than debt : when a person, whose 
principles are good, unhappily falls into this 
situation, adieu to all peace and comfort 
The reflection imbilters every meal, and 
drives from the eyelids refreshing sleep. It 
corrodes and cankers every cheerful idea 
and, like a stern Cerberus, guards each ave- 
nue to the heart, so tliat pleasure does not 
approach. Happy I thrice happy ! are those, 
who are blessed with an independent compe 
tence, and can confine their luants within the 
bounds of that competenea, be it what it may 
To such alone, the bread ot life is palatable 
and nourishing. Sweet ia i^io morsel, that is 
acquired by an honest i7iditjt-y, the produce 
of which is permanent, or tiiat flows from a 
source which will not fail. A subsistence, 
that is precarious, or procured by an uncer- 
tain prospect of payment, carries neither 
wine nor oil with it. Let me, therefore, again 
repeat, that the person, who is deeply involv- 
ed in debt, experiences, on earth, all the tor- 
fures, the poets describe to be the lot of the 
wretched inhabitants of Tatarus. 

Varieties. 1. Is not a' want of purity, 
the cause of the fickleness of mankind ! 2. 
A man's character is like his shadow, 
which sometimes /oZZouJ5, and at others, pre 
cedes him ; and which is occasionally longer, 
or shorter, than he is. 3. Admiration — sig- 
nifies the reception and acknowledgment of 
a thing, in thought, and affection. 4. Wc 
should have good roads, if all the sinntrs 
were set to mend them. 6. The world is a 
hive, that affords both sweets, and poisons, 
with many empty combs. 6. All earthly en- 
joyments are not w^hat they appear ,- there- 
fore, we should discriminate ; for some are 
sweet in hopes, but, m fruition, sour. 7. Ot' 
der — is the siveetest, most pacific, regular 
and delightful melody: the first motion if 
one, and the end is one: the final end is tb€ 
similitude of the beginning. 

Self, alone, in nature — rooted /<w*, 
Attends \xs first, and leaves us — last. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



119 



334. IjfFLECTioxs. These are the rising 
and falling sUdes of the voice, terminating 
on a higher, or lower pitch, than that on 
which it commenced ,- being continuous from 
the radical, or opening fullness of voice, to 
the vanish, or terminating point; and not 
discrete, as the seven notes are. In the in- 
tonations, the voice steps up or down, by 
discrete degrees; but in the i:nfiections, it 
trades up or down, by continuous degrees. 
Tlie piano, organ, &;c., give discrete degrees ; 
the harp, violin, &lc., continuous degrees. 

335. The following sentences may be read, 
with either the falling, or the' rising inflec- 
tion ; and the pupil should determine, from 
the sense, &c., the object of the question. 1 . Is 
not good reading and speaking a very rare 
attainment ? 2. How are we to recover from 
the elTects of the fall? 3. Are we natually 
inclined to evil or good? 4. Is it possible for 
man to save himself? 5. Who is entitled to 
the more honor, Columbus, or Washington ? 
6. Which is the more useful member in so- 
ciety, the farmer, or the mechanic ? 7. Ought 
there to be any restrictions to emigration ? 
S. Will any one, who knows his own heart, 
trust himself? 

336. The inflections — may, perhaps, be 
better understood, by contrasting them with 
the monotone; which is nearly one continued 
sound, without elevation, or depression, and 
may be represented by a straight horizontal 

line, thus ; . In the use of the 

inflections, the voice departs from the mono- 
tone, and its radical, in a continued elevation 
or depression, two, three. Jive, or eight notes, 
according to the intensity of the affirmation, 
interrogation, command, petition, or nega- 
tion ; which are the five distinctive attributes 
of the vital parts of speech. 

337. Some of mate's chahacteristics 
His position is naturally upright; he has free 
use of both hands : hence, he is called the 
only /?/;o-handed animal : the prominence of 
[lis chin, and the uniform length of his teeth, 
are peculiar: he is, physically, defenceless, 
having neither weapons of attack nor of de- 
fence: his facial angle is greater than that 
of any other animal ; being from 70° to 90° : 
he has generally the largest brains : he is the 
only animal that sleeps on his hack: the only 
one that laughs and weeps,- tlie only one 
that has an articulate language, expressive 
of ideas : and he is the only one endued with 
reason and moral sense, and a capacity for 
religion ,• the only being capable of serving 
God intelligibly. 

MILTON. 

Thy s6mJ— was like a star — and dwelt apart; 
Thou hadst a voice — whose sound was like the sco, 
I'ure — a« the naked heavens, majestic, free. 
So didst thou travel — on life's common way, 
In cheerful godliness ; and yet — thy heart 
The lowliest duties— oa lierself did iay. 



Proverbs. 1. As ytu sow, you shall reap 
2. Betray no trust, and divulge no secret. 3. Chide 
not severely, nor punish hastily. 4. Despise rx)ne, 
and despair of none. 5. Envy cannot see ; igno ■ 
ranee cannot judge. 6. Gossiping and lying, ge- 
nerally go ha7id in hand. 7. He, who swears, 
distrusts his own word. 8. It is not easy to lova 
those, whom we do not esteem. 9. Labor brings 
pleasure; idleness— pain. 10. Many a true wojd 
is spoken in jest. 11. He who serves— \s, not fres 
12. First come, first served. 13. When gold speaks, 
all tongues are silent. 

Anecdote. BonH know him. Lord Nel' 
son, when a 6o?/, being on a visit to \usaunVs, 
went one day a hunting, and wandered so 
far, that he did not return, till long after dark. 
The lady, who was much alarmed by his ab- 
sence, scolded him severely ; and among other 
things said; I wonder Fear did not drive you 
home. ^^Fear,'" replied the lad, "I don^t 
know him.'' 

Progress of Society. Whoever has at- 
tentively meditated— on the progress of the 
human race, cannot fail to discern, that there 
is now a spirit of inquiry amongst men 
which nothing can stop, or even materiaUv 
control. Reproach and Qbloquy, threats aj:o 
persecution, will be in vain. They may iin- 
bitter opposition and engender violence, but 
they cannot abate the keenness of research. 
There is a silent march of tliought, which m 
power can arrest, and which, it is not difficul 
to foresee, will be marked by im-portant events. 
Mankind were never fte/ore in the situation in 
which they now stand. The press has been 
operating upon them for several centuries, 
with an influence scarcely perceptible at its 
commencement, but by daily becoming more 
palpable, and acquiring accelerated force, it 
is rousing the intellect of ?2a^io«s,- and happy 
will it be for them, if there be no rash inter- 
ference with the natural progress of know- 
ledge ; and if by a judicious and gradual 
adaptation of their institutions to the inevit- 
able changes of opinion, they are saved from 
those convulsions, which the pride, prejudices 
and obstinacy of a few may occasion to the 
whole. 

Varieties. 1; A good wife — is like a 
snail. Why ? Because she keeps in her own 
house : a good wife is not like a snail. Why 1 
Because she does not carry her all on licr 
hack: a good wife is like a town clock. 
Why! Because she keeps good time: a 
good wife is not like a tow^ clock. Why 1 
Because she does not speak so loud, that all 
the town can hear her : a good wife is like ai\ 
echo. Why ] Because she speaks when spo- 
kento'. agoodwifeisrzoHikeanecho. Why' 
Because she does not tell — all she hears. 

Ye maidens fair— consider well, 
And look both shretvd, and sly, 

Ere rev'rend lips, make good tha knot. 
Your teeth— vfill ne'er untie 



120 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



338. Inflections. An anecdote may- 
serve to present this important branch of our 
subject, in a light easy to be understood by 
all. An elderly g( mtleman asked the author, 
if he thought it possible for him to learn to 
smg ? He was answered in the affi,rmatwe, 
provided he loved music, and was anxious to 
learn. His voice was qKnie flexible, and va- 
ried, in conversation, and he used all the 
notes of the scale, except two. It was 
thought, upon the spur of the moment, to 
get the old man a little angry, (and after- 
wards beg his pardon,) in order to induce 
him to slide his voice through the octave : the 
effort was successful ; and with much feeling, 
he again asked, " Do you say sir, that (1) I — 
can learn to sing? an old man like wie?" 
carrying his voice from the first to the eighth 
note, on 1, sing, and me. Just then a friend 
came in, to whom he observed, with incred- 
ulous surprise, mingled with a little con- 
tempt, — "He says Jean learn to sing:" and 
his voice fell from the eighth to the first note, 
on 7. 

339. No one can read the following sen- 
tence of ors, even in the common manner, 
without any regard to inflections, and not 
give the word before or, the rising inflection, 
and the one after it, the falling inflection ; 
and the reader's ear must be the judge. 
Good, OT bad; true, or false ; right, or wrong; 
this, or that ; boy, or girl ; man, or woman ; 
male, or female ; land, or water ; over, or 
under; above, or below ; before, or behind ; 
within, or without ; old, or young ; strength, 
or weakness ; fine, or coarse ; one, or two ; 
you, or I; well, or ill; kind, or unkind; 
black, or white; red, or green; rough, or 
smoothe ; hard, or soft ; straight, or crook- 
ed; long, or short ; round, or square ; fat, 
or lean ; swift, or slow ; up, or down. If 
the reader does not satisfy himself the first 
time, let him practice on these phrases till he 
does. 

340. Reading. The purposes of reading 
are three: the acquisition of knowledge, as- 
sisting the memory in treasuring it rp, and 
the communication of it to others : hence, 
we see the necessity of reading aloud. The 
ancient Greeks never read in public, but reci- 
ted from memory ; of course, if we wish to 
succeed as they did, we must follow in their 
footsteps. How much better it would be, if 
clergymen would memorize those portions 
of the Bible, which they wish to read in 
public ! But it may be said, that the task 
would be a severe one : true, but how much 
more effect might be produced on themselves 
and others : and then to have a large part, or 
the whole, of that blessed book, stored up in 
tlie mind, for use here and hereafter ! 

The business that we tova we raise betime, 
Aud go to— with delight. 



Proverbs. 1. The itmedy is often v/ona 
than the disease, 2. To \\\xn.\haX wills, ways are 
seldom icanting. 3 A well-balanced mind — wil 
resist the pressure of adversity. 4. Be always on 
your guard, against the advices of the wickfdj 
when you come in contact with them. 5. Blessed 
is he, that readeth, and undentandeth whp.t he 
readelh. 6. Take it for granted, there can be no 
excellence, without labor. 7. The rich man is often 
a stranger to the quiet and content of the poor man. 
8. Beware of gathering scorpions, for this, or the 
future world. 9. Tliere is no gential rule, with- 
out exceptions. 10. Every light— is not the sun. 
11. Never be angry — at what you cannot hdp. 

Anecdote. Use of Falsehood. A jury^ 
whidi was directed by the Judge, to bring in 
a certain prisoner guilty, on his own confes- 
sion and plea, returned a verdict of ^^ Not 
Guilty ,'" and offered, as a reason, that they 
knew the fellow to be so great a liar, they 
did not believe him. 

Talent. One man, perhaps, prov es miser- 
able in the study of the law, who might have 
flourished in that of physic, or divinity ; an- 
other — runs his head against the pulpit, who 
might have been serviceable to his country at 
the plough ; and a third — proves a very dull 
and heavy philosopher, who possibly would 
have made a good mechanic, and have done 
well enough at the useful philosophy of tlie 
spade or anvil. 

"Varieties — in the Uses of Infections. 1. 
Is genuine repentance faunded in love, or 
fear? 2. Can we intentionally offend a per- 
son, whom we truly love ? 3. Have not angth 
ic, as well as satanic beings, once been men, 
and women, on some of the countless earths 
in the universe ? 4. Has any cne actual sin, 
till he violates the known will of God, and 
wilfully sins against his own conscience? 
5. How can the Red men be forgotten, while 
so many of the states, territories, moun- 
tains, rivers and lakes, bear their names ? 6. 
Since decision of character can be acquired 
by discipline, what is the best method to ac- 
quire if? The firm resolve — to obtain that 
knowledge, necessary for a choice, and then 
to do what we know to be right, at any, and 
every peril. 7. What places are better adap 
ted than theatres, in their present degi-ada^ 
tion, to teach the theoi-y and practice of fiifth- 
ionable iniquity ? 8. What is a more faith" 
ful, or pleasant friend, than a good book? 

Vhen yc« mournfully rivet — your <e«r-laden eyes, 

That have seen the last sunset of Aope — pass away, 
On some bright orb, tliaf seems, through the still Kipphire shtf, 

In leatity and iplendor, to roll on its way : 
Oh remember, this earth, if hehelii from afar 

Would seem wrapt in a AnZo — as dear M-ii ar bn^hi 
As the pure silver radiance — enshrining- yon iiar, 

Where your spirit — is eagerly soaring to-night. 
And at thia very moment, perhaps, some poor Heart, 

That it aching and breaking in that distant sphllS, 
Gazes down on this dark world, and longs to depart 

From its oum dismal home, U) a Uri^ittr one htft 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



Ul 



841. The Rising InflectioitC). This 
indicates that the voice glides upward con- 
tinuously, on the more important words. Ex. 
Do you say that / can learn to sing '\ Are 
you going to town to-day] Is he a good 
m^n 7 Do you love and practice the truth ? 
Is it your desire to become useful? Do you 
wish to become a good reader, speaker, and 
hinger? Is there not a diflference between 
wordsy thoughts, and feelings? 

3*a. Three Modes OF Existence. May 
we not appropriately contemplate our bodies, 
and our minds, as consisting of three degrees, 
each having its own legitimate sphere? Is 
not each like a three story hoixse, with three 
successive suits of apartments, which may be 
called — the lewer, the middle and the up' per? 
Are there not three vital degrees of the body, 
the abdominal, the thoracic, and the enceph- 
alic ? And does not the mind consist of as 
many degrees, called scientific, rational and 
affedtuous? or, natural, spiritual and heaxf- 
enly ? Is there not in us, as it were, a ladder 
reaching from earth to heavfen? Shall we 
not flwcend, and descend upon it, and thus 
take a view of both the worlds in which we 
live 1 But will not the material part soon 
die, and the soul — liwe forei/er? Then does 
not wisdom say, attend to each, according to 
its impor'tance? Are we not wonderfully 
made!? Doth our soul know it right well'? 
And will we praise our Redeemer, by rfoing 
his will' ^ 

343. On examining children, in an unper- 
verted state, and all animals, it will mvariably 
be found, that they use the lower muscles for 
breathing, and producing sounds. Who is 
not aware that children will halloo, all day 
long, without becoming hoarse, or exhausted ? 
And how often it is the case, thaX parents wish 
their children to call persons at a distance, be- 
ing aware that they have themselves lost the 



Proverbs. 1. Good moftners are sure lo pro- 
cure respect. 2. Self-comeit makes opinion cAsti- 
nate. 3. Kjiowledge is tiie mind's treasure. 4. 
Make the best of a bad largain. 5. Never speak 
to deceive, nor listen to bet.ay. 6. Passion~is ever 
the enemy of truth. 7. Piefer lost, to unjust gain , 
and solid seme, to ivit. 8. Quit not certainty foi 
hope. 9. Rejoice in the truth, and maintain it. 10. 
Seek not arter the failings of others. 11. Might-^ 
does not make right. 12. Divinity — cannot be de^ 
fined. 13. Deride not the unfortunate. 

Pliilosopliy. Philosophy, so far from de- 
serving contempt, is the glory of human na- 
ture. Man approaches, by contemplation, to 
wliat we conceive of celestial purity and ex* 
cellence. Witliout the aid of ■ philosophy, the 
mass of mankind, aU over the terraqueous 
g-Zo&e, would have sunk in slavery and super" 
stition, — the natural consequences of gross 
ignorance. Men, at the very bottom of so- 
ciety, have* been enabled, by the natural 
talents they possessed, seconded by favorable 
opportunities, to reach the highest improve- 
ments in philosophy; and have thus lifted 
up a torch in the valley, which has exposed 
tlie vjeakness and deformity of the castle on 
the mountain, from which the oppressors sal- 
lied, in the night of darkness, and spread 
desolation with impunity. Despots: the 
meanest, the basest, the most brutal and ig- 
norant of the human race, who would have 
trampled on the rights and happiness of men 
unresisted, if philosophy had not opened the 
eyes of the sufferers, shovm them their own 
power and dignity, and taught them to despise 
those giants of power, as they appeared thro' 
the mists of ignorance, who ruled a vassal 
world with a mace of iron. Liberty — is the 
daughter of philosophy ; and they who de- 
test the offspring, do all that they can to vilify 
and discountenance the motli^r. 

Varieties. 1. 7/nat is humility, and 
i what are ito effects? 2. Vice — stings us. 



power to speak as formerly. Now all that is evjn in our pleasures ; but virtue — consoles 



necessary to be done, by such individuals, is to 
retrace their steps to truth and nafw/e. Re- 
member, that examples, in thi" art especially, 
are better than preceptt ; rules are to prevent 
faults, not to introduce beauties ; therefore, 
become no familiar with them, that they may 
govern your practice involuntarily. 

Anecdote. Gold Pills. Dr. Goldsmith, 
having been requested by a wife, to visit her 
husband, who was melancholy, called upon 
the patient, and seeing that the cause was 
poverty, told him he would send him some 
pills, which he had no doubt would prove 
efficacious. He immediately went home, put 
ten guineas into a paper, and sent tliem to 
the sick man: the remedy had the desired 
effect. 

Sueptcwn — overturns — what confidence — builds / 
And he.who d ares but doubt when there's no ground, 
Ib neit]\er to himsdf. vs.-: others^ ~so\in\\. 
16 



us, even in onr pains. 3. Cowards — Aiemany 
times ; the valiant — never taste of death but 
once. 4. True friendship is like sour/d 
health; the value of it is seldom known tfll it 
is lost. 5. Young folks tell what they do; old 
ones, what they have done ; and fools, what 
they will do. 6. Men's evil manners live in 
brass; their virtues, we write in sand. 7. 
The natural effects of (4) fidelity, (5) clem- 
ency and (6) kindness, in governors, are 
peace, good-will, order and esteem, on the part 
of the governed. 8. Never make yourself 
too little for the sphere of duty ; but stretch, 
and expand yourself to the compass of its ob- 
jects. 9. (4) Friends, (5) Romans, (6) coun- 
trymen — lend me your ear*,- I come to bury 
Cesar, not to praise him. 10. All truths — 
are but forms of heavenly loves; and all fa l^ 
sities — are the forms of inferiial loves. 
If you would excel in arts, excel in indusiry. 



122 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



344. iNFLBCTiojys. One very encourag- 
ing feature of our interesting subject is, that 
aU our principles are drawn from nature, and 
are therefore inherent in everij one ; the grand 
design is to develop our minds and bodies in 
accordance with these principles ; which can 
be done, not by silently reading the work, 
or thinking about its contents ; but, by pa- 
tient, persevering practice : this, only, can 
enable us to overcome our bad habits, and 
bring our voices, icords, and mi?id into har- 
mony, so that the externals may perfectly 
correspond to the internals. 

345. 1. Is there aught, in eloquence — 
that, can warm the heart ? She draws her 
fire from natural "imagery. Is tliere aught 
m poetry — to enliven the imagination? 
Thre — is the secret of her power. 2. Do 
you love to gaze at the (3) sihi, the (4) moon, 
and the (6) phhtels 1 This affection con- 
tains the science of astronomy, as the seed 
— contains the future tree. Would a few 
nence — duty, on tea, for raising a revenue, 
have ruined ihe fortunes of any of the -4mer- 
icaiis ? No! but the payment of oni penny, 
on the prijiciple it was demu7ided, would 
have made them — slaves. 

346. iNVALins — will find the principle, 
and practice, here set fortJi, of great service 
to them, if they possess the strength, and 
have the resolution, to adojot them ; and they 
will often derive special aid by attempting to 
do something : for the mind, by a determina- 
tion of the will, can be brought to act upon 
tlie nervous system, in such a way, as to start 
the flow of the blood on its career of health, 
and strength ; and, ere they are aware of it, 
they -will be ready to mount up as with the 
wings of an eagle, and leave all care, and 
trouble, and anxiety on the earth. Let them 
try it, and tliey will see : persevere. 

Anecdote. The Cobbler. A cobbler, at 
LcT/den, who used to attend the pubHc dis- 
putations, held at the academy, was once 
•asked if he understood Latin. " No," replied 
the mechanic, " but I know who is wrong in 
the argument." " How .?" replied his friend. 
■^ Why, by seeing who is angry first." 

Lift up thine eyes, afflicted soul ! 

From earth — lift up thine eyes, 
Tliough dark — the evening shadows roll. 

And daylight beauty — dies ; 
One sun is set — a thousand more 

Tlieir rounds of fflory run, 
Where science leads thee — to explore 

In every star — a sun. 
Thus, when some long-loved comfort ends, 

And nature would despair, 
Faith — to the heaven of heavens ascends, 

And meets ten thousand there ; 
First, faint and small, then, clear and bright, 

They gladden all the gloom., 
And stars, that seem but points of light, 

The rank of sunt issume. 



Proverbs. 1, The body contains .he worlang 
tools of the mind; master your tools, or you will 
be a bad workman. 2. Here, and there ; or, this 
world, and tlxe next, is a good subject for refection. 
3. An artist lives everywhere. 4. The body — is 
the image, or type, of the soul; and the sou* ia 
visible, only through it. 5. Never refuse a geod 
offer, in hopes of a better one ; the frst is certain; 
the Iccst is only hope. 6. A promiscuous and su- 
perficial study of books, seldom yields much solid 
information. 7. Tho' ruin ensue, justice must 
not be infringed. 8. Those things become us best, 
that appertain to our situation in life. 9. Pros- 
perity — intoxicates and disturbs the mind : adversi- 
ty — subdues and ameliorates it. 10. The strangest 
symptoms of wisdom in us, is being sensible of our 
follies. 11. A good man— is not an object of /ear. 
12. Friendship — is stronger than kindred. 13 
Sin is sin, -whether seeji or not. 

Duelling. We read, in Swedish history, 
that Adolphus, king of Sweden, determining 
to suppress these false notions of honor, is- 
sued a severe edict against the practice. Two 
gentlemen, however, generals in his service, 
on a quarrel, agreed to sohcit the king's per- 
mission, to decide their difference by the laws 
of honor. The king consented, and said, he 
would be present at the combat. He was at- 
tended by a body of guards and the public 
executioner, and before they proceeded to 
the onset, he told these gentlemen, that they 
must fight till one of them died. Then, turn- 
ing to the executioner, he added, do you im- 
mediately strilve off tlie head of the swvivor. 
This had the intended effect ; the difference 
between the two officers was adjusted, and 
no more challenges were heard of in the army 
of Gustavus Adolphus. 

Varieties. 1 . Oh ! t/;Ao can describe wo* 
man's love, or woman's constancy. 2. Can 
the immortality of the soul be proved from 
the light of 7iature .^ 3. If the sculptor could 
put life into his works, would he not resem- 
ble a good orator ? 4. Can we be too zealous 
in promoting a good cause ? 5. Are mira- 
cles the most convincing evidences of truth ? 
6. Is it not very hard to cherish unkind /ee/- 
ings,xin6. thoughts,without showing them in 
unkind words and actions ? 7. Are theatres 
— beneficial to mankind'.' 8. Ought any 
thing be received, without due examination ? 
9. Do you wish to know the persons, aganist 
whom you have most reason to guard your- 
self 'J your looking-glass will reveal him to 
you. 10. If a man is in earnest, would you 
therefore call him sl fanatic. 

They SLTe sleeping ! WAo are sleeping ? 

Captives, in their gloohiy cells ; 
Yet sweet dreams are o'er them creeping, 

With their many-colored spells. 
All they love— again they clasp them ; 

Feel ag-am— their Iong-lost>i/j; 
But the haste — with which they grasp thelll^ 

Every fairy form destroys. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTK^N. 



123 



317, The Falling Iivflectiox Q) in- 
dicates that the voice gUdes downwards, 
continuously, on the more important words. 
1. "Where are you going? 2. Of what 
are you thinking? 3. Who sendeth the 



early and the latter 



4. What things 



f 



are most proper for youth to learn ] Those 
that they are to practice, when they enter 
upon the stage of action. 5. Be always sure 
you are right, then go ahead" 6. Begin^ ; 
be bold, — and venture to be wise : He who 
defers this work, from day to day, Does on a 
river's brink expecting, stay, Till the whole 
stream, that stopt liim, shall be gone, — That 
rwm, and runs, and ever will run on. 7. I 
do not so much request, as demand your 
attention, 8. Seek the truth for its own 
sake, and out of love for it ; and when found, 
embrace it, let it cut where it will; for it is 
all powerful, and must prevail. 

348. Never begin, or end, two successive 
sentences on the same pitch: neither two 
lines in poetry; nor two members of a sen- 
tence ; nor two words meaning different 
things ; if you do, it will be monotonous. 
The 3d, 4th, or 5th note is the proper pitch 
for commencing to read or speak ; thcj /orce 
must be determined by the occasion, the size 
of the room, the sense, &c. If we are in 
the middle of the pitches, we can rise or fall 
according to circumstances ; but if we begin 
too Idgh, or too low, we shall be liable to 
extremes. Look at those of the audience at 
a medium distance, and you will not greatly 
err in -pitch. 

349. Mental Philosophy — treats of 
the faculties of the human mind; their laws 
and actions, with a general reference to their 
use and cultivation. It teaches, that the 
two constituents of mind — are the will and 
the UNDEKSTANDIN& ; the former is the re- 
ceptacle of all our affections, good, or evil; 
the latter, of all our thoughts, true or false. 
Phrenology — may be considered, to a certain 
extent, as the highway to the philosophy of 
mind ; but it is not a sxxre guide, being found- 
ed on the philosophy of effects, instead of 
that of causes; as is the case with all the 
sciences : hence, it cannot be depended on. 
To judge righteously of the subject of mind, 
we must have the whole ma7i; which in- 
volves 'phrenology, physiology, and psycholo- 
gy: all of which must be seen in the light 
ot TRUTH, natural, and spiritual. 

/Anecdote. Ehymetry. When queen 
Elizabeth visited the town of Falkenstene, 
the inhabitants employed their parish clerh — 
to versify their address : the mayor, on be- 
ing introduced, with great gravity mounted 
a three legged stool, and commenced his 
poetical declamation thus: — "O mighty 
queen, Welcome to Falkenstene!''' Eliza' 
heth burst out in a loud roar of laughter; 
and, without giving his worship time to re- 
cover himself, she replied, " You great /ooZ, 
Get off that s«ooZ." 

Keep company with the wise and good. 



Proverbs. 1. Speech — is iht image of iction, 
2. Superstition— IS the spleen of the soid. 3. Sus- 
pect a tale-bearer^ and trust him not. 4. Suspicion 
—is the passion oi traefriendskip. 5. Sweet are 
the slumbers of the virtuous. 6. Safe is he, wlio 
serves a good conscience. 7. Never do a mean 
action. 8. Set not too high a value on your own 
abilities. 9. Simple diet makes htxlthy children. 
10. Sneer not at that you cannot r-.val 11. Tlie 
best answer lo a slander — is silence. 1*. . Vice — is 
infamous in ere??/ body. 

Com.passion. Compassion — is an emo- 
tion, ot which we ought never to be asham' 
ed. Graceful, particularly in youth, is the 
tear of sympathy, and the heart, that melts 
at the tale oiwo; we should not permit ease 
and indulgence to contract our affections, 
and wrap us up in a selfish enjoyment. But 
we should accustoyn ourselves to think of 
the distresses of human life, of the solitary 
cottage, the dying parent, and the weeping 
orphan. Nor ought we ever to sport with 
pai7i and distress, in any of our amusements, 
or treat even the meanest insect with wanton 
cruelty. * 

Varieties, l' What does the tree of life 
signify, and what the knowledge of good and 
evil, and ivhat the eati?ig from them? 2. 
What heaps of the ruins of a former world, 
are piled up to form the substratum, and 
surface, of the one we i7ihabit? 3. Why ia 
the Caucasian, or European race, so migra- 
tory and unsettled in its habits and propeii' 
sities, while the African race seems dis- 
posed to stay at home, conte7ited, and happy i 
4. Where, in the brain, is the determma- 
tion of the mind, when we think inte7iselyf 
Is it not where phrenologists locate causal- 
ity? 5. Why is the eye used to represent 
wisdom ? 6. JVho knoweth, (says Solomon,) 
the spirit of man, that goeth upward, and 
the spirit of the beast, that goeth downward 1 
7. Why is a circle — used to represent eter- 
nity ? 

THE DYING CHKISTIAN TO HIS SOUI» 

Vital spark — oC heavenly flame! 
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame ; 
Trembling, hoping, ling'' ring, fiying, 
Oh, the pain, the bliss — o^ dying! 
Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife, 
And let me languish — into life. 
Hark! ikej whisper ; angels say, 
" Sister spirit, come away.^ 
What is this — absorbs me quite ; 
Steals my senses, — shuts my sight, 
Drowns my spirits, — draws my breath .' 
Tell me, my sojil, can this—he death? 
The world recedes ; it disappears ! 
Heaven — opens on my eyes! my ears 

With sounds seraphic ring:— 
'Lew\,lendy OUT wings! I mount! I fly' 
O grave! where— \s thy victory? 

death! where— is ihy sting? 

1 hate to see— a shabby book, 
With half the leaves— lorn out, 

And used, as if its ot<;ner— thought 
Twere made- -to toss about. 



124 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



350. INFLECTIONS. The reader sees that 
•he risiiis inflection is used, when questions 
are asked, that may be answered by yes, or 
no; also, in cases oi doubt and uncertainty: 
and that xhe falling inflection is used, when 
questions are asked that are not thus an- 
swered ; and in all cases of strong afirma- 
tion. Some authors seem not to have no- 
ticed the distinction between a rising injiec- 
tton of the voice, and a simple suspension 
of it, when there is a continuation of the 
bense. Let us not rely too much on the i?i- 
jlections, to enable us to give variety, but 
on the different -pitches of voice: the former 
gives artificial variety, and the latter, a 
natural one. 

35 1» !• Accustom yourself to submit, on 
all occasions, (even in the most minute, as 
well as the most iriiportant circumstances in 
life,) to a small, present evil, to obtain a 
greater, distant good. This will give de- 
cision, tone, and energy to the mind; 
wliich, thus disciplined, will often reap victo- 
ry — from defeat, and honor — from repulse. 
Having acquired this in-waluable habit of 
rational preference, and just appreciation, 
start for the prize that endureth forever. 2. 
'I'he man, whose Iiouse is on fire, cries — 
Fire ! fire^ ! ! FIRE^ ! ! ! with the falling 
inflection: but the roguish hoy, who would 
raise a false alarm, cries, Fire., fire, Jire, 
with the rising inflection. 3. This is an 
(5) open, (4) honorahle challenge; why are 
you (6) suent? Why do you (5) prevari- 
cate? I (6) insist upon txiis point; I (5) 
urge you to it: (4) press it; nay, I (3) de- 
mand — it. 

352. The END, the cause and the effect, 
are the three distinct things, which follow 
each other in regular and successive order; 
for every thing," in this world, and in the 
other, proceeds according to these degrees: 
hence, intelligence — properly consists in 
knowing and distinguishing them, and see- 
ing them in their order. Illustration: the 
end of man is the love of his will; for what 
one loves, he proposes and intends: the 
cause with him is the reason oi the under- 
standing; for the e7id, by means of the rea- 
son, seeks for mediates, or efficient causes: 
and the effect is the operation of the body 
from, Qni according to, them. When tliese 
three are exhibited m act, the end is inward- 
ly in the cause, and thro'' the cause in the 
effect; wherefore, they co-exist in the effect. 
Hence, the propriety oi judging every one — 
by his works; that is, by his fruits: for the 
end. or the love of the will, and the cause, 
or the reaso?i of his understanding, are to- 
gether in the effects; which three constitute 
the witole man. 

Oh how poor 
Seems the rich gift of genius, when it lies, 
Like the adventurous bird, that hath out-flown 
liis strength— upon the ssa, ambition-vfvecked.— 
A thing— the thrush might pity, as she eits, 
liroodiug iu quiet, on her lowly nest. 



j Proverl)s. 1. Through tht ear, we must fiiu". 
access to the heart. 2. H^inger makes exery kind 
, of food acceptable. 3. Death — is the finishing 
j stroke in the picture oUife. 4. The remembrance 
I of labors performed, and difficulties overcome, is al- 
{ ways agreeable. 5. The labors of the student are 
siveeter, the farther he proceeds ; because his heart 
is in them. G. Always yield to the truth. 7. The 
improvement of the mind is of the first imporiatice. 
8. Beware of going into the way of temptatioris : 
many have been ruined, merely by looking on, to 
see how others do. 9. Tricks and treachery an; 
the practice of fools. 10. The proper study of 
mankind — is man. 11. Promote virtuous com»iK- 
nication. 12. An ape — is ridiculous by natjire; 
men— by art and study. 13. Flattery — is a very 
fashionable art. 

Anecdote. Old Habits. The duke de 
Niver7iois was acquainted with the countess 
de liochefort, and never omitted going to 
see her a single evening. As she was a 
widow and he a widower, one of his friends 
observed to him, it would be more conven- 
ient for him to marry that lady. " I have 
often thought so," said he, " but one thing 
prevents me ; in that case, where should 1 
spend my evenings V^ 

Proiaises. If promises — from man to 
man have force, why not from man to wo- 
man ? Their very weakness is the chartei 
of their power, and they should not be in- 
jured because they can't return it. 

Varieties. Educational Questions. 1. 
What are the rights and duties of the fami- 
ly, and of society at large, respecting the 
education of children ? 2. To what sort and 
degree of education can anr/ human individ- 
ual, as such, lay claim, mdependently of 
fortune, or any other distinction ? 3. How 
far should the education of a child be regu- 
lated, according to his natural capacities, 
and how /ar should external circumstances 
be permitted to affect it ? 4. What are the 
chief obstacles to a more general education 
of the poor; and what are *he leading errors 
committed in this greatest of all charities, 
so far as it extends at -present? 5. What 
are the cJ^iV/ errors committed in the educa- 
tion of the wealthier classes, and by what 
means can the education of both voor and 
rich be made to produce, in the course of 
time, a more harmonious state of society ? 

6. How far, hitherto, lias Christianity been 
allowed to influence education, and by what 
means can the difficulties, arising froin dis- 
tinctions among christians, be obviated in it t 

7. TVho will satisfactorily answer these im 
portant questions ? 
" From the birth 



Of mortal man, the sov'reign Maker said, 

That not in humble, nor In brie/ delight, 

Not in the fading echoes of renown, 

Power's purple robes, nor pleasure's flowery lap, 

The soul—Knu find enjoyment ; but from these 

Turning, disdainful, to an equal good. 

Thro' all th' ascent of things — enlarge her t'i«M>, 

Till every bound — at length— shall disappear, 

And infinite ^fr/ecf ton— close the scene.'-' 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



125 



359. Prbceding Principles. The sooner 
the pupil begins to rely upon his oum re- 
Bources and experience, the better; and he 
should not forget, that he must make himself 
an elocutionist. Hence, the importance of 
his seeing, rationally, and feeling, in his in- 
most soul, the truth, or falsehood, of the 
principles here unfolding. Let every exam- 
ple be thoroughly mastered,- and, to prevent 
the growth of bad habits, in reading, speak- 
ing and singing, let him often review; as 
well as pay special attention to tlie varieties 
of illustration, that are to be found on every 
page. 

353. 1. It is too late— to urge objections — 
agmnst universal education; for the fountains 
— of the great deep — are broken up, and a 
flood of information, (4) theological, (6) scien- 
tific, (4) civil, and (6) literary, is carrying all 
bef(yre it; filling up the valleys, and scaling 
the (6) MOUNT Aiif -tops: a spirit of inquiry 
has gone forth, and sits brooding — on the 
mind of man. 2. Music — shovdd be cultivat- 
ed, not as a mere sensual gratification ; but, 
as a means of elevating, and improving the 
affections; ennobling, purifying, hlxA exalt- 
ing, the w^hole man. 3. Beware — of a re- 
morseless thirst for the acquisition of riches; 
rather — than deliver up yourself in execrable 
devotion to Mammon, mount the ladder of 
the most dangerous ambition, — even tho' it 
were planted on the precipice, ~B.nd leaned 
against a cloud. 

354. Politic AX. Philosopht — includes 
all theories and general views of government, 
with a description of t\ie forms, and the prin- 
ciples on which they are founded, and the 
modes in which they are administered. This 
study rests on the basis of natural law, or 
justice ; and tiierefore, presupposes a know- 
ledge of ethics ,- it requires enlarged and ele- 
vated views of human nature, and tiie 
constitution of society ; with the means by 
which virtue may be diffused, justice en- 
forced, and order preserved throughout the 
community: it is alike important to the 
statesman, the legislator, and the private 
citizen. 

Anecdote. Howard's Opinion of Swear- 
ers. As he was standing, one day, near the 
door of a printing-ofhce, he heard some 
dreadful volleys of oaths and curses from a 
public house opposite, and, buttoning his 
pocket up before he went in the street, he said 
to the workmen near him, " I always do this 
whenever I hear men swear, as I think that 
any one, who can take God's name in vain, 
can also steal, or do anything else that is &ad." 
Hope, of all passions, most befriends us here : 
Passions of prouder name — befriend us less. 
Joy — has her tears, and transport — has her death: 
Hope, like a cordial, innocent, though strong, 
Man's heart, at onee, inspi'nts— and serenes. 



Proverbs. 1. Perset-emjicft— overcoirjes all 
difficulties. 2. Instruction, by example, is qicich 
and effectual. 3. We are only in the morning 
starlight of the arts and sciences. 4. Knowledge ia 
not obtained in a moment. 5. ApolkPs bow — was 
not always bent. 6. Reason— r% not the test of 
truth : it is only the organ, through which we see 
truth. 7. No one is so well qualified to rule, a3 
he, who knows how to obey. 8. Beauty— is like 
the flower of spring: but virtue— is like the stars 
of heaven. 9. Vain persons are fond of fine things 
10. Respect, and contempt, spoil many a one. 11. 
Some — outlive their reputation. 12. When sorrow 
is asleep, wake it not. 

liRconics. And what was it, fellow-citi- 
zens, which gave to our La Fayette his spot- 
less/awe.? TYielove of liberty. What — has 
consecrated his memory — in the hearts of 
good men ? The love of liberty. What — 
nerved his youthful arm with strength, and 
inspired him in the morning of his days, with 
sagacity and counsel? The living love of 
liberty. To what — did he sacrifice power., 
and country, and freedom itself? To the 
horror of licentiousness; to the sanctity of 
plighted /tti^A ; to the love of liberty protected 
by law. Thus, the great principle of your 
revolutionary /fl^Aers, of your pilgrim sires, 
the great principle of the age, was the rule of 
his hfe: The love of liberty — protected by 
law. 

Varieties. 1. When a tod?/ receives the 
addresses of a gentleman, who is in the lia- 
bit of tippling, how is she to determine, to 
what extent his protestations should be set 
down to himself, and how much passed to the 
credit of ardent spirits ? In other words, how 
much is of love, and how much of alcohol ? 
Suppose she test it, by the pledge of total ab' 
stinence ? 

'Tis not the /ace,— 'tis not the form,— 

'Tis not the heart — liowever warm ; 

It is not these, tho' all combined. 

That wins true love :— it is the mind. 
Canst thou believe ihy prophet, — (or, what is more,) 
That Power, which made thee, (8) and thy prophe^ 
Will (with impunity,) let pass that breach 
Of saered faith, given to the royal Greek? 
How (3) poor ! how (6) rich ! how (4) abject ! 
How (9) august ! bow (4) complicate ! how (2) uxmderful is mar 
How (6) passing, He, who nuxde him such ! and 
Centered in his make— such strange extremea! 
What can preserve my life ? or what destroy ? 
An (6) angePs arm — can't snatch mt tifm my grave ; 
Legions of angels — can't confine nn :here. 

My mother's voice ! how q/ifen— creeps 

Its cadence— o'er my lonely hours. 
Like Aea/mg— r»ent on wings of sleep, 

Or dew — to the unconscious powers. 
I canH forget her melting prayer, 

Even while my pulses— mod/y fly; 
And in the still, unbroken air. 

Her gentle tones .^ome— steal ing by , 
And years, and sin, and manhood flee, 
And leave me— at my mother's knee < 



!26 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



355. These Inflections may pass through 
2, 3, 5, or 8 notes, according to the intensity 
ofthefeeUng. Ex. l."Doyousay,that[l J'3] 
can learn to sing I 2. Do you say that [1 I'd] 
can learn to singi 3. What.' do you say 
that [ IJ' 81 can learn to sing 1 ' ' Reverse the 
inflection; hegin at the top, and go down. 
4. He said LS'Tl] can learn to sing, not 
you'" Thus, you see that the voice may 
step up or down, by discrete degrees, or glide 
up and down, by continuous degrees. 5. 
" To whom the gobhn, full of wrath, replied : 
ri) Art thou that (3) traitor (4) aTigel .? (3) art 
th ^u he who first broke peace in heaven, and 
[5) faith, till then (8) ukbiiokkn l (9) Back 
to thy punishment— false fugitive, and to 
thy speed add wings ; lest with a wJiip of 
scarpioTis, I pursue thy hng'ring ; or with 
one stroke of this dart, strange hmiror seize 
thee, and pangs unfelt before." In speaking 
this sentence, use all the eight notes. 

356. In reading the first example, the 
voice glides from \he first to the third note ; 
because there is no feeling : in reading the 
second, the voice glides from the first to the 
fifth note ; because there is some feeling, and 
consequent earnestness; and in the third 
example, the voice glides from the tonic, to 
the octave ; because there is a great deal of 
feeling : in \he fourth example, tlie voice be- 
gins at the top, or eighth note, and ^glides 
down to the first ; because there is a conse- 
quent change of thought and action. In the 
fifth example, the voice commences at 1, in 
a harsh tone, and goes on gradually ascend- 
ing to angel; then it recedes, and then goes 
on rising still higher on faith, and highest on 
unbroken; when it begins to descend, in an 
unyielding and gradual way, to the close, in 
a manner that no words can describe. 

357. Do not the bees, (says Quintillian) 
extract honey from very different flowers and 
juices T Is it any wonder that Eloquence, 
(which is one of the greatest gifts heaven has 
given to man,) requires many arts to perfect 
it ? and tho' they do not appear in an ora- 
tion, nor seem to be of any use, they never- 
theless afford an inward supply of strength, 
and are silently felt in fiie mind: without 
all these a man may be eloquent, but I wish 
to form an orator ; and none can be said to 
have all the requisites, while the smallest 
thing is wanting. 

Anecdote. Good Works. The Russian 
embassador at Paris, made the Abbe L'Epee 
a visit, and offered him a large sum of mo- 
ney through the munificence of the empress. 
The Abbe declined, saying, " I receive gold 
of no one ; but if the empress will send me 
a deaf and dumb person to educate, 1 shall 
consider it a more flattering mark of d's- 
tinciioru** 



Proverbs. 1. An evil heart- -can mike any 
doctrine false, in its own view. 2. Bad books 
are fountains of vice. 3. Comply cheerfully, when 
necessity enjoins it. 4. Despair — blunts the edge 
of indicstry.^ 5. Doubie-dniang—is the index of a 
base spirit. 6. Every vice wars against nature. 7. 
Friendship — is often stronger than kindred 8. 
Good intentions — will not justify evil actUnu. 0. 
In order to learn, we must pay undivided aUen- 
tion. 10. Mental gifts — often hide bodUy ir^firmi- 
ties. 11. Lawing — is verj- costly. 12. The world 
is his, who enjoys it. 13. Poverty — is often an 
evil counsellor. 

Despotism. All despotism, whether 
usurped or hereditary, is our abhorrence. 
We regard it as the most grievous wrong 
and insult to tlie human race. But, towards 
the hereditary despot — we have more of cam- 
passion than indignation. Nursed and bro't 
up in delusion, worshiped from his cradle, 
never spoken to in the tone of fearless truth, 
taught to look on the great mass of his fellow 
beings as an inferior race, and to regard des- 
potism as a law of nature, and a necessary 
element of social life ; such a prince, whose 
education and condition almost deny him the 
possibihty of acquiring healthy moral. /ee^i«;i^ 
and manly virtue, must not be judged severe- 
ly. Still, in absolving the despot — from much 
of the guilt, which seems at first, to attach to 
his unlawful and abused power, we do not 
the less account despotism a wrong and a 
curse. The time for its, fall, we trust, is earn- 
ing. It cannot fall too soon. It has Icmg 
enough wrung from the laborer his hard 
earnings; long enough squandered a na- 
tion's wealth on its parasites and minio7is ; 
long enough warred against the freedom of 
the mind, and arrested the progress of truth. 
It has filled dungeons enough — with the brave 
and good, and shed enough of the blood ot pa- 
triots. Let its end come. It cannot come /oo 
soon. 

Varieties. 1 . What is education, and what 
are the best means for obtaining it ? 2. Why 
are diamonds valuable'/ because of their 
scarcity ? 3. Why are professional men m- 
aifferent poets ? is it because, as the bounda- 
ries of science enlarge, the empire of ima- 
gination is diminished? 4. In what does 
tine honor consist! 6. Tamer tone boasted 
that he governed men by four great arts ; 
viz : bribery, amusement, diversion, and sus- 
pense: are there no Tamalanes now, think 
youl 6. Is there any alliance between ge- 
nius and poverty ? 7. If w^e leave the path 
of duty, shall we not l)e liable to run into the 
path of danger? 8. Are there not some, 
who would make void the word of God, by 
their own traditions? 9. Is it not a most 
important part of a teacher's duty, to imbue 
the minds of his pupils, with the love of all 
goodness and truth ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



121 



358. The Injkdions have great influence 
in expressing, or perverting the sense, ac- 
cording as they are correctly or mcorrectly 
made. 1. In the retirement of a college 
— I am unable to suppress evil thoughts ; how 
difficult then, to do it, amidst the world's 
temptations! 2. The man who is in the 
daily use of ardent (6) spirits, (4) if he 
should not become a (3) drunkard, (6) is 
in danger of losing his (5) health, and (6) 
character. The m/wg- inflection on drunkard, 
would imply that he must become one, to 
preserve his health and character. 

359. Apply the principles to the follow- 
ing, according to the feelings and thaughts, 
and their objects. 1. But (5) mercy — is (6) 
above — tins sceptred swaiy ', (4) it is enthron- 
ed — in the (5) hearts of kings,- it is an (6) 
attribute — (1) of God himself. 

Love, hope,— 3iid joy, fair Pleasures imiling train ; 
Hate, fear, and grief, the family of Pain ; 
These, muted with art, and to due bounds confiaed. 
Make —and maintain —the balance of the mind. 

He knew — 
How to make madness— beautiful, and cast, 
(O'er erring deeds, and thoughts,) a heavenly hut 
Of words, like sunbeams, dazzling (aa they passed,) 
The eyes, which o'er them shed tears, fedingly, and fast. 
Thy Morda— had such a melting^w, 

And spoke of frwtA— so sweetly well. 
They dropped — (like Aeat>«n's serenest snow,) 

And all was (6) brightness, — where they fell. 

360. Inducing Disease. There is no 
doubt, that the seed of a large number of dis- 
eases are sown in childhood and youth ; and 
especially in our progress in obtaining what 
is called, an education. The bad habits of 
position in and out of school, and our un- 
healthy mode of living, contribute very es- 
sentially to the promotion of various diseases ; 
particularly, dyspepsia, liver and lung com- 
plaints, and headaches. Hence, we cannot 
be too watchful against sitting in a crooked 
position, nor too prudent in eating, drink- 
ing, and sleeping, as well as in our clothing, 
and our lodging apartments. Let us put 
forth every effort in the performance of our 
duties, be they physical, intellectual, or mwal. 

AuKvdote. A Swiss Retort. A French 
officer, quarrelling with a Swiss, reproached 
nim with his country^s vice of fighting on 
either side for money ; " while we French- 
men,^^ said he, " fight for honor P " Yes, sir," 
replied the Swiss, " every one fights for that 
he most wants.^^ 

Called a blessing- to inherit, 
Bless, and richer blessings merit • 
Give, and more shall yet be given ; 
Loie, and serve, and look for Heaven. 

Would being end— with our expiring breath. 
How soon misfortune would be puffed away ! 
A trifling shock— shrives us to the dust ; 
But the existence— of the immortal soul, 
Futuritifs dark road— perplexes still. 



Proverbs. 1. The best way to see Divim 

light— is to put out our own. 2. The proud— 
Bhall be abased; but the humble — shall be exalted. 
3. As long as you and truth agree, you will do 
well. 4. JVo one is born for himself alone, but 
for the world. 5. Rely not too much on the 
torches of others; light one of your own. 6, 
Divest yourself of cn»y, and lay aside all unkind 
feelings. 7. If youth knew what age would 
crave, it would both crave and save. 8. A 
speaker, without energy, is like a lifeless stattie. 
9. Deep— and intense feeling — lie at the root of 
eloquence. 10. Condemn no one, without a can- 
did hearing. 11. Think more, and speak lesa. 
12. Follow the dictates of reasow. 

Half-Murder. That father, says the 
learned Baudier, who takes care to feed and 
clothe his so7i, but neglects to give him such 
accomplishme7iis as befit his capacity and 
rank in life, is more than half his murderer; 
since he destroys i\\e better part, and but con 
tinues the other to endure a life of shame. 
Of all the men we meet with, nine out of ten 
are what they are, good or evil, useful ornoi, 
by their education; it is that, vfhich makes 
the great difference in mankind: the little, or 
almost insensible, impressions on our tender 
infancy, have very important and lasting 
consequences. 

Varieties. 1. Send your son into tlie 
world with good principles, good habits, and 
a good education, and he will work his way. 
2. How absurd to be pa^ssionate yourself, and 
expect others to be placid. 3. Why is swear^ 
ing — like a ragged coat P because it is a 
very bad habit. 4. Can there be any virtue, 
without true piety. ^ 5. Why is rebellion — 
like rfram-drinking 1 because it is inimical 
to the constitution. 6. Why do white sheep 
— furnish more wool tkan black ones 1 be- 
cause there are more of them. 7. Why is one 
who is led astray, like one who is governed 
by a girl ? Do you give it up 1 because he 
is misled, (Miss-led.) 8. Ought there not to 
be duties on imported goods, to encourage 
domestic manufactures ? 9. Are not physics 
and metaphysics inseparably joined 1 if so, 
what is the connecting link ? 10. Is it right, 
under any circumstance, to marry for money^ 
11. Is it right to imprison for debt ? 
I can find comfort — in the loords and looks 

Of simple hearts and gentle souls; and I 
Can find companionship — in ancient books. 

When, lonely, on the grassy hills I lie. 

Under the shadow — of the tranquil sky ; 
I can find music— in the rushing brooks. 

Or in the songs, which dwell among the trees., 

And come in snatches — on the summer breeze. 
I can find treasure— in the leafy shoicers, 

Which, in the merry autumn-time, will fall ; 
And T can find strong love — in buds and flowers. 
And beauty— \n the moonlight's silent hours. 

There's nothing, nature gives, can fail topteos* 
Fnr there's a common joy- pervading all 



128 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



^Ul. A speaker — may calculate, before- 
hand, (so far as human agency is concerned, 
and other things being equal) the effect of a 
certain effvrt, by adapting the manner to the 
matter, as well as a.fjrmer can in raising a 
crop, by using the proper means. As a 
stringed instrument, when touched at given 
points, infallibly produces certain tunes ; so, 
the human mind, when touched by certain 
modulations, and corresponding sentiments, 
as infallibly receives certain impressions. 
But a speaker, singer, or writer, who thinks 
much of himself, is in danger of being for- 
gotten by others. If he takes no sincere and 
hearfelt delight in what he is doing, but as it 
13 admired and applauded by his audience, 
disappointment will be his portion,- for he 
cannot long succeed. He who would be 
great in the eyes of others, must first learn to 
be made nothing in his own. 

363. Exs. of the ' and \ 1. Did you say 
yes, or no ? Shall we crown the author of 
the public calamities 1 or shall we destroy 
Iiiml 2. Beware of ignorance and sloth, 
and be guided by ivisdom. 3. (2) Are they 
Hebrews P Are they all Hebrews'? (4) 
Are they Hebrews from Palestine P 4. 
What does the word person meanl That 
which consists in one's own self, and not 
any part or quality in another. 5. Is not 
water the best and safest of all kinds of 
drink? 6. Nature — and (4) Reasox — 
answer — yes. 7. The mind — is its own 
place ; and, in itself, can make a heaven — 
jf hell; or hell of heaven. 

Good name — in man, or wmnan, 
Is the immediate jetoeZ of tlieir souls: 
%Vho steals my purse, steals trash, 'tis something, nothing: 
' Twa« mine, 'tis Ais, and has been slave to thousands; 
But he, who filches from me my good name, 
Robs me of that which not enriches him, 
And makes me— poor indeed. 
Where is the tnte man's father-land 1 
Is it— vvhers he, by chance, is bom 7 
Doth not the yearning spirit — scorn — 
In such scant borders to l)e spann'd 1 
O, yes ! his fiither-land must be — 
As the blue heaven — tcide — and free. 
Anecdote. A Quaker, who had a great 
horror of soldiers, on seeing one jump into 
the Thames, and save a person who was 
drowning, s'Aid on the occasion, "I shall al- 
ways be a Quaker ; but soldiers are good 
creatures." 

What is it, Man, prevents thy God, 
From making thee his blest abode ? 
He says — he loves thee, wills thee heaven. 
And for thy good — has blessings given. 
I'll tell thee— 'Tis thy love o{self, 
Tliy love of rul» — thy love of pelf. 
Bind thee to ear<ft-.r-and all her toys. 
And robs thee — of substantial jVys. 
Heaven's gates — are not so highly arched— 
As princess palaces ; they who enter there. 
Must go— upon t"heir knees. 



Proverbs. 1. New times, demand new meaei 
ures, and new men. 2. Pride— either finds a de- 
sert, or makes one. 3. Want of feeling, is one Oi 
the worst faults of elocution. 4. He, thateafcAes at 
more than belongs to him, deserves to lose what 
he has. 5. Poo&s— associate us with the think- 
ing, and give us the material of thought. 6. 
Either be silent, or speak what is better than ei- 
lence. 7. He, who resolves to amend, has Ood, 
and all good beings, on his side. 8. If you would 
have a thing kept secret, never tell it ; and ifj'ou 
would not have any thing told of you, nevei d: 
it. 9. The shortest answer— is doing a thii;g. 
10. Friends— got. without desert, will be lost with- 
out a cause. 11. Never speak what is not true, 
12. If it is not decent, never do it. 

Selfislmess. The selfish — look upon 
themselves, as if they were all the world, 
and no man beside concerned therein; that 
the good state of things is to be measured by 
their condition ; that all is well, if they do 
prosper and thrive ; all is ill, if they be disaj)- 
pointed in their desires and projects. The 
good of ^0 man, not of their brethren, not of 
their friends, not of their country, doth come 
under their consideration. 

Varieties, l.ltwe feel well, shall we not 
try to make others feel sol 2. May not the 
constitution Ije injured by over^nursing, and 
the mind unnerved, by being prevented from 
relying upon its own resources? 3. Is it 
expedient to wear mourning apparel! 4. 
Does curiosity, or love of truthand goodness, 
induce you to study history? 5. Has the 
study of the classics, an immoral tendency P 
6. Who would be an old maid, or an old 
bachelor ? 1. What is Botany P The science 
of Plants. 8. Can friendship — exist with- 
out sympathy? 9. Is a free or despotic 
government, more conducive to human hap- 
piness? 10. Ought not human nature — to 
be a chief study of mankind ? 11. Are gold 
and silver mines, on the whole, beneficial to 
a nation ? 12. Is it right, to oblige a. Jury to 
give a unanimous verdict 1 

THE BIBLE — WORTHY OF ALL ACCEPTATION. 

This little book—Vd rather own, 

Than all the gold and gems. 
That e'er in monarch'' s coffers shone, 

Than all their diadems. 
Nay, were the seas— one chrysolite. 

The earth — a golden ball. 
And diamonds all the stars of night. 

This book — were worth them all. 
Here, He who died on Calvary's tree. 

Hath made that promise — blest; 
" Ye heavy-ZarfcTi, come to me, 

And I will give you rest. 
A bruised reed — I will not break, 

A contrite heart — despise ; 
My burden's light, and all, who take 

My yoke, shall win the skies /" 
The humble man, when he receives a wrrn^; 
Refers revenge— to whom it doth belong. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTIOrC 



124J 



363. I.vPLKCTioNs. Althousrh there are 
given rules, for makin? these inflections, or 
slides of the voice, either up or down, yet 
it should be borne in mind, that every sen- 
tence, which has been read with the upward 
slide, can, under other circumstances, be read 
correctly with the doivnward slide : the setise 
governs everything here, as in emphasis. 
Ex. 1. Are you going to toit/n? 2. Are you 
going to iow'^n ? 3. Whi/ did you speak to 
her? 4. Whij" did you spea'k to her 7 5. Do 
vou \tar me \ 6. Do you Ivenr me f In the 
jird example, we have a simple, direct ques- 
tion ; in the second, the same form of words, 
but so spoken, as if one said, I wish to know, 
positively, whether you go to toivn ; so of the 
rest. Thus you see, the seiise, the object, the 
intention determines the manner. 

3G1:. 1. Some poets may be compared to 
others; but Milton and Shakspeare are in- 
comparable. 2. He, who considers himself 
tt'we, while his wisdom does not teach him to 
acknowledge the Lord, is in the profoundest 
ignorance. 3. We see the ejects of many 
things, the causes of hut few ; experience, 
therefore, is a surer guide than imagination, 
and inquiry than conjecture. 4. It is the in- 
dispensable duty, and the inahenable right, 
of every rational heing, to prove all things, 
and holdfast that which is good. 
Get but the truth — once uttered, and 'tis like 
A star, new-born, that drops into its place, 
And which, once circling its placid round, 
Not all the tumult of the earth — can shake, 
• 365. The nearer your delivery agrees with 
the freedom and ease of common discourse, 
{if you keep up the dignity and life of yaur 
subject, and preserve propriety of expression,) 
the more jxist, natural and agreeable it will 
be. Study nature; avoid affectation, and 
never use art, if you have not the art to con- 
ceal it : for, whatever does not appear natural, 
is neither agreeable nor persuasive. 

Anecdote. A brutal teacher, whipped a 
a little boy, for pressing the hand of a little 
girl, who sat next to him at school. After 
which, he asked the child, " Why he squeezed 
tJ;e girl's hand ]" " Because," said the little 
fellow, " it looked so pretty, I could not help 
it." What pimishment did tlie teacher de- 

BfcTVe 1 

THK EPITAPH. 

Here rests his head — upon the lap o( earth, 

A youth — \o fortune, and Xofame — unknown : 
Fair Science — frown'd not on his humble hirth. 

And Melancholy— tciktVA him for her oivn 
Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere; 

Heaven — did a recompense — as largely send 
He gave to m?sVy all he had— a tear; [friend. 

He gain'd from heav''n ('twas all he wish'd)— a 
No /artAer seek h'xs merits to disclose, 

Or draw \\\s frailties from their dread abode, 
There, they, alike, in trembling hope repose) 

The bosom of his Father, and his God. 
BRONSON. 9 



1 Proverbs. 1. It is much easier to defend the 
' innocent, than the guilly. 2. Ler, the press iind 
[speech, he free; mo good goKevum^ui has anyiliing 
I to fear from paper shot, or airy woiils '6. Threts 
I things are necessary lo make an able man,- wa- 
ture, study, and practice. 4. Culr.ivate a spiiir vf 
love toward a//. 6. Always distinguisti between 
apparent trurhs, and real truths ; between eJf'ecLs 
and causes. 6. God — is best known and houoiei. 
when his word and works are best vnderstoGd and, 
appreciated. 7- Industry — is essential to useful- 
ness, ajid happiness. 8. Every one ought to do 
sotnetliing. 9. Nothing is itationary ; and the hu- 
man family — the least of all. 10. Mankind ar«' 
tending to a better condition, or to actual extinction 

11. Trade — knows neither friends nor kindred 

12. Physicians — rarely take medicine. 
'Wisdom, of our Ancestors. If the 

"wisdom of our ancestors'' — had not taught 
them to recognize newly discovered truths, 
and to discard those errors, to which ignor- 
ance had given birth, we should not have 
been indebted to them for the improvements, 
which, however well they may have served 
their purpose for a time, are destined to be 
superseded by still more important discover- 
ies. In the year 1616, a Florentine had the 
presumption and audacity to assert, contrary 
to the prevailing opinions of the learned, 
"the great, the good, and the wise among 
men," and contrary to the conclusions of all 
preceding ages, " that the earth revolved round 
thestfW/" and, although he was threatened 
with death for his heresy, Galileo was right. 
Varieties. 1. What is the image of God. 
and what the likeness of God, into which man 
was created'? 2. What grace is more valu- 
able, than humility? 3. Is hereditary de- 
pravity an actual sin, or a calamity? 4. Was 
not the genius of Ar-c/am-i-des ihepareyit of 
the mechanical arts? 5. Did not the first 
single pair of mankind — possess the type of 
all the distinct races of men, — ^their innate 
tendency and genius, which fias, or will, re- 
appear in their offspring ? 6. What is the 
meaning of the command to Moses, "See that 
thou make all things after the pattern, which 
/have shown thee in the Mouiit .?" 7. If we 
are hardened under affliction, does it not in- 
dicate a very bad state of mindT 8. Are 
miracles — violations of the laws of Nature? 
9. Does not the state and character of parents 
—affect their offspring? 10. What is the 
conclusion of the whole matter! Fear God^ 
and keep his commandments. 

When Summer''s heats — the verdure gear, 
Through yonder shady grove I tread, 

Or throw me listless— down to hear 
The winds — make music over head ; 

A thousand flowers — are blooming rouncli 
The " wilding fcee" goes droning by, 

And springs gush out— with lulling sound, 
And painted warblers— Vinger nigh ; 

Yet one thing— wants the dreamer there— 

A kindred soul — the scene to share. 



180 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



365. Waves, or CiBCtrMFiEXES of the 
Voice: of these, there are two; which are 
called the rising circumflex [v] and the fall- 
ing circumflex [*] : they are formed by the ^ 
and the ' , and are generally connected with 
(he accented vowels of the emphatic words. 
Doubt, pity, contrast, grief, supposition, 
comparison, irony, implication, sneering, 
raxlery, scorn, reproach, and contempt, are 
expressed by them. Ee sure and get the right 
feeling and thought, and you will find no 
difficulty in expressing them properly, if you 
have mastered the voice. 

366. Exs. of the rising v. 1. I may go 
to town to-morrow, though I cannot go to- 
day. 2. The sun sets in the west, not in 
the &ast. 3. He lives in London, not in 
New York. 4. The desire of praise — pro- 
duces excellent effects, in men of s&nse. 5. 
He is more a knave, than a fool. 6. I see 
thou hast learn'd to ra,t7, if thou hast learned 
nothing 6&e. 7. Better to do well lite, than 
never. 8. A pretty f&llow you are, to be 
sure/ 9. In some countries — poverty — is 
considered a misfortune ; in others — a crime. 
10. The young- — are slaves to novelty ; the 
old — to custom. 

367. Promiscuous Examples. 1. A just 
appreciation of our duties — is worth any sa- 
crifice, that its attainments may cost. 2. 
Dearly do we sometimes pay for our wis- 
dom, but never too dearly. 3. Is not the life 
of animals dissipsited at death !^ 4. The an- 
cients — had the art of singing, before that of 
writing; and their laws and histories were 
sung, before they were written. 5. This heav- 
enly Benefactor claims — not the homage of 
our lips, but of our hearts; and who can 
doubt that he is entitled to the homage of our 
hearts ? 6. If we have no regard to our own 
character, we ought to have some regard to 
the character of others. 7. Tell your invad- 
ers this; and tell them, too, we seek no 
change; and least of all — such change as 
tliey would bring us. 

368. We must avoid a mechanical variety, 
and adopt a natural one : this may be seen in 
:hildren, when relating anything that comes 
from themselves; then, their intonatio7is, 
melody, and variety, are perfectly natural, 
and true to the object in view : let us go and 
sit at their feet and learn, and not be offend- 
ed. Let us turn our eye and ear, to truth 
and NATURE ; for they will guide their vota- 
ries right. Give us the soul of elocution and 
music, and that will aid in forming the body. 

CONFIBENCE, NOT TO BE PLACED IN MAN. 

O momentary grace of mortal men, 
Which we more hunt for— than the grace of God! 
Who builds his hope— in air of your fair looks. 
Lives like a drunken sailor — on a mast ; 
Ready, with every nod, to tumble down — 
Into tiie fats! bowels— of the deep. 



Maxims. 1. The love of sensual pleaeure, a 
temporary' madness. 2. Sacrifice — can be made 
on bad principles ; obedience — only on good ones. 
3. Great cry and little wool; applies to those who 
promise much, but practice little. 4. Do what you 
think is right, whatever others may think. 5 
Learn to disregard alike, the praise and the cen- 
sure of bad men. 6. Covet that popularity thut 
follows; not that which must be run after. 7. 
What sculpture is — to a block of marble, education 
is to the human mind. 8. He, who is unwilling 
to amend, has the devil on his side. 9. Extensive^ 
various reading, without reflection, tends to the in- 
jury of the mind. 10. Proverbs bear age, and arc 
full of various instruction. 

Anecdote. John Randolphs Mother. The 
late John Randolph, some years before his 
death, wrote to a friend as fiiUows : " I used 
to be called a Frenchman, because I took th^ 
French side in politics ; and though that was 
unjust, yet the truth is, I should have been 
a French atheist, if it had not been for one re- 
collection, and that was — the memory of the 
time, when my departed mother — used to 
take my little hands in hers, and cause me, 
on my knees, to say, * Our Father who art in 
heaven.'' " 

Scliool Teaoliers. It is important, that 
teachers of youth, should not only be respected, 
but respectable persons. They, who are in • 
trusted with the responsible ofl[ice of develop- 
ing the mind, and directing the affections of 
the yoimg, ought to be worthy of sharing in 
all the social enjoyments of the most refined 
society ; and they ought never to be excluded 
from such participation. Yet it is scandal} 
ously true, in some parts of our country, that 
teachers, however worthy, are excluded from 
the houses of the very parents, who send 
their children to their schools. This is not 
only contrary to all republican principles, 
but is in direct opposition to the dictates of 
common sense. Wherever such a state of 
things exists, the people are but half civilized, 
whatever pretensions wealth, and other cir- 
cumstances afford them. 

Varieties. 1. Enter. on the performance 
of your duties, with willing hearts, and 
never seek to avoid them. 2. The heart — \^ 
ivoman^s world; it is there — her ambition 
strives for the mastery. 3. The object of rco 
reation is — to soften and refine, not to render 
ferocious; as is the case with amusement? 
that brutalize. 4. Is capital punishment 
right ? 5. Who has done the more injury- 
Mahomet, or Const antine ? 6.1s tobacco — 
necessary ? 7. Why is the figure of a viper 
— used to express ingratitude ? 8. Is it right 
to go to war — on any occasion 1 9. What is 
the usual quantity of blood — in a common 
sized body? About twenty-five or thirty 
pounds. 10. Is it not singular thatPopei* 
translations should be very profuse, and his 
original compositions verj' concise? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



369. Exs. of the falling ^. I. Who 
tares for you P 2. He is your friend, is he] 
3. You tell me so, do you? 4. If Zwere 
to do CO, what would ydu say] 5. It is 
not prudence, when I trust my secrets to a 
man who cannot keep his own. 6. You 
are a very wise man, strong, brave, peaceable. 
7. If you had told me so, perhaps, I should 
have believed you. 8. Sir, you are a fool. 
and I fear you will remain so. 

370. Manneii. What we mean, does 
not so much depend on what we say, as how 
we say it; not so much on our iuords, as on 
our manner of speaking them : accordingly, 
in elocution, great attention must necessarily 
be given to this, as expressive of what our 
ivord3 do not always indicate.- thus, 7ia- 
ture — fixes the outward expression of every 
intention and sentiment. Art only adds 
ease and gracefulness to the promptings of 
nature: as nature has ordained, that man 
shall walk on his feet, and not on his hands, 
art — teaches him to walk gracefully. 

371. Combination of the Waves. 1. 
But you forsooth, are very wise men, deeply 
learned in the truth ,• we, weak, contempti- 
ble, mean persons ; but you, strong, gallant. 
2. Mere hirelings, and ^tme-servers — are al- 
ways opposed to (5) improvements, and (6) 
originUity .- so are tyrants— to liberty, and 
'-'publicanism. 3. Wisdox alone is truly 
fair ; vice, only appears so. 4. How like 
a fawning pnblican he looks! 5. Plow 
green you are, and fresh in this old world ! 
6. What ! can so young a thorn begin to 
prick 1 7. Money — is your suk] What 
should I say to youl Should I not say. 
Hath a dog money? Is it possible — a cur 
can lend three thousand ducats P 7. They 

tell U5 to be moderate; but they, they 

are to revel in profdsio?i .' 

Miscellaneous. 1. Can one phenome- 
non of mind be presented, without being 
connected with another? if so,— how P 2. 
Reputatimi—often effects that, which did not 
belong to one's character. Make a child— 
believe that he is considered aimable, by his 
friends, and he will generally become so. 3. 
Affection— is the continuous principle of tore, 
—which is spiritual heat ; and hence the 
very vital principle of man. 4. Must not 
the tirst possible idea — of any individual, 
have been the product of the relation — be- 
tween two states of the mind, in reference to 
external objects P 

Anecdote. Danger of Bad Campany. 
St. Austin compares the danger of bad com- 
vany— to a. nail driven into a post; which, 
after the Jirst, and second stroke, may be 
drawn out with little difficulty; but being 
vice driven up to the head, the pincers can 
iake no hold to draw it out ; which can be 
4one only by the destruction of the wood. \ 



131 

Maxims. 1. A wounded rer utaiion is seldom 
cured. 2. Conciliatory manners aJways com- 
mand esteem. 3. Never deride any one's infirmi- 
ties. 4. Detraction— is, a sin against juatiee. 5. 
3Iodesty— has more charms than beauty. 6. No 
fear should deter us from* doing good. 7. Pin not 
your faith \o anotlier one's sleeve. 8. Reckless 
youth— makes rueful age. 9. The example of the 
good is visiblii philosophy. 10. TruA— never fears 
rigid examination. 11. Sickness is felt, but not 
health. 

Reason. As the field of true science en- 
larges, as thought becomes more free, an in- 
quiry upon all subjects becomes more bold 
and searching; a voice louder and still loud- 
er comes up from the ho7iest and thinking 
men in Christendom, calling for rationality 
in religion, as weU as in every thing else ; 
calling for such principles of biblical inter- 
pretation, as shall show the scriptures to 
be indeed, and in truth, the Word of God. 
Every ray of truth, which has been sent 
from heaven— to enlighten and bless man- 
kind, has gained admittance into the world 
by patient struggling and persevering cm- 
test. 

Varieties. 1. The words of Seneca, the 
virtuous Pagan, put to the blush— many a 
pagan christian. 2. When Socrates was in- 
formed, that the judges had sentenced him 
to death, he replied,—" And hath not Nature 
passed the same sentence on them}-'' 4. 
There is more eloquence, in the tone of voices 
in the Zoo/c.9, and in the gestures of a speak- 
er, than in the choice of his words. 
Dear Patience— too, is born of woe, 

Patience, that opens the gate 
Wherethrough the soul of man must go 

Up to each nobler state. 
High natures— must 1)6 thunder-scax:ea, 
With many a searing wrong. 
Law, that shocks equity, is reason's murder. 
I would not waste my spring of j'outh, 
In idle dalliance; I would plant r'lchseeds, 
To blossom in my manhood, and hear fruit, 
VVhen I am old. 

Full many a gem— of purest ray serene, 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear, 
Full many aflow'r is born— to blush unseeii, 

And waste its sweetness on the desert air. 
Beautiful cloud ! with folds so soft anA fair 

Swimming — in the pure — quiet air ! 
Thy fleeces, bathed in sunlight, while below, 

Thy shadow — o'er the vale moves slow : 
Where, 'midst their labor, pause the reaper Xrhiiy 

As cool it comes — along the grain. 
Beautiful cloud ! I taould I were with thee 

In thy calm way — o'er land and sea : 
To rest — on thy unrolling skirts, and look 

On Ear^ — as on an open book; 
On streams, that tie her realms, with silver 6a7ul»^ 

And the long ways, that seam her lands , 
And hear her humming cities, and the sound 

Of the great oceon— breaking round 



132 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



373. Remember, that Nature abhors mo- 
notony, or sameness of sound, as much as 
she does a vacuum. Hence, give variety in 
emphasis,inJiections, and leaves, if they often 
occur. 1. (3) Bd.ppy, (5) h\xppy, (6) h^kp- 
"py pair! none but the (2) brave! (6) 
none but the (5) brave,- none (8) but the 
brave deserve the/u;r/ 2. (6) What a piece 
of v;ork — is man ! how noble in (5) rea- 
sfm! \iovf infinite in (6) faculties! in (4) 
form, and (5) moving, how express and 
(6) admirable ! in action, how Uke an an- 
gel/ in apprehension, (4) how Uke a God/ 
3. My JUDGMENT — approves this measure, 
and my whole heakt — is in it : all that I 
have ,' (4) all that I am ,• and all tlmt I 
HOPE, in this life, I am now ready here to 
stake upon it ; and I leave off as I began ; 
th't (4) sink or swim ; (5) live or die ,• 
survive or (6) perish, — I am for the decia- 
RATiox. It is my living sentiment, and (2) 
by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying 
sentiment : (5) Independence — (6) now 
and Independence (9) foueveii ! 

3T3. Effect. What is the use of reading, 
speaking, and singing, if the proper ejfect is 
not jjroduced 1 If the singing in our church 
choirs, and the reading and speaking in tlie 
desk and pulpit, were what they ought to 
be, and what tliey may be, the house of God 
would be more thronged than theatres ever 
liave been. Oh ! when will the best of truths 
be delivered in the best of manners ? May 
the stars of elocution and music, be more 
numerous than the stais of heaven ! 
Because I c&nnoi flatter, and speak /air, 
Smile in man's /ace, smooth, deceive and coy. 
Deck with French words, and apish courtesy, 
I must be held— a rflucorous enemy. 
Cannot a plain man live, and think no harm. 
But thus his simple (rMtA— must be abused. 
By silken, sly, insinuating Jacks I 
Tho' plunged in ills, and exercised in care. 
Yet, never let the noble mind despair : 
When prest by dangers, and beset hy foes. 
Heaven its timely succour doth interpose, l/rrief,) 
And, (when our virtue sinks, o'erwhelmed with 
By unforeseen expedients— brings relief. 
If there's a sin — more deeply black than others. 
Distinguished from the list of common crimes, 
And Icffion— in itself, and doubly dear 
To the dark prince of hell— it is hypocrisy. 
Ye gentle ffales, beneath my body blow, 
And softly lay me— on the waves below. 
Wisdom — ^tnok up her harp, and stood in place 
Of frequent concourse — stood in every g-ate, 
By every way, and walked in every street. 
And, lifting up her voice, proclaimed : Be wise. 
Ye fools ! be of an understanding heart. 
Forsake the wicked : come not near his house: 
Va.ss by: make haste: depart, a.ud t\irn away. 
Me follow — me, whose ways are pleasantness, 
^hose pathB are peace, whose end is perfect joy 



Maxims. 1, A fa3thful/rien<Z--\f a strong 
defence. 2. Avoid that -which you blamt in others. 
3. By doing nothing, we learn to do ill 4. Con- 
fession of a fault, makes half amends for it. 5 
Dependence and obedience, necessarily belong to 
youth. 6. Every art — is best taught by example. 
7. Great designs require great consideration. 8. 
Misfortune is a touchstone of friendship. 9. 
Never sport with pain, or poverty. 10. Put no 
faith in tale-bearers. 

Anecdote. Point of Law Blackstone, 
speaking of the right of a wife to dovjer, as- 
serts, that if land abide in the husbana a sin- 
gle moment, the wife shall be endowed there- 
of; and he adds, that the doctrine was ex- 
tended very far, oy a jury in Wales, where 
the father and son were hanged at the same 
time ; but the son was supposed to survive 
tlie father, by appearing to struggle the long- 
er ; whereby he became seized of an estate 
by survivorship ; in consequence of which 
seizure, his wife — obtained a verdict for her 
doiver. 

Riclies and Talent. Nothing is more 
common than to see station and riches — pre- 
ferred to talent and goodness ; and yet few 
things are more absurd. The peculiar supe- 
riority of talent and goodness — over station 
and riches, may be seen from hence ; — that 
the influence of the former — will always be 
the greatest, in that government, which is 
the purest; while that of the latter — will al- 
ways be the greatest — in the government 
that is the most corrupt : so that from the 
preponderance of the one, we may infer the 
soundness and vigor of the commonwealtli ; 
but from the other, its dotage and degeneracy. 
Varieties. 1. Indolence and indecision, 
tho' not vices in themselves, generally pre- 
pare the way for much sin and misery. 2 
If the mind be properly cultivated, it will 
produce a storehouse of precious /rwiY,?,- but 
if neglected, it will be overrun with noxious 
zueeds and poisonous plants. 3. A kind 
benefactor — makes one happy — as soon as he 
can, and as much as he can. 4. The only 
sure basis cf every government, is in the af- 
fection of a people, rendered contented, and 
happy, by the Justness and mildness, with 
which they are ruled. 5. As moisture is re- 
quired to the formation of every seed, so natu- 
ral truth — to the formation of first princij)le» 

They whom 
J^ature's works can charm, with Ood himself 
Hold converse ! grow familiar, day by day, 
With His conceptions, act upon His plan, 
And form to His — the relish of their souls. 
Our present acts, tho' slightly we pass them hv 
Are 60 much seed— sown for Eternity. 
The deoil can cite scripture for nis purpose- 
Art toil soul, producing- holy toft?ieJs, 
h like a villain with a smiling cheek ; 
A goodly apple, rotten at the heart; 
0, what a goo-ilv outside— falsehood hath! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



133 



3y4.* A s the princi'ples of elocution are 
few and simple, and as practice alone makes 
[terfect, there are all kinds of examples pro- 
vided for those, who are determined to de- 
velop their minds through their bodies, and 
become all that God and nature — intended 
them to be. As the ear is most intimately 
connected with the affections — ihe motive- 
power of the intellect, it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the student should exercise aloud, 
that the voicf and ear, as well as the thoughts 
nnd feelings , may be cultivated in harmony 
and :orrespondence. If, then, he finds the 
task severe, let him persevere, and never 
mind it. 

373. Examples. 1. The queen of i)ew- 
mark, in reproving her son, Hamlet, on ac- 
count of his conduct towards his step-fa.ther, 
whom she married, shortly after the murder 
of the king, her husband, says to him, "Ham- 
let, you have your father much offended." 
To which he replies, with a circumflex on 
you, ''Madam, (3) you — have my father 
much offended." He mcajit his oivn father : 
she — his step-father; he would ako intimate, 
that she was accessory to his father's mur- 
der,- and his peculiar reply, was like daggers 
m her soul. 2. In the following reply of 
Death to Satan, there is a frequent occurrence 
of circumjlexes, mingled with contempt'. 
'< And recicon'st th^u thyself with spirits of 
heaven, hell-doomed, and breath'st dejvdnce 
here, and sc^m, where I reign king ? and, 
to enrage thee more, — thy king, and lord ?" 
The voice is circumflected on heaven, hell- 
doomed, king and thy, nearly an octave. 3. 
Come, show me what thoul't d^^; woul't 
weep? wouV t figtit ? woul't fast? woul't tear 
thyself? r\\ do't. Dost thou come here to 
V)hine? to outface me, with leaping in her 
pravi 1 be buried quick with her, and so will 
7^; and if thou prate of mountains, let them 
throw MILLIONS of acres on us, till our 
ground, singeing her pate against the burn- 
ing zone, make Ossa — like a wart. Nay, 
an thoul't mouthe, i'U rant as well as tlio^i. 

Anecdote. A clergyman, once traveling 
in a stage-co^c\\, was abruptly asked by one 
of the passengers, if any of the heathens 
wpuld go io heaven. " Sir," answered the 
clergyman, "I am not appointed judge of 
the toorld, and. consequently, cannot tell; 
but, if ever you get to heo.v?:., you shall 
either f?id some ^' ...em tliere, or a good 
reason v.Jiy iney are not there." 

Too High or too Iiow. In pulpit elo- 
quence, the grand difficulty is to give the 
subject all the dignity it so fully deserves, 
without attaching any importance to our- 
selves. The christian minister cannot think 
too highly of his Master, or too humbly of 
himself. This is the secret art which capti- 
vates and hnproves an audience, and which 
all who see, will fancy they could imitate ; 
while manv who try, win not succeed, be- 
rause ttiey are not influenced by proper rtM- 
lives al d do not use the right means. 

M 



Proverbs. 1. Forbearanu — ji requisite in 
youth, in middle age, and in old age. 2. Peculiar- 
ities — are ea^Wy acquired ; but it is verv difficult to 
eradicate them. 3. Good principles aie ot no use 
to us, unless we are governed by them. 4. Co- 
quetry — is the vice of u small mind. 5. Pure /net- 
als — shine brighter, the more they are rubbed. 6. 
Pride— lives on very costly food,—hs keeper's 
happiness. 7. Extretrus — are generally hurtful , 
for they often expose us to damage, or render ua 
ridiculous. 8. In the days of affluence, always 
think of poverty. 9. Never let want come ujx>n 
you, and make you remember the days o( plenty. 
10. No one can become a good reader or speaker^ 
in a few weeks, or a few months. 

Woman. I have alvi'ays observed, says 
Ledyard, that women, in all countries, are 
civil, obliging, tender, and humane; that 
they are- inclined to be gay and cheerful, tim- 
orous and modest, and that they do not, like 
man, hesitate to perform a generous action. 
Not haughty, arrogant, or supercilious, they 
are full of courtesy, and fond oi society; more 
hable, in general, to err than man, but in 
general, also, more virtuous, and performing 
more good actions than he. To a woman, 
whether civilized or savage, I never address- 
ed myself in the language of decency and 
friendship, without receiving a decent and 
friendly answer. With man it has been often 
oiherv)ise. In wandering through the barren 
plains of inhospitable Denmark; thro' hon- 
est Sweden, and frozen Lapland, rude and 
churlish Finland, unprincipled Russia, and 
the wide-spread regions of the wandering 
Tartar; if hungry, dry, cold, wet, or sick, 
the vwmen — have ever been friendly to me 
and itniformly so ; and to add to tliis virtue, 
(so worthy to be called benevolence,) their 
actions have been performed in so free and 
kind a manner, that if I were dry, I drank 
the sweetest draught, and \i hungry, ate the 
coarsest morsel, wiih a double relish. 

Varieties. 1. When Baron, the actor, ' 
caine from hearing one of Massillon^s ser- 
mons, he said to one of his comrades of tlx 
stage ; bore is an orator; we — are only ac 
tors. 2. Soine people — wash themselves ior 
the sake of being clea?i; others, for the sake 
oi appearing so. 3. Oi all the pursuits, by 
which property is acejuired, none is prefera- 
ble to agriculture, — none more productive, 
and none more worthy of a gentleman. 4. 
It is a maxim with unprincipled politicians, 
to destroy, where they cannot intimidate, 
nor persuade. 5. Good humor, and menial 
charms, are as much superior to external 
beauty, as mind is superior to matter. 6. 
Be wise, be prudent, be discreet, and tem- 
perate, in all things. 

Patriots have toiled, and in their country's cause 
Bled nobly, and their deeds, as they deserve, 
Keceive proud recompense. We give In charge 
Their names— to the sweet lyre. Tlie historic muse 
Proud of her treasure, marches with it— down 
To latest time»; and sculpture in her turn. 
Gives bond, in stone-&aiX ever-during brass 
To guard them — and immortalize her trust. 



134 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3 7 6. In toxations. The intonations are 
opposite to monotones, and mean the rise and 
fall of the voice, in its natural movements 
through a sentence: they are demonstrated 
in music, and here, in elocutim. In all com- 
mon kinds of reading and speaking, the voice 
should not generally rise and fall more than 
one note, in its passage from syUable to syl- 
lable, and from word to word: its movement 
will then be gentle, easy and fiowing. But 
when the passion, or sentiment to be exhibit- 
ed, is powerfully awakening or exciting, it 
may rise or fall several notes, according to 
the predominance of feeling. 

SIT. Our (6) SIGHT— is the most (4) per- 
fect, and most (5) delightful — of all our 
senses. (4) It fills the mind with the largest 
variety of (3) ideas; (5) converses with its 
objects at the greatest (6) distance; and con- 
tinues the longest in (5) ac/ion, without being 

(4) tired— ox (3) satiated, with its proper e?i- 
Joyments. The (6) sense of (8) teelixg, 
can, indeed, give us the idea of (5) extenswti, 
(6) sfuipe, and all other properties of matter, 
th't are perceived by the (5) eije, except (4) 
colors. (3) At the same time— it is very much 

(5) straightened— B.nd (4) confined in its ope- 
rations, to the (3) number, (4) hulk, and (5) 
distance, of its peculiar objects. 

378. When we read, or speak, without any 
feeling, the voice ranges between our first 
and fourth notes; when there is a moderate 
degree of feeling, and the subject somewhat 
inter esting,\i ranges between our second and 
sixth notes; when there is a high degree of 
frel-ng and interest, it ranges between our 
fxirth and eighth notes; descending, how- 
ever, to the third and first, in a cadence, or 
close of the effcyrt. It is highly necessary to 
keep the voice afioat, and never let it run 
aground ; that is, let X\\e feeling and thought 
keep it on the proper pitches, and do not let 
it descend to the first, or ground-note, till the 
piece is completed ; except in depressed mo- 
notony. Memorize the preceding, and talk 
it off in an easy, graceful and appropriate 
manner. 

Abstract Question. Which is more pro- 
bable, that owr Judgment, in respect to exter- 
nal phenomena, has been warped, by compar- 
ini? their operations with those of the mind; 
or, that our metaphysical mistakes have been 
occasioned, by forming a false analogy be- 
tween its internal operations, and outward 
ijipearances ? 

The midnight moon— serenely smiles 

O'er nature's soft repose ; 
No towering doud obscures the sky, 

No ruffling tempest blows. 
Now, every posjton — sinks to rest; 

The throbbing heart lies still ; 
And varying schemes of life— no more 
Distract the laboring wiU. 



Proverbs 1. A clear efnsdenee ft^rs no ac- 
cusation. 2. An opefi door will tempt a saint. 3 
Confidence — is the companion of success. 4. 
Cruelty to a woman is— the crime of a monster. 5. 
A smart reproof is better than smooth deceit. G. A dd 
not trouble to the grief -worn heart. 7. Affeciation 
—is at best a deformity. 8. Bear misfortunes with 
patience and fortitude. 9. A good maxim is nevei 
out of season. 10. Ambiticnr-neyer looks behind. 
11. A wise man wants but little. 12. Knouiledgc 
—makes no one happy. 

Anecdote. A tragedy of JEschylus was 
once represented before tlie Athenians, in 
which it was said of one of the characters, 
" that he cared more to be just, than to uppea) 
so." At these words, all eyes were instantly 
turned upon Aristides, as the man who, of 
all the Greeks, most merited that distinguish 
ed character: and ever after he received, by 
universal consent, the surname of — " Tht 
Just.^'' 

Courtesy. St. Paul, addressing lumself to 
christians of all ^ades and classes, even down 
to menial servants, exhorts them to be cour- 
teous. Courteousness — must mean, therefore, 
a something, which is within the reach of all 
sorts of people; and, in its primary and best 
sense, is exactly such a behavior, as sponta- 
neously springs from a heart, warm with 
benevolence, and unwilling to give needless 
pain, or uneasiness to a fellow-being. We 
have no more right, wantonly or carelessly 
to wound the mind, than to wound the body 
of a fellow-being ; and, in many instances. 
the former — is the more cruel of the two. 

Varieties. 1. Some start in Hfe, withcuJ 
any leading object at all ; some, with a low 
aim, and some, with a high one ; and just in 
proportion to the elevation at which they aim, 
will generally be their success. 2. Guard 
against fraud, and imposition ; and forego 
some advantages, rather than gain them at a 
risk, that cannot be ascertained. 3. In tlie 
determination of doubtful and intricate cases, 
the nicest discrimination, and great solidity 
of Judgment, are required. 4. We have an 
instinctive expectation of finding nature 
everywhere the same, — always coiisisteni, 
md'truc io herself ; hnt whence this expec- 
tation:'^ 5. Is there not something in the 
native air of true freedom, to alter, expand, 
and improve the external form, as well as the 
internal P 6. Is not affluence-^ snare, and 
poverty,— Si temptation? 7. Man is a true 
epitome of the spiritual w'or Id, or world of 
mind; and to know himself i is the perfection 
of wisdom. 

CURIOSITY. 

It came from Hearen,— it reign'd in Eden's shades, 
It roves on earth— and. every walk invades : 
Childhood— and age— alike its influence own. 
It haunts the beggar'>s nook, the monarches throtte' 
Hangs o'er the cradle, leans above the bier. 
Gazed on old Babel^s tower,— and lingeis hen 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



135 



3T9* iNTOTfATTONS AND MeLODT OF 

Spkech. By the first — is meant the move- 
ment of the voice through the different notes 
of the scale, As-cending and DE-scending, 
with an appropriate and agreeable variety 
of sounds ; by the second, an agreeable suc- 
cession of sounds, either in speech or song. 
A dull repetition of words or sounds, on 
* nearly the same pitch, is very grating to the 
ear, and disgusting to correct taste ; and yet 
it is one of the most common faults of the 
bar, the senate and pulpit ,- indeed, in every 
p ace where there is public speaking: which 
is the melancholy result of the usual course 
of teaching children to read. 

380. Examples partially exiiibited. 
1 (5) Seest thou a man (5) diligent in his (6) bu- 
siness ? (5) He shall stand before (4) kings, (3) 
he shallnotstand before (5) mean men. 2. (3) 
swear not by the (6) moon, the (6) inconstant 
(4) moon, (3) that monthly (5) changes in its 
circled (3) orb. 3. Said Mr. Pitt, to his aged 
accuser, in debate, (4) "But (6) youth, it 
seems, is not my (6) only (3) crime, (4) I have 
been accused — of (5) acting (6) a (8) theatri- 
cal part." 4. (5) Standing on the ascent of 
the (6) past, we survey the (5) present, and 

(4) extend our views into (3) futitrUy. 5. 

(5) No one — will ever be the (4) happier, for 
(5) talents, or (4) riches, (3) unless he makes 
a right (3) use of them. 6. (5) Truths — have 
(4) life in them ; and the (6) effect of that 
life is (3) unceasing expansion. 7. (6) He, 
who loves the (5) Lord, with all his (4) heart, 
and his neighbor as (4) himself, needs no (5) 
compass, or (4) helm to steer his (3) course ,• 
because (5) truth and (4) love are his (3) 
wind and (2) tide. N. B. The inflections, cir- 
cumflexes, &c., commence with the accented 
vowel, which is supposed to be on the note 
indicated by the preceding figure. 

381. Promiscuous Examples without 
NoTATiox. The predominant characteristic 
of the female mind is affection : and that of 
tlie male mind is thought : tho' both have af- 
fection and thought ; but disparity — does not 
imply inferioriiy. The sexes are intended 
for different spheres of life, and are created 
in conformity to their destination, by Him, 
who bids the oak — brave the fury of the 
tempest, and the Alpine ^oi^er — lean its 
cheek on the bosom of eternal snow. 

Abstract Q,uestiGUs. Is not that pro- 
pensity of the human mind, which seeks for 
a medium of commuiLication, between two 
physical phenomena, to be traced to the fact, 
that every admitted truth, is derived from a 
medium of knowledge ; and that there is a 
connection among all intellectual phenome- 
na ; so much so, that we cannot conceive a 
new idea, without a medium of communica- 
tion? 



liaconics. 1. By mindinj our oum business, 
we shall be more useful, more benevolent, more 
respected, and ten times happier. 2. Thai stu- 
dent will live miserably, who lies down, like a 
camel, under his burden. 3. Remember, while 
you live, it is by looks — that men deceive. 4. A 
foolish friend may cause more woe, Than could 
indeed the wisest foe. 5. He, who confides in a 
person of no honor, may consider himself very 
lu^ky, if he is not a sufferer by it. 6. The co?idi- 
tion of mankind is such, that we must not believe 
every smoodi speech — the cover of a kind inten- 
tion. 7. AVho is wise? He who /earns from erer?/ 
one. 8. Who is rich ? He, who is contented. 9. 
Nothing is so dumb— as deep emotion. 10. Where 
there is much mystery, there is generally much 
ignorance. 11. Catch not soon at offence. 12. 
Whoso loseth his spirits, loseth all. 

Anecdote. Choice of a Husband. An 
Athenian, who was hesitating, whether to 
give his daughter in marriage to a man of 
worth with a small fortune, or to a rich man, 
who had no other recommendation, went to 
consult Themistocles on the subject. "I 
would bestow my daughter," said Themisto- 
cles, " upon a man without money, rather 
than upon money without a man!'' 

True Plillosopliy — consists in doing all 
the good that we can, in learning all the 
good we can, in teaching to others all the 
good we can, in bearing, to the best of our 
ability, the various ills of life, and in enjoys 
ing, with gratitude, every honest pleasure- 
that comes in our way. 

Varieties. 1. Should not ovu- m^enifi07?5, 
as well as our actions — be good? 2. Tnie 
love — is ot'slo7v growth, mutual and recipro- 
cal, and founded on esteem. 3. Graces, and 
accomplishments — are too often designed for 
beaux-caching, and coquetry. 4. There is 
time for all things. 6. An individual — in- 
clined to magnify every good, and minify 
every eml — must be a pleasing companion, 
or partner — for life, — whether male or fe- 
male. 6. Knowledge — is not tvisdom ,- it is 
only the raw material, from which the beau- 
tiful fabric of wisdom is produced; there- 
fore, let us not spend our days in gathering 
materials, and live, and die, without a shel- 
ter. 7. Every evil — has its limit,' which, 
when passed, plunges the wicked into mis- 
ery. 8. One thief in the house, is more to be 
dreaded than ten — in the street. 9. Tho 
more haste, generally the worst speed. 10. 
The moral government, under which we live, 
is a kingdom of uses ; and whatever we pos- 
sess, is given us for use ; and with it, the op- 
portunity and power of using it. 

Thou art, O God, the life and light 
Of all this wondrous world we see, 

Its glow by day, its smile hy night, 
.Are but reflections — caught from lh«e; 

Where'er we turn, thy glories shine, 

And all things/atr and bright are thip.e. 



136 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



38*. iNTOiTATioifs Continued. Listen 
attentively, to a person under the influence 
of nature, of his own feelings and thoughts : 
he relates stories, supports arguments, com- 
mands those under his authority, speaks to 
persons at a distance, utters exclamations of 
anger and rage, joy and rapture, pours 
forth lamentations of sorrow and grief, 
breathes affection, love, &c. in different /;i^c/i- 
es, tones, qualities, emphasis, infection, and 
cvrcumfiexes, elevations and depressions of 
voice. The only possibility of success, there- 
fore, is — to get perfect control of the vocal 
organs, by practicing these principles, and 
conforming the whole manner to the sense 
and objects of the composition. 

383. Intonation and Melodt. These 
examples are given as general guides; the 
figures refer to the notes in the Diatonic 
Scale. 1. (4) But, (6) from the (4) tomb, (5) 
the (4) voice of (5) nature (6) cries, (6) And, 
(5) in our (4) ashes, (5) live (4) their won-(3) 
ted (2) fires. 2. But (5) yonder comes, (4) 
rejoicing in the (6) east, (5) The (4) powerful 

(3) king of (2) day. 3. (6) Awake ! (6) 
ARISE ! (6) or (5) be (3) forever (2) fallen. 
4. (3) He expired in a (5) victualing hou&Q, 

(4) which I hope (5j I (3) shall (2) not. 7. 

(5) Fair (6) angel, thy (5) desire, which tends 
to (6) KNOW The works of (5) God, doth (4) 
merit (3) praise. 8 (5) Such (4) honors Ilion 
to (6) HER lover paid, And (5) peaceful slept 
(4) the mighty (3) Hector's (2) shade. Note, 
Construct a scale on faint ruled paper, and 
place the words on it as indicated ; the same 
as notes are on the musical staff. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Beauty — is the out- 
ward form of goodness : and this is the rea- 
son, we love it instinctively, without think- 
ing why we love : but we cease to love, when 
we find it unaccompanied with truth and 
goodness. 2. Make not your opinions, the 
criterion of right and wrong: but make 
right and wrong — the criterion of your ac- 
tions and principles. 

Few — bring back at eve, 
Immaculate, tlie manners of the mom ; 
Something we thought— is blotted, we resolved- 
la shaken, we renounced — returns again. 
There is no greater punishment of vice — 
Than that it have its own wiU; 
Hence, guilty — infernal love becomes the 
Most deadly hate. 

The intent, and not the deed, 
XB \n o\a power ; and tAcr«/br«, who dahes greatly, 
Does greatly. 

6. Words — are things; a small drop of 
ink., (billing like dew — ) upon thought, pro- 
duces that, which makes thousands, perhaps 
MILLIONS think. 7. Something — is at all 
tim es — flowing into us. 

Too much the beautiful — ^we prize , 
Tlie useful — often we derjrue. 



Proverbs. 1. Tb remedy for injunes j«v- 
iiol to remmiber them. 2. To read, ard not under- 
stand, is to pursue, and not overtake. 3. Truth re- 
fines, but does not obscure. 4. He who teaches, 
often learns himself. 5. Worth— has been undei 
rated, ever since ivealth—hsis beer, overrated. G 
Antiquity— cannot sanction an error, nor noveh*j 
injure a trutfi. 7. A man m a passion, rides a 
horse that runs away with him. 8. A small kaJi 
will sink a great ship. 9. Never forget a good 
turn. 10. Lying— is lh.e\ice of a slave. 11. Self- 
co7iceit — is the attendant of ignoranc*. 12. The 
love of society is natural. 

Aliecdote. The emperor of China, in- 
quired of Sir George Staunton, about the 
manner in which physicians were paid in 
England. When he was made to understand 
what the practice was, he exclaimed, — " Can 
any man in England afford to be ill ^ Now, 
I have four physicians, and pay alloi them 
a weekly salary ; but the moment I am sick, 
that salary is stopped, till I am well again ; 
therefore, my indisposition is never of long 
duration. " 

Woman. The prevailing manners of an 
age depend, more than we are aware of, or 
are willing to allow, on the conduct of the 
women : this is one of the principal tilings 
on which the great machine of human society 
turns. Those, who allow the influence which 
female graces have in contributing to polish 
the manners of men, would do well to reflect, 
how great an influence female morals must 
also have on their conduct. How much, 
then, is it to be regretted, that women — should 
ever sit down, contented, to polish, when they 
are able to reform — to entertain, when they 
might instruct. Nothing delights men more 
than their strength of understanding, when 
true gentleness of manners is its associate ; 
united,they become irresistible orators, blcss'd 
with the power of persuasion, fraught with 
the sweetness of instruction, making woman 
the highest ornament of human nature. 

Varieties. 1. Fear — is a bad preserver 
of anything intended to endure,- but love — ■ 
will generally ensure ^fZeZi/?/, even to ihe end. 
2. He, who knowingly defends the wrong 
side of a question, pays a very bad compli- 
ment to his liearers: as much as to say ; False.' 
Iwod, supported by my talents, is strongei 
than trutfi, supported by yours. 3. Before a 
man should be convicted of a libel, the jury 
must be satisfied, that it was his intention tc 
libel ; not to state facts, which he believed to 
be true, or, reasonings, which he thongut 
just. 4. The difference between ttxe word 
of God, and the compositynis of man, is as 
great, as between real flame and painted 
flame. 5. Lussimulation, even the most in- 
norim^, IS ever productive of embarrassmentsi 
whether tlie design is evil, or not, artifice is 
always dangerous, and aln.ost inevitably d\» 
graceful. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



137 



384. Revisions. Let all the preceding 
principles be reviewed, with an illustration of 
each, and endeavor to fix them, permanently, 
in the mind, by seeing their truth, and feeling 
their power in practice ; so that you can write 
a work yourself on the philosophy of mind 
and voice. Remember, that nothing is yours, 
till you make it your own, by understanding 
it scientifically, raiionalty and affectuously, 
lUid then by applying it to its proper object : 
do not forget effects, causes, ends, tlieir suc- 
cessive order, and simultaneous developtnent. 
eve's lament on leaving paradise. 
(Plaintive, with quantity.) 
O, unexpected stroke, worse than of Death.' 
Must I thus leave thee, Paradise ? thus leave 
Thee, native soil, these liappy walks and shades, 
Fit iiauntof g-oifs? where I had hoped to spend, 
{Quiet, tho' sad,) the respite of that day, 
That must be mortal to us both ; 
O floivers, (thai never will in other climate grow,) 
My early visitation, and my last 
At ev'n, which I bred up, with tender hand. 
From the first opening hud, and gave ye names,' 
Wlw, now, shall rear you to the sun, and rank 
Your tribes, and water from the ambrosial/ownr? 
Thee, (lastly,) nuptial bower, by me adorned 
^Vith what to sight, or smell, was sweet, from thee 
How shall 1 part, and whither wander — down 
Into a lower world, to this — obscure 
And wild ? How shall we breatlie in other air, 
hess pure, accustomed to immortal fruits ! 

385. How mean, — how timid, — how ab- 
ject, must that spirit be, which can sit down, 
— contented with mediocrity. As for myself 
— all that is within me is onj^re. I had ra- 
ther be torn into a thousand pieces, than relax 
my resolution, of reaching the sublimesi 
heights of virtue — and knowledge, of good- 
ness — and truth, of love — and wisdom. 
Nothing is so arduous, — nothing so abmik- 
ABLE, in human affairs, but may be attained 
oy the industry of man. We are descended 
from heaven ; thither let us go, whence we 
derive our origin. Let nothing satisfy us, — 
lower than the summit of all excellence. 

Nominalists and Realists. TheNom- 
vialisis — were a sect, the followers of Ros- 
celinus and Abelard: according to these 
philosophers, there are no existences in na- 
ture corresponding to general terms, and the 
objects of our attention in all our general 
speculations, are not ideas, but words. The 
Realists — were their opponents, and adliercd 
to the principles of Aristotle. 
Q/if— may the spirits of the dead — descend 
To watcli — the silent slumbers of ?l friend; 
To hover — round his evening walk — unseen, 
And hold sweet converse — on the dusky green; 
To hail the spot — where ^rs« their friendship grew. 
And heaven — and nature — opened to their view. 
Oft, when he trims his cheerful hearth, and sees 
A smiling circle — emulou.<5 to please, 
2%€fe— may these gentle guests— delight to dwell, 
And bless the «cene— they loved in life so well. 

18 M2 



Liaconicg. 1. The grea jattle and coniat 
among politicians is — not how the government 
shall be administered, but who shall administer ii. 
2. They who go to church out of vanity, or curi- 
osity, and not for worship and instruction, should 
not value themselves on account of their religion, 
for it is not worth a straw. 3. Allow lime for 
consideration; everything is badly executed, that 
is done hy force or violeyice. 4. Occasional mirth, 
is not incompatible with wisdom; and the manor 
reserved habits, m^y sometimes be, gay. 5. Happy 
are they, who draw lessons of prudence— from iho 
dangers, in which others are involved. 6. Elo- 
quence— csm pierce the reluctant wonder of the 
world, and make even monarchs tremble on their 
thrones. 

Anecdote. Spinola. "Pray, of what did 
your brother rfie.?" said the Marquis Spinola, 
one day to Sir Horace Vere. " He died, sir," 
replied he, " of having nothing to do." "Alas I 
sir," said Spinola, " that is enough to kill any 
general of us aZZ." Mostesquieu says, " We, 
in general, place idleness among the beati- 
tudes of heaven ; it should rather, I tliink, be 
put amid the tortures of hell. Austin calls it 
— the burying a man alive." 

Female Education. How greatly is it 
to be regretted, that for the benefit of both 
sexes, women are not generally so educated, 
that tlieir conversations might be still much 
more useful to us, as well as beneficial to 
themselves! If, instead of filling their heads 
with trifles, or worse than trifles, they were 
early taught what might be really useful, 
they would not then be so continually in 
pursuit of silly, ridiculous, expensive, and 
many times criminal amusement; neither 
would their conversation be so insipid and 
impertinent, as it too often is. On the con^ 
trary, were their minds properly improved 
with knowledge, which it is certain they are 
exceedingly capable of, how much more 
agreeable would they be to themselves, and 
how much more improving and delightful to 
us ? How truly charming does beauty ap- 
pear, when adorned by good nature, good 
sense, and knowledge ? And when beauty . 
fadcSf as soon it must, there wiU then 1)6 
those qualities and accomplishments remain' 
ing, which cannot fail to command great ra 
gard, esteem, and affection. 

VARIETIES. 

But — shall we wear these glories for a day, 
Or shall they last, and we rejoice in them? 
While there is hope, do not distrust the gods. 
But wait, at least, till Cesar's near approach, 
Force us to yield. Twill never be too late — 
To sue for chains, and own a.(onqueror. 

In faith, and hope, the world will disagree, 
But all mankind's concern— is charity. 
'Tis education — forms the common viind, 
Just as \'i^ twig is bent, the frfe's inclined. 
The mind, that would be happy, must be greai 
Great in its wishes, gruat in its surveys; 
Extended viiws, a ;iar jow mind extend. 



.38 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



386. As SO much depends upon the proper 
•riovement of the voice, through the diiFerent 
notes of the scale, and as our primary in- 
struction in reading is often diametrically op- 
posed to what is natural, it is deemed neces- 
sary to be more explicit in diredioiw, as well 
as in exLmples. Imitate, with the voice, ac- 
companioi by corresponding motions of the 
hand, tht) gentle undulations of the waters, 
when the waves run moderately high ; let- 
ting the movement of your voice resemble 
Uiat of a small boat. Observe the various 
movements of different kinds of birds through 
the air, some bobbing up and down, others 
moving more gracefully ; some flapping their 
wings, others sailing, soaring : but the move- 
ments of the voice are infinitely more vari- 
ous than all other external motions; for it 
contains them all. 

THE EIGHT NOTES OF THE SCALE. 



6. cries, and 

5. from the the nature in our eslive 

4. But tomb voice of ash- their won- 

3. ted 

2. fires. 

Blessed — we sometimes are ! and I amnoto 
Happy in qalet feelings ; for tJie tones — 
Of a pleasant company o{ friends — > 
Were in my ear, just now, and gentler thoughts 
From spirits, whose high character I know 
And I retain their influence, as the air — 
Retains \hft softness — of departed day. 
There is a spell — in every floiver, 

A sweetness — in each sprai/, 
And every simple bird — has j^ower— 

To please us — with its lay. 
And there is music — on (he breeze, 

That sports along the glade, 
And crystal dew-drops — on the trees, 

The gems — hy fancy made. 
O, there is joy — and happiness, 

In every thing I see, 
Which bids my soul rise up — and bless 
'J'he God, that blesses ine 
Metliod. In speaking extempore, or in 
wn/ing-, METHOD, or the proper arrangement 
of the thoughts, is of the first importance ; 
to attain which, you must^a:, in your mind, 
the precise object you have in view, and 
never lose sight of it; then, determine the 
grand divisi/ms ; which should be natural, 
and distinct; not an unnecessary thought, 
or illustration — should be admitted: and 
even in the amplification of the subject, eve- 
ry par^ should have its proper j)Zacf, and all 
— present a whole. 

Anecdote. Mr. Summerjield. It is said, 
of the late Mr. Summerfield, that being asked 
by a bishop, where he was born, he replied, 
" I -was born in England, and boni again in 
Ireland:' " What do you mean .?" inquired 
file bishop. " Art th.ou a master in Israel, and 
knawest not those things '!" was the reply. 



liacoiiicg. 1. The antiilote, io Ae bant fill :rv- 
fluence of flattery is, for every o.ie to fxamine 
himself, and truly estimate his own qualities, and 
character. 2. Let us make ourselves steadfast in 
what is certainly true, and we shall be able to 
answer objections, or reject them as unworthy of an 
answer. 3. Argument — cannot disprove /ac</ no 
two opposing _/acte can be produced; all objec- 
tions to a/act must therefore be negative. 4. Ed- 
ucation — includes all the influences, that serve to 
unfold the faculties, — and determine the chur 
acter ; thus involving the WCTitaZ, and physical. 5 
To render good for evil, is God-like ; to rendei 
good for good, is man-like ; to render e^:il for evU, is 
beastAxke ; to render evil tor good— is deviWike. 

Varieties. Has a wise and good God — 
furnished us with desires, which have no cor- 
respondent objects, and raised expectations 
in our breasts, with no other view but to dis- 
apj)oi?it them'? Are we to be forever in 
search of happiness, without arriving at it, 
either in this world or in the next ? Are we 
formed with a passionate longing for immor- 
tality, and yet destined to j)erish, after this 
short period of existence ? Are we prompt- 
ed to the noblest actions, and supported 
through life, under the severest hardships 
and most delicate temptations, by the hopes 
of a reward, which is visionary and chimeri- 
cal, — by the expectation of praises, of which 
it is utterly impossible for us, ever to have 
the least knowledge or enjoyment ? 

Effects of Knowledge. The more 
widely knowledge is spread, the more will 
they be prized, whose happy lot it is — ^to ex- 
tend its bounds, by discovering new truths, 
to multiply its uses — by inventmg new modes 
of applying it in practice. Real knowledge 
— never prompted either turbulence, or ii>n- 
belief; but its progress is the forerunner o" 
liberality and enlightened toleration. Who- 
so rfrm^ these, let ]\\m. tremble; for he may 
be well assured, that their day is at length 
come, and must put to sudden flight the evil 
spirits of tyranny and persecution, wliicl: 
haunted the long night, now gone down the 
sky. 

VARIETIES. 

Soft jjeace she brings wherever she arrives; 
She builds our quiet, as she forms our lives; 
liuys the xo\x%h.paili of peevish nature even, 
And opens, in each breast, a little heaven 
.Man—\s tlie rugged lofty j^ine, 

That frowns o'er many a t^at-e-beal short { 
Woman''s the slender— graceful vine, 
Whose curling tendrils— round ittwme, 

And deck its rough bark — sweetly o'er. 
Teach me to soothe the helpless orphan's grief, 

With lively aid — the widow's woes assuage 
Tomts'rt/'s moving cries— to yield relief. 

And be the sure resource of drooping age. 
Our doubts — are traitors. 
And make us lose the good — we oft might wm. 
By fearing to attempt. 



PRINCirLES OF ELOCUTION. 



139 



887. Cadence — means a descent, or fall 
of the voice : here, it means the proper man- 
ner of closing a sentence. In the preceding 
examples, the pupil sees how it is made. 
The best cadence, that which rests most 
pleasantly on ihe ear, is the fall of a triad; 
i. e. a regular gradation of three notes from 
the prevalent pitch of voice ; which is gen- 
erally the fourth or fifth : tho' diiierent voices 
'die keyed on different pitches: hence, each 
must be governed by his own peculiarities 
in this respect. Beware of confounding ca- 
dence with inflections; and never end a sen- 
tence with a feeble and depressed utterance. 
The' nature — weigh our talents, and dispense, 
To every man, liis modicum of seiise, 
Yet — muca — depends, as in tlie tiller''s toil, 
On cidturi, and the sowing of the soil. 
The brave man — is not he, who feels no /ear, 
For tfiat — were stupid — and irrational ; — 
But he, whose noble soul his fear subdues, [from. 
And bravely dares the danger, wliich lie shrinks 
He holds no parly with uimianly/ea"*; 
Where dicty bids, lie confidently steers; 
Faces a thousand dangers at her call, 
And trusting in his God, surmounts them all. 

Whatisif/e." 
'TIS not to stalk about, and draw in fresh air, 
From time to time, or gaze upon the sun; 
'Tis to be free. 

388. Word-Painting. There is noth- 
ing in any of the other fine arts, but what is 
involved in -oratory. The letters are analo- 
gous to uncompounded 'paints; words — to 
paints prepared for use; and, when arranged 
into appropriate and significant sentences, 
they form pictures of the ideas on the can- 
vas of the imagination: hence, composition, 
whether written or spoken, is like a picture, 
exhibiting a great variety of /eafMres, not 
only with promr7ience, but with degrees of 
prominence : to do which, the painter, 
speaker, or writer, applies shades of the 
same color to features of the same class, and 
opposing colors to those of different classes. 

Crovernment. The ordinary division of 
governments into republican, monarchical, 
and despotic, appears essentially erroneoiis; 
for there are but two kinds of government, 
good and bad : governments are national 
and special. The essence of the former — 
consists in the will of the nation constitu- 
tionally expressed; that of the latter, where 
thej-e are other sources of power, or right, 
than the will of'the nation. 

Anecdote. Fu?ictual Hearer. A wo- 
man, who always used to attend public wor- 
ship with great punctuality, and took care 
to be always in time, was asked how it was 
— she could always come so early; she an- 
swered very wisely, "that it was part of 
her religion — not to disturb the religion of 
other sy 

I hate to see a scholar gape, 

And yawn upon his seat, 
Or lay his head upon his desk. 
As if almost asleep. 



Laconics. 1. No cl.Ktige in '.xtetnnl appear- 
ance, can alter that, which is radically wrong. 2. 
Seize an opportunity, when it presents itself; if 
once lost, it may never be regained. 3. Vicioii$ 
men, endeavor to impose on the world, by assum- 
ing a setnblance of virtue, to conceal their l)ad 
habits, and evil propensities. 4. Beware of self- 
love, for it hardens the hear:, and shut-s the mind to 
all that is good and true. 5. The excessive pleas- 
ure one feels — in talking of himself, ought to inako 
him apprehensive, tliat he affords little to his ai*- 
sitor. G. In our intercourse with the world, wo 
should often ask ourselves this question — }Iow 
would I like to be treated thus? 7. In all aees 
and countries, unprincipled men may be found, 
who will slander the most upiight character, and 
find otiiers as basy as thonsdves, to join iii the pro- 
pagation of \.\\g\v falsehoods . 

Confinement of Debtors. The prosper » 
ity of a people is proportionate to the num- 
ber of hands and minds usefully employed. 
To the community, sedition is a fever, cor- 
ruption is a ga?igre?ie, and idleness is an 
atrophy. Whatever body, and whatever so- 
ciety — wastes more than it acquires, must 
gradually decay: and every being, that con- 
tinues to he fed, and ceases to labor, takes 
away something from the public stock. The 
co7ifineme?it, therefore, oi a7iy man in the 
sloth and darkness of a prison, is a loss to 
the nation, and no gai7i to the creditor. 
For, of the multitudes, who are pining in 
those cells of misery, a very S7nall part is 
suspected of any fraudulent act, by which 
they retain, what belongs to others. The 
rest are imprisoned by the wantonness of 
pride, the malignity of revejige, or the acri- 
mony of disappointed expectation. 

VARIETIES. 

'Tis slander : 
Wliose edge — is sliirper tlian the sword, whose tongua 
Outvenonis all tlie worms o{ Nile; whose breath — 
Rides on the siwrting' winds, and dotli belie 
' All corners of the world : fci?igs, queens, and states, 
Maids and mntrons, the secrets of the p-ave — 
This viperous slander entens. 
Mercy to him that shows it, is the rule, 
And righteous liinitation of its act, 
By which heaven moves, in pardoning guilt) man. 
And he, that shows none, (being ripe in years. 
And cffiiscioxis — of the outrage he conmiits,) 
Stiall setk it, and not /j»d it, in his turn. 
His words — are bonds; his oaths — are oracles; 
Hi« love — sijuxre; his thoughts— immactilate ; 
His ttar.s— pure messe7igers, sent from his lieart: 
His heari— is as far from /rowrf,— as heaven— (mm eaith. 
Be earnest! — why sliouldst thou for custom^s sake, 
Lay a cold hand upon thy heart's warm pulse, 
And crush those feelings back,wh\c]\,uttered,mi^kQ 
Links in the chain of love? Why thus convui^ 
A soul, that overflows with sympathy 
For kindred souls, when thou art called to be 
The Hearfs Apostle, loving, pure, and trtte? 
The smooth hypocrisies, the polished lies. 
The cold de ad /orm— and hollow mockeries 

Current among the matiy, by Ihe feio. 
Who know their manliood, should be held in scorn 
Spefik freely thy free thought— and otJier souls 
To thine shall answer— as from living coals 
Together kindled, light and heal are bon\! 



240 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



389. Dynamics. This, in mechanical plii- 
losophy, means the science of moving-powers ; 
in elocutmi and singing, it relates to the 
force, loudness, Jiarshness, strength, rougfi- 
ness, softness, swell, diininisli, smoothness, 
abiniptness, gentleness of voice : that is, its 
qualities, which are as various as those of the 
human mind ; of which, indeed, they are the 
representatives. Observe — that the names of 
these qualities, when spoken naturally, ex- 
press, or echo, their natures. The Loud, 
Rough, Soft, Smooth, Harsh, Forcible, Full, 
Strong, Tremulous, Slender, &c. allof whicli 
are comprehended in force, pitch, time, quan- 
tity, and abruptness of voice. 

390. Let the following examples be ren- 
dered perfectly familiar — the feelings, tlio'ts, 
words and appropriate voice: nothing, how- 
ever, can be done, as it slwuld be, without 
having the most important examples memo- 
rized, liere and elsewhere. (Loud) " But 
when loud surges — lash the sounding shore ; 
(Rough) The hoarse rough voice, should like 
the torrent roar." (Soft) " Soft is the strain, 
when Zephyr geiitly blows; {Smooth) And 
the smooth stream, in smoother numbers 
flj«s." (Harsh) "On a sudden, open fly, 
with- impetuous recoil and jarring sound, the 
mfernal doors, and on their hinges grate harsh 
thunder.'^ (Soft) " Heaven opened wide 
her ever-during gates (harmonious sound) 
on golden hinges turning." (Soft) "How 
charming — is divine philosophy ! (Harsh) 
Not harsh, and crabJied, as dull fools sup- 
pose. (Soft) But musical — as is Apollo^ s 
lute." (Harsh, Strong and Forcible.) " Blow 
xjoind, and crack your cheeks ! rage I blow 
your cataracts, and hurricane spout, till you 
have drenched our steeples. You sulphuri- 
ous and thought-executing fires, vaunt couri- 
ers to oafe-cleaving thunderbolts ; and tliou, 
all shaking tliunder, strike flat the thick ro- 
tundity of the world." 

(Soft and Smooth.) 
How sweet the moon-light sleeps upon this bank; 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music. 
Creep in our ears ; soft stillness, and the niffkt, 
Become the touched of sweet harmony. 
(Quick and Joyotis.) 
Let the merry bells ring round. 
And the jocund rebeck sound, 
To nvany a youth— and many a maid. 
Dancing— in the checkered shade. 
A want of occupation — is not rest, 
A mind quite vacant — is a mind distressed. 
As rolls the ocean's changing tide. 

So — human feelings — e&&— and flow .— 
And who could in a breast confide, 

Where stormy passions— ever glow I 
Remote from cities — lived a swain, 
iJnvexed— with ail the cares of gain; 
His head — was silvered o'er with aire, 
And long erperience — made him naffe. 



Maxims. I. The credit that is gel hy a lie, 
— only lasts till the truth conies out. 2. Zeal, 
mixed with love, is harmless — as tiie dove. 3. 
A covetous man is, as he always fancies, in want. 
4. Hypocrites— fust cheat the world, and at last, 
themselves. 5. The borrower is slave to the lender, 
and the security — to both. 6. Some are too stif 
to bend, and too old to mend. 7. Truth has al- 
ways a sure foundation. 8. He, who draws 
others into evil courses — is the devil's agent. 9. 
To do good, is the right way to find good. 10. 
A spur in the head—\& worth two in the heel. II. 
Better spared, than ill spent. 12. Years teach 
more than books. 

Anecdote. Love and Liberty. When an 
Armenian prince — had been taken captive 
with his princess, by Cyrus, and was asked, 
wliat he would give to be restored to his king- 
dom and liberty, he replied : " As for my 
kingdom and liberty, I value iliem not; but 
if my blood — would redeem my princess, I 
would cheerfully give it for her." When 
Cyrus had liberated them both, the princesa 
was asked, what she thought of Cyrus ? To 
which she replied, " I did not observe him ; 
my luhole attention was fixed upon the gene- 
rous man, who would have purchased my 
liberty with his life." 

Prejudice — may be considered as a con- 
tinual false medium of viewing things ; for 
prejudiced persons — not only never speak 
well, but also, never think well, of those 
whom they dislike, and the whole character 
and conduct is considered — with an eye to 
that particular thing which offeiids them. 

Varieties. 1 . Every thing that is an ob- 
ject of taste, sculpture, painting, architecture, 
gardening, husbandry, poetTy, and music — 
come within the scope of the orator. 2. In a 
government, maintained by the arm of pow- 
er, there is no certainty of duration ; but one 
cemented by mutual kindness, all the best 
feelings of the heart are enlisted in its sup- 
port. 3. Who was the greater tyrant, Diony- 
sius or the bloody Mary ? 4. Beauty, unac 
companied by virtue, is like a. flower, vfit'i 
outjoerfume; its brillia7icy may Tema'm, hut 
its sweetness is gone ; all that was precvms 
in it, has evaporated. 5. We might as well 
tlirow oil on a burning- house to put out the 
fire, as to take ardent spirits intothe stomach, 
to lessen the effects of a hot sun, or severe 
exercise. 6. The understanding must be 
elevated above the will, to control its desires; 
but it must be enlightened by the truth, that 
it may not err. 

The pathway — to the grave — may be the same. 
And the proud man — shall tread it, — and the/f?w, 
"With his bowed head, shall bear him company. 
But the temper — of the invisible mind, 
The^o^/-like— and undying ijtfe/lect, 
These are distinctions, that will live in heaven. 
When timo,-~is a forgotten circum^ldii-e. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



141 



891. Dtwamics Coittijtuei). These con- 
trasts produce great effects, when properly 
exhibited, both in elocution and music. The 
rushing loud, indicates dread, alarm, warn- 
ing, &c. ; the soft, tlieir opposites : the tend- 
ency of vidistinctness is, to remove objects to 
a distance, throwing them into the back- 
ground of the picture ; and of fullness, to 
bring them into the /ore-ground, making 
them very prominent; thus — the volyph- 
onist deceives, or imposes upon the ear, mak- 
ing his sounds correspond to those, he would 
represent, near by, and at a distance. 

393. Forcible. Now storming /wn/ rose, 
and clamor ; such as heard in heaven, till 
now, was never: arms on armor, clashing, 
brayed horrible discord ,- and the maddening 
wheels of brazen chariots raged. Full: high 
on a throne — of ro7jal state, which far out- 
slione the wealth of Ormus, and of Inde; 
or where the gorgeous East, with richest 
hand, showers on her kings barbaric, pearl 
and gold, Satan, exalted, sat. Strong.- 
him, the Almighty Power hurled headlong, 
flaming from the ethereal skies with hideous 
ruin and combustion, doivn to bottomless 
perdition — there to dwell in adamantine 
chains, and penal fire, — who durst defy the 
Omnipotent to arms. 

So MILLIONS— are smit— with the glare of a toy : 
They grasp at a pebble— and call it— a gem, 
And tinsel— is gold, (if it glitters,) to them; 
Hence, dazzled with beauty, the lover is smit, 
Tlie /lero- with honor, tlie ,poe«— with wit; 
The fop — with \\\s feather, hxssniiff-box and cane, 
riie nymph with hur novel, the merchant with gain: 
Kacii finical priest, and polite pulpiteer, 
Who dazzles \he fancy, and tickles the ear, 
With exquisite tropes, and musical style, 
As gay as a tulip — as polished as oil, 
Sell truth-aXihe shrine of polite cio^ttmce, 
To please the soft taste, and allure the gay sense. 

Miscellaneous. 1 . Fair sir, you spit on 
me — on Wednesday last ; you spumed me — 
such a day ; another time — you called me 
dog ; and for these courtesies, I'll lend thee 
thus mucli moneys. 2. I stand — in the pre- 
sence — of Almighty God, and of the world; 
and I declare to you, tliat if you lose this 
charter, never, no never — will you get an- 
other. We are now, perhaps, arrived at the 
variing point. Here, even here, we stand — 
on tlie brink o? fate I Pause! for heaven's 
sake, pause. 3. Can you raise the dead? 
Pursue and overtake the wings of time ? And 
can you bring about again, the hours, the 
DATS, the YEARS, that made me happy? 
4. But grant — that others can, with equal 
glory, look down on pleasure, and the bait of 
sense, where — shall we find a man, that bears 
afflictions, great and majestic in his ills, like 
Cato? 

Oh then, liow blind— to all that truth requires, 

Who think il freedom, where a part — aspire. 



Maxims. 1. Al* is soon ready ir an onlerly 
house. 2. Bacchus 1 as drowned more than Nep- 
tune. 3. Despair — has ruined some, but presump- 
tion — multitudes. 4. Flattery— sils in the parlor, 
while plain-dealing is kicked out of doors. 5. He 
is not drunk for nothing, who pays his reckoning 
with his reason. 6. If tae woiTd knew what passe? 
in my mind, what would it thi7ik of me. 7. Give 
neither counsel nor salt, till you are asked for A. 3. 
Close not a letter — without reading it, nor drink 
ivater — without seeing it. 9. A fool, and his money^ 
are soon parted. 1 0. If few words — will not make 
you wise, many will not 

Anecdote. Charity Sermon. Dean Svrift 
— was requested to preach a charity sermon ; 
but was cautioned about having it too long : 
he replied, that they should have nothing to 
fear on that score. He chose for his text 
these words — " He that hath pity on the poor, 
lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he 
hath given — will he pay him again." The 
Dean, after looking around, and repeating 
his text in a still more emphatic manner, 
added — " My beloved friends, you hear the 
terms of the loan; and now, if you like the 
security, — dovm with your dust.'" The re- 
sult was, as might be expected, — a very large 
collection. 

Precept and Example. Exainple — 
works more cures than precept; for words, 
without practice, are but councils without ef- 
fect. When we do as we say, it is a confir- 
mation of the rule ; but when our lives and 
doctrines do not agree, it looks as if the lessffn 
were either too hard for us, or the advice not 
worth following. If a priest — design to edify 
by his sermons, concerning the punishment 
of the other world, let him renounce his lust, 
pride, avarice, and contentiousness ; for who- 
ever would make another believe a danger, 
must first show that he is apprehensive of it 
himself. 

Varieties. 1. The first book read, and 
the last one laid aside, in the chiUVs library, 
is the moilier: every look, ivord, /rme, and 
gesture, nay, even dress itself — makes an* 
everlasting impression. 2. One who is cmi- 
scious of qualities, deserving of respect, and 
attention, is seldom solicitous about tliem; 
but a contemptible spirit — wishes to hide it- 
self from its own view, and that of oMers, by 
show, bluster and arrogant pretensions. 3. 
The blood of a coward, would stain the char- 
acter of an honorable man ; hence, when we 
chastise such wretches, we should do it with 
the utmost calmness of /ew/)er. 4. Cultivate 
the habit — of directing the mind, intently, to 
whatever is presented to it; this — is the foun- 
dation of a sound intellectual character. C. 
We are too apt, when a jest is turned upon 
ourselves, to think that iyisufferable, in an- 
other, which we looked upon as very pretty 
and facetious, when the humor was our ovm. 
Never puTch&f.t friendship by gifts. 



142 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



393. Worus — are paints, the voice -^ the 
brush, the mind — the painter ,• hut science, 
practice^ genius, taste, judgment and emo- 
tion — are necessary — in order to paint well : 
and there is as much difference hetween a 
good and bad reader, as there is hetween a 
good painter and a mere dauber. What 
gives expression to painting! Emphasis. 
We look upon some pictures and remark, 
" that is a strong outline ;" " a very express- 
ive countenance:^^ this is emphasis: again, 
we'.ook upon others, and there is a softness, 
ile'icacy, and tenderness, that melts the soul, 
as she contemplates them ; this is emotion. 

394. Tlirow the following lines on the 
canvas of your imagination; i. e. picture 
them out there. 

BEAUTY, WIT AND GOLD. 

In hex bower — a widow dwelt; 

At her feet — three suitors knelt : 

Each— adored the widow much, 

Each — essayed her heart to touch ; 

One — had wit, and one — liad gold, 

And one — was cast in heauty^s mould ; 

Guess — which was it — won the prize, 

Purse, or tongue, or handsome eyes ? 

First, appeared the handsome man, 

Proudly peeping o'er her fan; 

Red his lips, and white his skin; 

Could such beauty — fail to win ? 

Then— stepped forth — the man of gold, 

Cash he counted, coin he told, 

Wealth— ihe burden of his tale; 

Could such golden projects fail? 

TTien, the man of ivit, and sense, 

Moved her — with his eloquence ; 

Now, she heard him — with a sigh; 

Now — she blushed, she knew not why : 

Then, she smiled — to hear him speak, 

Then, the tear — was on her cheek: 

Beauty, vanish I gold, depart .' 

Wit, has won the widoiv^s heart. 
Is PoLiTKXKss, as in everything etee, con- 
nected with the formation of character, we 
are too apt to begin on the outside, instead of 
the inside: instead of heginiiing with the 
heart, and tiusting to that to form the man- 
ners, many hegin with the manners, and 
leave the heart to chance and influences. 
The golden rule — contains the very life and 
mul of politeness : " Do unto others — as you 
would they should do unto t/ow." Unless 
children and ^jouth are taught — by precept 
and example, to abhor what is selfish, and 
prefer another's pleasure and comfort to their 
own, their politeness will be entirely artifi- 
cial, and used only when interest and policy 
dictate. True politeness — is perfeci freedom 
and ease, treating others — just as you love to 
be treated. Nature — is always graceftil : af- 
fectation, with all her art, can never produce 
anything half so pleasing. The very perfec- 
tion of elegance — is to imitate nature ; how 



imitation ! Anxiety about the opinions o^ 
others — fetters the freedom of nature, and 
tends to awkwardness ; all would appear 
well, if they never tried to assume — ^what 
they do not possess. Every one is respectable 
and pleasing, so long as he or she, is perfectly 
natural and truthful, and speaks and ads 
from the impulses of an honest and affection- 
ate heart, without any anxiety as to what 
others think. 

liaconics. 1. Modesty — in your discourse, 
will give a hcstre — to truth, — and excuse — to your 
errors. 2. Some — are silent, for want of matter, or 
assurance; others — are talkative, for want of 
sense. 3. To judge of men — by their actions, one 
would suppose that a great proportion was mad 
and that the world — was one immense mad-hou&e. 
4. Prodigals — are rich, for a moment — economists, 
forever. 5. To do unto others, as we would they 
should do to MS, is a golden maxim, that cannot be 
too deeply impressed on our minds. 6. Continue 
to add a little — to what was originally a little, and 
you will make it a great deal. 7. The value — of 
sound, correct principles, early implanted in the 
human mind, is incalculable. 

Those who are talentless, themselves, are 
ihe first to talk ^bout the conceit of others; 
for mediocrity — bears but one flower - 
ENVY. 

Anecdote. Too Hard. About one hun- 
dred years ago. Mahogany — was introduced 
in England as ballast for a ship, that sailed 
from the West Indies ; and one Dr. Gibbons 
wished some furniture made of it : but the 
workmen, finding it too hard for their tools, 
laid it aside. Another effort was made ; but 
the cabinet-maker said it was too hard for hia 
tools. The Doctor told him, he must get 
stronger tools then : he did so, and his effort 
was crovmed with success. Remember this, 
ye who think the subject of elocution, as here 
treated, too difficult : and if you carmot find 
a way, make one. Press on ! 

Varieties. 1 . A good reader may become 
a good speaker, singer, painter and sculptor .- 
for there is nothing in any of these arts, that 
may not be seen in true delivery. 2. Old 
Parr, who died at the advanced age of 152, 
gave this advice to his friends ; " Keep your 
head cool by temperance, your feet warm by 
exercise: rise early, and go early to bed; 
and if you are inclined to grow fat, keep 
your eyes open, and your mouth shut.'''' Are 
not these excellent life-pills ? 3. As the lark 
— sings at the dawn of day, and the nightin- 
gale at even, so, should we show forth the 
loving kindness of the Lord — every morn- 
ing, and his faithfulness — every night. 4. 
Is not the science of salvation — the greatest 
of all the sciences] 
Without a star, or angel— for tlieir guide. 
Who worship God, shall j/ind him : humble Love, 
(And not proud Reason,) keeps the door of heaven . 



duch Itetter — to have the rtaMy, than the ] I-we— finds admission, where Science-fails. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



143 



395. MonuLATiox — sispiifles the accom- 
modation of the voice, (in its diversiJEications 
of all these principles,) to every variety and 
shade of thought and feeling. The upper 
pitches of voice, we know, aie used in calling 
persons at a distance, for impassioned em- 
phasis of certain kinds, and for very earnest 
argti'ments; the middle pitches — for general 
conversation, and easy familiar speaking, of 
a descriptive and didactic character ; and tlie 
iower ones, for cadences, and the exhibition 
of emphasis in grave and solemn reading and 
■speaking. 

396. Who— can describe, who delineate — 
the cheering, the enlivening ray ? who — the 
looks of love ? who — the soft benignant vi- 
brations of the benevolent eye? who — the 
twilight, the day of hope? who — the internal 
efforts of the mind, wrapt in gentleness and 
humility, to effect good, to diminish evil, and 
increase present and eternal happiness T who 
— all the secret impulses and powers, collect- 
ed in the aspect of the defender, or energy of 
truth ? of the bold friend, or subtle foe — of 
wisdom? who — the poefs eye, in a fine 
phrenzy rolling, glancing from heaven — to 
earth, from earth — to heaven, while imagina- 
tion — bodies forth the fo7-m of things un- 
known. 

IVotes. The pitcJi of tiie voice is exceedingly important in 
twry branch of our subject, and particularly, in the higher parts; 
and this — amonj tlie rest. You must not often raise your voice to 
the eighth note ; for it will be harsh and unpleasant to the ear, and 
very apt to break : nor drop it to the first note ; for then your ar- 
ticulation will be difficult and indistinct, and you cannot impart 
any life and spirit to your manner and matter; as tliere is little or 
BO compass below this pitch: both these extreaies must be care- 
jull) avoided. 

Patrick Henry's Treason. When this 
worthy ^a^rio^, (who gave thefirstiinpulse to 
the ball of the revolution,) introduced his ce- 
lebrated resolution on the stamp act, in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses, in 1765, as he 
descanted on the tyranny of that obnoxious 
act, exclaimed — '^^ Cesar — had his Brutus; 
Charles the First, his Cromwell; and George 
the Third''- — " Treason /" cried the speaker ; 
^treason; ireuson,- thkason;" re-echoed 
from every part of the house. It was one of 
those trying moments, which are decisive of 
character ,• hut Benry faltered not for an iw- 
stant ; and rising to a loftier attitude, and 
fixing on the speaker — an eye, flashing with 
fire, continued — "may pkofit — by these 
examples: if this be treason, make the most 
of it." 

The hills, 
Roek-ribb'd — and ancient as the sun ; the vales — 
Stretching in pensive quietness — between; 
The veneral)le woods ; rivers, that move 
In majesty, and the complaining brooks, [all, 

That make the meadows green; and, pour'd rourd 
Old oeean''s gray and melancholy waste; 
Are but the solemn decorations all — 
Of the great tomb of man. 



Maxims. 1. Tht follies of youth — are foo.;l foi 
repe7itance— in o\(i age. 2. Trutli—ma.y languish, 
but it can never die. 3. Wlien a vain man hear* 
another praised, he thinks himself injured. 4. An 
tiquity— IS not nlwatjs a mark of truth. 5. Tha 
trial is not /air— where affection is judge, t 
Business— Is the salt of life. 7. Dependence — is i 
poor trade. 8. He, who lives upon hope, has bu 
a slender diet. 9. Always taking out of the mea 
tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bot 
torn. 10. He, who thinks to deceive Gnd, deceive* 
himself 

Anecdote. Aji ill thing. Xenophanus 
an old sage, was far from letting a false mo 
desty lead him into crime and indiscretion, 
when he was upbraided, and called timorous, 
because he would not venture his money at 
any of the games. "I confess," said ne, 
" that I am exceedingly timoi'ous, for I dare 
not do an ill thing.' 

Education. It is the duty of the instruc- 
tors of youth to be patient with the dull, and 
steady with tlie froward, — to encourage the 
timid, and repress the insolent, — fully to em- 
ploy the minds of their pupils, without over- 
burdening them, — to awaken their fear, 
without exciting their dislike, — to communi- 
cate the stores of knowledge, according to the 
capacity of the learner, and to enforce obedi- 
ence by the strictness of discipline. Above 
all, it is their bounden" duty, to be ever on the 
watch, and to check the first beginnings of 
vice. For, valuable as knowledge may be, 
virtue is infinitely more valuable; and worse 
tlian useless are these mental accomplish- 
ments, which are accompanied by depravity 
of heart. 

Varieties. 1. Can charcoal — paint ^re,- 
chalk — light, or colors — live and breathe? 
2. Tattlers — are among the most despicable 
of bad tilings ; yet even they — have their use; 
for they serve to check the licentious7iess — 
of the tongues of those, who, without the feai 
of being called to account, through the instru 
mentality of these babbling knaves, would 
run riot in backbiting and slander. 

'Tis the mind, that makes the body rich ; 
And, as the sun — breaks the darkest clout', 
So, honor — ^peareth — in the meanest habit. 
No: let the eagle — change his plume, 
The leaf—hs hue, the /<>?«>— its bloom; 
But ties — around the heart were spun. 
That could not, would not, be undone. 
Oh, who — the exquisite delighUs can tell, 
The joy, which mutual confidence imparls? 
Or who — can paint the charm unspeakable, 
Which links, in tender bands, two faithful heartnf 

6. Many things — are easier felt, than tnUU 

7. It is no proof of a man's understanding, 
to be able to affirm — whatever he pleases; 
but, to be able to discern, that what is true, 
is true, and that what is, false, is false— is the 
mark and character of intelligence. 

iVamre— sells evwytliing for labor. 



144 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



397. Modulation CoivxiiftrED. The 
situatvm of the public reader and speaker, 
calls for the employment of the most refined 
art in the management of his voice: he 
snould address a whole assembly with as 
much apparent ease and pleasure to himself 
and audience, as tho' there were but a single 
person present. In addressing an auditory, 
which meets for information, or amuse- 
ment, or both, the judicious speaker — will 
adopt his ordinary and most familiar voice ; 
to show that he rises without bias, or preju- 
dice, that he wishes reason, not passion, should 
guide them all. He will endeavor to be 
heard by the most distant hearers, without 
offending the ear of the nearest one, by mak- 
mg all his tones audible, distinct and na- 
tural. 

Friendship! thou soft, propitious power, 
Sweet regent of the social hour, 
Sublime thy joj/s, nor understood, 
But by the virtuous, and the good. 

Ambition is, at 'a distance, 
A goodly prospect, tempting to the view ; 
The height delights us, and the mountain-Xop 
Looks beautiful, because 'tis near to heaven; 
But we never think how sandy's ihefoundation;[ii. 
What storms will batter, and w\ml tempests s/iaA;e 
O be a man ; and let prondreason — tread 
In triumph, on eacli rebel jiassion^s head. 
At thirty, man suspects himself a/ooZ / 
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan ; 
At fifty, chides his infamous delay, 
Pushes his pruder.: purpose— to resolve, 
In all the magnanimity of thought, 
Resolves and re-iesolves — then, tf/es the same. 

398. Some tell us, that when commencing 
an address, the voice should ])e directed to 
those most distant; but tliis is evidently 
irrong. At the beginning, the mind is natu- 
rally clear and serene, the passions unaiva- 
ktned; if the speaker adopt this high pitch, 
how can it be elevated, afterwards, agreeably 
to those emotions and sentiments, which re- 
quire still higher pitches'! To strain the 
voice tltus, destroys all solemnity, weight 
and dignity, and gives, to what one says, a 
squeaking ejfeminacy, unbecoming a manly 
5nd impressive speaker; it makes the voice 
harsh and unmusical, and also produces 
hnarseness. 

Awecdote. Speculation. A capitalist, 
and shrewd observer of men and things, be- 
ing asked, what he thought of the specula- 
tifms now afloat, replied—" They are like a 
cold bath,— to derive any benefit from which, 
it is necessary to be very quick in, and very 
soon ow/." 

Not to the ensanguin'd field of death alone 
Is valor limited : she sits— serene 
111 the deliberate council; sagely scans 
The source of action; weighs, prevents, provides, 
And scorns to count her glories, from the feats 
Of hruial force alone. 



Maxims. 1. A hraad hat—dmcn not alwa^ 
cover a wise head. 2. Burn not your house — to 
frighten away the mice. 3. Drinking water, ne"v 
ther makes a man sick, nor his wife a widow. 4 
He has riches enough, who need neither borroti 
or flatter. 5. True wisdom— is to know what i* 
best worth knowing, and to do what is best worth 
doing. 6. Many things appear too bad to keep, and 
too good to throw away. 1. Keep a thing seven 
years, and you will find use for it. 8. "We cannol 
pluck thorns from another's bosom, without pla- 
cing roses in our own. 9. Better a half loaf than 
no bread. 10. Draw iwt thy bow before the arrow 
be fixed. 

Experience. By what strange /ataZi^i; 
is it, that having examples before our eyes, we 
do not profit by them 1 Why is our experi- 
ence, with regard to the misfortunes of others^ 
of so little use ? In a word, xohy is it, that 
we are to learn wisdom and prudence at our 
own expense ? Yet such is the/a#e of man ! 
Surrounded by misfortunes, we are supphed 
with means to escape them ; but, blinded by 
caprice, prejudice and pride, we neglect tlie 
proffered aid, and it is only by the tears we 
shed, in consequence of our own errors, that 
we learn to detest them. 

Varieties. 1. Give to all persons, whom 
you respect, (with whom you walk, or whom 
you may meet,) especially ladies, the wall 
side of the walk or street. 2. If we think 
our evil alloivable, tho' we do it not, it is a^)- 
propriated to us. 3. Why does the pendu- 
lum of a clock — continue to move .' Because 
of the uniform operation of gravitation. 
What is gravitation 1 4. Humility — is the 
child of wisdom : therefore, beware of self- 
conceit, and an unteachable disposition. 5. 
Psychology— is the science, that treats of tlie 
essence — and nature of the human soul, and 
of the mode — by which it flows into the ac- 
tions of the body. 6. The true way to store 
the memory is — to develop the affection.?. 
7. The only way to shun evils, or sins, is to 
fight against them. 8. Reading and obser- 
vation — are the food of the young intellect, 
and indispensable to it(& growth. 9. Is it pos- 
sible, that Aear/-fi-iends will ever separate ? 
10. All effects are produced by life, and na- 
ture 

Now vivid stars shine out, in brightening^/es, 
A.nd boundless cether glows, till the fair moon 
Shows her broad visage— in the crimson'd east; 
Now, stooping, seems to kiss tlie passing cloud, 
Now, o'er the pure cerulean — rides sublime. 
Nature, great parent! whose directing hatid 
Rolls round the seasons— of the changing year, 
How mighty, how majestic, are thy works ! 
With what a pleasant dread— they swell the sotU, 
That sees, astonished, and astonish'd, sings! 
You too, ye Kinds, that now begin to blow, 
With boist'rons sweep, I raise my voice to yon. 
Where are your stores, you viewless beingi, say, 
Where your aerial magazines — reser\'ed 
Against the day of tempest ferilous* 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



145 



399. SiTvEiNGTH OF VoicE. The voice 
is weak, or strong, in proportion to the less, 
cr greater, number of organs and muscles, 
that are brought into action. If one uses 
only the upper part of the chest, his voice 
will be weak : if he uses the whole body, 
as ne should do, (not in the most powerful 
manner, of course, on common occasions,) 
his voice will be strong. Hence, to strength- 
en a weak voice, the student must practice 
expeUing the vowel sounds, using all the 
abdominal and dorsal nerves and muscles : 
in addition to which, he should read and re- 
cite when standing or sitting, and walking 
on a level flain, and up hill: success will 
be the result of faithful practice. 

So soft, so elegant, so/air, 
Sure, somelhing more lliau hiiman^s there. 
Upon my lute — tliere is one string 
Broken; the c/iords— were drawn loo/ast: 
My heart — is like that string; it tried 
Too much, and snapt in twain at ktst. 
She ivill, and she will not, slie grants and she de- 
Coiisenis, retracts, advances, and thenjiies. [nies; 
Mental fragrance — stilt will last, 
When our youthful chartns are past. 
If liule labor, little are our gains; 
Man's fortunes — are according to his pains. 

Delightfid task — to rear the lender thought, 
'Yo teach the young idea — how to shoot, 
To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind, 
To breathe ih' enliv'ning spirit, and to fix 
The generous purpose in the glowing breast. 

400. Demosthenes — had three particular 
defects ; first, weakness of the voice ; which 
he strengthened by declaiming on the sea- 
shore, amid the roar of waters ; which effort 
would tend directly to bring into use the 
lower parts of the body ; second, shortness 
of breath ; which he remedied by repeating 
his orations as he walked up hill ; which act 
serves to bring into use the appropriate or- 
gans, and fully inflate the lungs: and third, 
a thick, mumbling way of speaking; which 
he overcame by reading and reciting whh 
pebbles in his mouth ; which required him 
to make a greater effort from below, and 
open his mouth wider. Examine yourself 
and act accordingly. 

Inconsistency. Montaigne — condemns 
crtielti/, as the most odious of aZZ vices ; yet 
he confesses, that hunting — was his favorite 
diversion. He acknowledges the inconsist- 
eiicy of man's conduct, but he does not as- 
cribe it to the right cause; which is the pre- 
dominance, at the time, oi ihose associations 
it awakens, conducing to pleasure. If he 
had not been accustomed to it, the associa- 
tions of hunting, would have been -painful, 
and his aversion to cruelty in the abstract, 
would have been realized in the concrete and 
varticulars. 

Then, pugnm. turn, thy cares/oref o 
All earth-horn cares — are wrong; 
ilfan— wants but ^'^fe— here below, 
Nor wants that liule — long. 
BRONSON. 10 



Proverbs. 1. To subdue a tri/.ng error, do 
not incur a greater. 2. Anger and haste — lundor 
good counsel. 3. All complain of want ofmejnory 
but none of want of judgment. 4. Gord men ara 
a public good, and bad men — a public calamity 
5. Human laws reach not our tfioughts. 6. Ru- 
lers — have no power over souls. 7. No one ever 
suffered— by not speaking ill of others. 8. Silly 
people are generally pleased with silhj tfmigs. 9 
Zeal, without knowledge, is religious wildfire. 10 
Tlie example of a good man— is visible philos- 
ophy. 

Anecdote. Clients' Bones. A certain 
mechanic, having occasion to boil some cat- 
tle's feet, emptied the bones near the court 
house. A lawyer, observing them, inquired 
of a bystander, what they were. " I believe 
they are clients'' bones,''"' replied the wit, " a» 
they appear to be well picked.'''' 

Tlie Deceiver. A Base Character. Must 
not that man be abandoned, even to all man 
ner of humanity, who can deceive a woman 1 
with appearances of affection and kindness, 
for no other end, but to torment her with 
more ease and authority ? Is a^iything more 
unlike a gentleman, than, when his Jionor is 
engaged for the performing his promises, 
because nothing but that can oblige him to 
it, to become afterwards false to his word, 
and be alone, the occasion of misery to one, 
whose happiness he but lately pretended was 
dearer to him than his own ? Ought such a 
one to be trusted in his common affairs ? or 
treated, but as one whose honesty — consisted 
only in his capacity of being otherwise. 

Varieties. 1. Is it strange, that beauti- 
ful powers should wither and die ? 2. Trust 
thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron 
string. 3. Our J.menca7t character is mark- 
ed by a more than average delight — in ac- 
curate perception; which is shown by the 
currency of the fty-word — ' ' no mistake.'''' 4. 
In sickness, and languor, give us a strain 
oi poetry, or a profound sentence, and we are 
refreshed; when the great Herder was dy- 
ing, he said to \{\b friends, who were V)eep- 
ing around him : " Give me some great 
thought.'" Blessed are they, who minister to 
the cry of the soul. 5. The christian sees, 
in all that befalls the human race, whether 
it be good or evil, only the manifestations 
of Divine Love, as exercised in training and 
preparing souls, for the approach of that 
perfection, which they are one day destined 
to realize. 6. For every friend, that we 
lose for truth, God gives us a better one. 
The love of praise, howe'er concealed by art, 
Reigns, more or less, and glows in every heart: 
The proud — to gain it — toils on toils endure, 
The modest— shun it, but to make it sure; 
O'er globes and sceptres, now on thrones it owellS; 
Now trims the midnight lamp — in college cells. 
'Tis tory, whig; it ploti, prays, preaches, pleads. 
Harangues in senates, speaks in Tnoftqiierad-y: 
It aids the dancer''s heel, the ivriter^s head. 
And heaps the plain — with mountains of the dMd, 
Nor ends with life; but nods — m sable plitmea. 
Adorns our hearse, aid falters — on our tcmbs. 



146 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



■401 . Transition — means, in speech, the 
changes of pitch, from one note to another ; 
as from the eighth to the third : or from tlie 
sixth to the Jirst ,- and vice versa ; to corres- 
pond in variety and character, to the senti- 
ment and emotion. In singing, it means 
changing the place of the key-note, so as to 
keep the tune within the scale of twenty-two 
degrees. In transition — the pitches of voice 
are not only changed, but its qualities, agreea- 
bly to the nature and object of the composi- 
tion ; however, there must never be any Sac- 
rifice of other principles — all the proportions 
must be preserved. Example : 
An hour passed on ; the Turk awoke. 
That (6) bright dream— (3) was his last. 
He (5) woke — to hear his sewirj/'s shriek, [Crec^-/" 
(8) "To arms! they(6)co7ne.' the (8) Oreek! the (10) 
He woke— to die — midst (o) flame, and (5) smoke. 
And (6) shout, and (3) ffroan, and sabre stroke, 
And death-shots falling thick and fast 
As lightnings — from the mountain-clovLA ; 
And heard with voice as trumpet loud, 
Bozzarris — cheer his band. 

(8) Strike I till the last armed /oe expires ; 

(9) Strike I for your (6) altars and your (8) fires , 

(10) Strike! for the green graves of your sires, 
(8) God— and your native land. 

409> To succeed in these higher parts of 
oratory, one must throw himself into the con- 
dition, and shape, he wishes to fill, or be, and 
bring the body into perfect sul^^ction : by as- 
suming the appropriate language of action 
and earnestness, he may work himself into 
a7iy frame of mind, that the subject demands. 
He must be sure to keep up the life, spirit, 
and energy of the composition ; and let there 
be a light and glow in his style. He must 
also cultivate a bold and determined manner ; 
for if he takes no special interest in what he 
IS reading or speaking, he may rest assured 
others will not. 

liO ! from the regions of the north. 
The reddening storm of battle poure, 

(5) Rolls along the trembling earth, 

(6) Fastens on the Olynthian towers ; [brave ? 

(8) Where rests the sword? Where sleep the 

(9) Awake ' IS> Cecropia's ally save 
(6) From the fury of the blast ; 

(8) Burst the storm — on PhocVs walls ; 

(10) Rise, or Greece {8) forever falls : 

(12) Up I or (10) /reed<??«— breathes her (6) last. 

(4) The jarring states— oftse^tiiou* now, 

(5) View the patriot's hand on high ; 
(2) Thunder — gathering on his brow, 

(6) Lightning— {[ashing from his eye :— 

(8) Grasp the shield — and draw the (6) sword . 

(9) Lead us to (8) Philippics lord ; 

(6) I^t IS (10) conquer him,— (5) or (2) die. 

THE BIBLE. 

Behold the Book, whose leaves display 
Jeeus, the hfe, the truth, the way ; 
Read It with diligence and prayer, 
Scar'h it, and yon shall find him there. 



Proverbs. 1. Be just to others, thai you may 
be just to yourself. 2. The mind of the idler— 
never knows what it wishes for. 3. Every ros* 
has its thorn. 4. There is nothing good, that 
may not be converted to evil purposes. 5. Few 
persons are aware — of the importance of rigid 
economy. 6. Do not suffer yourself to be deceived 
— by outward appearances. 7. Never take ad- 
vantage of another man's ignorance. 8. The 
word, that has gone forth — can never be recalled. 

9. A bird in the hand, is worth two in the bush. 

10. That load appears light, which is borne with 
cheerfulness. 11. Virtue is the forerunner m 
happiness. 12. Foresight — is the eye of prwt/ejiee. 

Anecdote. Obey Orders. A brave vete- 
ran officer, reconnoitering a battery, which 
was considered impregnable, and which it 
was necessary to storm, laconically answered 
the engineers, who were endeavoring to dis- 
suade him from the attempt; — " Gentlemen, 
you may think and say what you please: 
all I know, is, — that the American Jlag- 
must be hoisted on the ramparts to-morrow 
morning ; for I have tfie order in my pocket. ^^ 

Effects of Perseverance. All the per- 
formances of human art, at which we look 
with praise or wonder, are instances of the 
resistless force of perseverance ; it is by thi$ 
that the quarry becomes a jjyramid, and that 
distant countries are united with canals and 
rail-roads. If a man was to compare the ef- 
fect of a single stroke of a pickaxe, or of one 
impression of the spade, with the general de- 
sign and last result, he would be overwhelm 
ed by the sense of their disproportion ,• yet 
those petty operations, incessantly continued, 
in time, surmount the greatest difficulties, and 
mountains are levelled, and oceans bounded 
by the slender force of human beings. 

Varieties. 1 . Can Omnipotence do tilings 
incompatible and contradictory ? 2. S/. Au- 
gustine described the nature of God, as a cir- 
cle, whose centre was everywhere, and his 
circumference nowhere. 3. The walls of ru,de 
minds are scrawled all over with facts and 
with thoughts : then shall one bring a lan- 
tern, and read the inscriptions { 4. " My chil- 
dren," said an old man to his 6o«/s, scared by 
a figure in the dark entry, "you will never 
see anything worse than yourselves.''^ 6. 
Some one says, " There are no prodigies, but 
the first death, and the first night, that deserve 
astonishment and sadness!" 6. When we 
have broken our god of Tradition, and ceas- 
ed from our god of Persuasion, then, God 
may fire our hearts, with his own presence ; 
but not before. 7. No love can be bound by 
oath, or covenant, to secure it against a higkci 
love. 

Ood — scatters love — on every side. 

Freely — among his children all ,• 

And always — hearts are open wide. 

Wherein some grains may fall. 
To know and lote God, is everything. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



U7 



403. Male akd Female Voices. The 
voices of men — are generally an octave lower 
than tliose of women,- or, comparatively, 
meii's voices are like the bass viol, and vjo- 
men's voices like the violin. The voice is 
made grave, that is, to run on lower pitches, 
by elongating, and enlarging the vocal 
chords i and it is made acute, that is, to run 
on higher pitches, by shortening and dimiii- 
ishing them ; in connection, however, with 
tlie size cf the chest, which always has its 
mfluence. Few are aware of the extent to 
wliich the voice is capable of being cultivat- 
ed ; and hence, we should beware of setting 
limits to it. 

If every one's internal care 

Were written on his brow, 
How many would our pity share 

Who raise our envy now! 
The fatal secret, when revealed, 

Of e'-ery aching breast, 
Would fully prove, that while concealed, 
Their lot appears the best. 
How calm, how beautiful, comes on 
The stilly hours, when storms are gone; 
When warring winds have died away, 
And clouds, beneath the glancing ray, 
Melt off, and leave the land and sea, 
Sleeping — in bright tranquillity. 
*04:. To acquire the ability to change, at 
will, your pitch of voice, so as to be able 
lO adapt the manner to the matter, prac- 
.ice throwing the voice on different pitches, 
varying from one to Jive, five to eight, 
eight to one, and in other ways ; also, recite 
such pieces as have a number and variety of 
speakers, as found in dirilogues ,• and imitate 
tlie voice and manner of each, as far as pos- 
sible. But remember, no one can accomplish 
much, witliout committing the examples to 
memory; thus, after long practice in this 
way, you may make the book talk and speak. 
All developments are from within — out, not 
from vnthout — in. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Two things are in- 
cumbent on the historian; to avoid stating 
what \s false, and fully and fairly to place be- 
fore us the truth. 2. One of the greatest blun- 
ders an orator can commit is, to deviate into 
abstruse expressions, and out of the beaten 
track. 3. Man — was created for a state of 
order, and he was in order, till he fell, or be- 
came depraved ; or, what is the same thing, 
disordered — i. e. the reverse of order. 4. Man 
is in order, when he acts from supreme love 
to the L&rd, and charity towards his neigh- 
bor, in obedience to tlie Divine Will ,• but he 
is depraved, and disordered, in the degree he 
acts from the love of self, and the love of the 
world. 5. No man is compelled to evil ; his 
consent only makes it his. 

A diamond, 
Tho' set in horn, is still a diamonti, 
Ani sparkles— as m purest gold. 



Maxims. 1. Bad counsel conibunJs the ad- 
viser. 2. No one can do wrong, without suffering 
wrong. 3. He is greatest, who is most useful 4. 
Love — and you shall be loved. 5 A great man — 
is willing to be little. 6. Blame — is safer than 
praise. 7. All the devils respect virtue. 8. A 
sincere word was never lost. 9. Cwrjes— always 
recoil upon the head of him, who imprecates them. 
10. God — will not make himself manifest to cow- 
ards. 11 . The love of society is natural. 

Anecdote. An old alderman, after lia ving 
lived for fifty years on the fat of the land, and 
losing his great toe with a mortification, in- 
sisted, to his dying day, that he owed it to two 
grapes, which he ate one day, after dinner; 
he said, he felt them lie cold at his stomach 
the moment they were eaten. 

education. The time, which we usually 
bestow on the instruction of our children — in 
principles, the reasons of which they do not 
understand, is worse than lost ; it is teaching 
them to resign their faculties to authority; it 
is improving their memories, instead of their 
understandings ; it is giving them credulity 
instead of knowledge, and it is preparing 
tliem for any kind of slavery which can be 
imposed on them. Whereas, if we assisted 
them in making experiments on themselves, 
induced them to attend to the consequence of 
every action, to adjust their little deviations, 
and fairly and freely to exercise their powers, 
tliey would collect facts which nothing could 
controvert. These facts they would deposit 
in their memories, as secure and eternal trea- 
sures ; they would be materials for reflection, 
and, in time, be formed into principles of co7i- 
duci, which no circumstances or temptations 
could remove. This would be a method of 
forming a man, who would answer the end 
of his being, and make himself and others 
happy. 

Varieties. 1. Did not the Greek 7;M/o«o- 
phy — corrupt the simplicity of the christian 
religion ? 2. There are two sorts of popular 
corruption ; one, when the people do not ob- 
serve the laws; the other, when they are 
corrupted by the laws. 3. Cesar — added the 
punishment of confiscation, for this reason ; 
lest the rich, by preserving their estates, should 
become bolder in the perpetration of crime. 
4. No localities can bound the dominion, or 
the superiority of man. 5. What constitutes 
a church? Divine goodness and truth, con- 
joined by love, and exemplified in the life. 
6. Madame de Stacl's idea, that architecture 
— is like frozen music, must have been sug- 
gested on a cold day. 7. We are often made 
to feel, that there is another youth and age 
than that which is measured fi-om the year of 
our natural birth; some thoughts always 
find us young, and keep us so; such a 
thought is the love of the Universal and Eter' 
nal Beauty, 



148 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



405. Sttle — comprehends all the princi- 
ples of elocution, and denotes the manner in 
which different kinds of cemposition should 
be read, or spoken : of course, there are as 
many kinds of style, as there are of compo- 
sition,- and unless a person has command of 
body and mind, he cannot harmonize his 
manner and matter. If in writing, style — 
means proper words, in proper places ; in 
speaking, it must signify, proper sounds in 
proper places. Ex. 
What is wit? a meteor, bright and rare, 
Th't comes and go&i, we know not whence, or where; 
A brilliant nothing— out of something wrought, 
A mental vacuum — by condensing thought. 

O the eye's eloquence, 
{ Ttoin-hom with thought.) outstrips tlie tardy voice ; 
Far swifter — than the nimble lightning^s flash, 
The sluggish thunder-peal, that follows it. 
True ctourage — but from opposition grows, 
And what are fifty — what — a thousand slaves, 
Matched to lh»j sineio — of a single arm. 
That strikes for liberty ? 

406. What causeth the earth to hring fortli 
and yield her increase P Is it not the light 
and heat of the sun, that unlocks her native 
energies and gives them their power ] In an 
analogous manner should tlie light of the 
thought, and the heat of its accompanying 
affection, act upon the mind, which will com- 
municate the influence received to the whole 
body, and the body to the voice and actions. 
This is what is meant by imbibing the au- 
thor's feelings, and bringing before you all 
the circumstances, and plunging amid the 
living scenes, and feeling that whatever you 
describe, is actually present, and passing be- 
fore your mind. 

407. Lyceums and Debating societies, are 
admirable associations for the improvement 
of mind, and cultivation of talent, for pub- 
lic or private speaking. Franklin and Ro- 
ger Sherman, (the oiit sprinter, and theo^A- 
er a shoe-maker,) rose from obscurity to great 
eminence, and usefulness, by their own ef- 
forts: so may we, by using the proper 
means. It was in a debating society, that 
Lord Brougham first displayed his superior 
talents and unrivaled eloquence ; and there, 
also, Hexry Clat, the greatest American 
orator, commenced his brilliant career. A 
word to those who would be wise is enough. 

Anecdote. A7i appropriate Sign. A man 
who had established a tippling-house, being 
about to erect his sign, requested his neigh- 
bors advice — what inscription to put upon 
it. His friend replied, " I advise you to write 
on it — Drunkards and Beggars made here.^^ 
Honar'i — a sacred tie, the law of kings, 
Ths noble mind's — distinguishing perfection. 
That aids and strengthens virtue, when it meets her, 
And imitates her actions, where she is not: 
It ought jioJ 10 je Slurried with 



Proverl>s. 1. A good word for a had one— ^la 

worth much, and costs little. 2. • He, who knowa 
not when to be siletit, knows not when to speak. 
3. Oppression — causes rebellion. 4. AVhere con- 
tent is, there is a feast. 5. The drunkard continu- 
ally assaults his own life. 6. Show me a liar, 
and I will show you a t/iief. 7. That which helps 
one man, may hinder atiother. 8. A good educon 
tion is the foundation of happiness. 9, Most folliea 
owe their origin to self-love. 10. No tree — takes so 
deep a root z-n prejudice. 11. Inform yourself, and 
instruct others. 12. Truth — jS the only borid of 
friendship. 

Learning. We have been often told, that 
"a little learning is a dangerous thing," and 
we may be just as weU assured, that a little 
bread is not the safest of all things ; it would 
be far better to have plenty of both : but the 
sophism — of those who u.se this argument, is, 
that they represent the choice between little 
and much; whereas our election must be 
made between little — and Jione at all; if the 
choice is to be — ^between a snaall portion of 
information, or of food, and absolute ignn- 
ranee, or starvation, common t^nse gives it- 
decision in the homely proverb — " half a loai 
is better than no bread." 

Varieties. 1. The best and surest course 
is — never to have recourse to deception, bu' 
2jrove ourselves, in every circumstance of life, 
equally upright and sincere. 2. Th^^ most 
consummate hypocrite — cannot, at all times 
conceal the workings of his mind. 3. When 
we employ money — to good purposes, it is 2 
great blessing ; but when we use it for ev.: 
and wicked ends, or become so devoted to i { 
as to endeavor to acquire it by dishones: 
means, it is a great curse. 4. None are sc 
fond of secrets, as those who do not mean to 
keep them: such persons covet them, as 
spendthrifts do mony, for the purpose of cir 
culation. 5. Burke — called the French rev- 
olutionists, "the ablest architects of ruin, 
that the world ever saw." 6. Trifles — always 
require exuberance of ornament ; the build- 
ing that has no strength, can be valued only 
for the grace of its decorations. 7. We can- 
not part with our heart-fHeiids : we cannot 
let oiu" angels go. 

Nor fame I slight, nor for \\&t favors call ; 

She comes unlcok^d for, if she comes at ail. 

But, if the purchase cost so dear a price, 

As soothing/o%, or exalting vice; 

And if the muse— must flatter lawless sway, 

And follow still where /omme leads the way; 

Or, if no basis — bear my rising name, 

But the fall'n ruins of a7iothefs fame ; 

Then, teach me. heaven, to scorn the guilty bayc . 

Drive from mybreast that wretched lust of pruKe. 

Unblemish''d let me live, or die— unknown: 

O, grant me honest fame, or grant me rioni. 

'TIS siveet—xc htttr 
The song and oar— of Adria's gondolici 
(By distance melloweii,) o'er tJie water* sweep. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



149 



W8. Public speakers ought to live longer, 
and enjoy better health, than other persons ; 
and if they conform to the principles here 
taught, and the laws 9f hfe and health gener- 
ally, this will be the result. Pulmonary dis- 
eases may be thrown off by these exercises ; 
the author being a living witness, having been 
given over at three different times with con- 
Bumption. The celebrated Cuvier and Dr. 
Brown, the metaphysician, and many others 
that might be mentioned, are also witnesses 
of this truth. One reason is, that natural 
speaking induces one to use a very large 
quantity of air, wliereby the capacity of the 
kings is much enlarged, the quantity of air 
increased, and the blood more perfectly puri- 
fied ; the use of the whole body insures a free 
circulation, and, of course, contributes to 
universal health. 

Think'st thou— there are no serpents in the world, 
But those, which slide along the grassy sod, 
And sting the luckless foot, that presses them? 
There are, who, in the path of social life, 
Do bask their spotted skins, \n fortune's sun, 
And stii^ the soul, aye, till its healthful frame 
Is changed to secret, festering, sore disease; 
So deadly — is its wound. 
The brave, 'tis sure, do never shun the light; 
Just are their thoughts, and open are their tempers; 
Still are they found— in the fair face of day. 
And heaven, and men — are judges of their actions. 

409. Diseases of the Throat — are con- 
nected, particularly, with those parts of the 
body, which are involved in breathing, and 
relate to the understanding, or reasoning fa- 
culties of the mind: thus, thinking and 
breathing are inseparably connected toge- 
ther ; as are feeling and acting ; hence, the 
predominance of thought, in the exercise of 
the voice, or in any kind of action, and zeal 
without knowledge, tend directly to such per- 
versions of mind and body, as induce, not only 
diseases of the throat, but even pulmonary 
diseases : if, then, we will to be free, in any re- 
spect, we must return to truth and nature ; for 
they will guide the obedient in the right way. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Whatever one pos- 
sesses, becomes doubly valuable, by having 
the happiness of dividing it with a friend. 
2. He who loves riches more than \n& friend, 
does not deserve to be loved. 3. He who 
would pass the latter part of his life with 
fumor, and usefulness, must, when he is 
vowng-, consider that he shall one day be old; 
and when he is old, remember that he has 
once been young. 4. The rolling planets, 
and the glorious sun. Still kee^ that order, 
which tliey first begun ; But v^rretched man, 
alone, has gone astray, swerved from his 
God, and walks another way. 5. The old — 
live in the past, as the young do — in the fu- 
ture. (). Fix upon a high standard of char- 
acrer : to he thought weU of— is not suffunent: 



the paint you are to aim at, is, the neatest 
possible degree of usefulness. 7. He who 
only aims at little, will accomplish but little. 

Anecdote. A silly, but very pretty wo- 
man, complained to the celebrated and beau- 
tiful Sophia Arnold, of the number of her 
admirers, and wished to know how she 
should get rid of them. " Oh, my dear," 
(was the satiric reply,) " it is very easy for 
you to do it : yoa have only to speak.^'' 

Proverbs. 1. Those, wlio possess any rcai 
excellence, think and say, the least about it. 2 
The active only, have the true relish of life. 3. 
Many there are, who are everi/thing by turns, and 
nothing — long. 4. To treat trifles — as matters of 
importance, is to show our own wnimportance. 5. 
Gritf^ cherished unseen, is genuine; while that, 
which has witnesses, may be affected, 6. Error — 
does not so often arise from our ignorance of the 
truth, as an unwillingness to receive it. 7. Some — 
mistake t\\e,love — for the practice of virtue, and are 
not so much good themselves, as they are the 
friends of goodness. 8. To love any one, and not 
do him good, when there is ability and opportu- 
nity, IS a contradiction. 9. Pity — will always be 
his portion in adversity, who acted with kindness 
in prosperity, 10. The best mode of proving any 
science, is by exhibiting it. 

A Good Slxample. Mr. Clay, in a de- 
bate upon the Loan Bill, remarked, that, for 
twenty or thirty years, neither he nor his 
wife, had owed any man a dollar. Both of 
them, many years gone by, had come to the 
conclusion, that the best principle of economy 
was this, — " never to go in debt. To indulge 
your wants when you were able to do so, and 
to repress them when you are not able to in- 
dulge them." The example is not only an 
excellent one for itself, but comes from a high 
source. To repress a want — is one of the 
wisest, safest, and most necessary principles 
of political economy. It prevents, not only 
the dangerous practice of living beyond our 
means, but encourages the safe precedent of 
living within them. If all who could, would 
live within their means, the world would be 
much happier and much better than it is. 
Henry Clay and his noble housewife — give 
us an example worthy of all imitation. 

Varieties. 1 . Is pride — a mark of talent? 
2. Byron says, of Jack Bunting, " He knew 
not what to do, and so he swore :" so we may 
say of many a one's preposterous use of book^ 
— He knew not what to do, and so he read, 
Wit''s— a. feather— Pope nas said. 

And ladiis—do not doubt it : 
For those, who've Iturt—witliin the head, 
Ejepiay the most — about it. 

They sin, who tell us love can die; 

Its holy flame forever i)u.r»elh ; 

From heaven it came, to heaven re<um«lA. 
Forgiveness— to the injured does belong ; 
But they ne'er pardon, who have done the wrong. 
Be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snoip, 
Thou Shalt not escape calumny. 
n2 



150 

41 3i Dkliveri — addresses itself to the 
mind jrough two mediums, the eye and the 
ear: hence, it naturally divides itself into 
two parts, voice and gesture ; both of which 
must be sedulously cultivated, under the 
guidance of proper feeling, and correct 
thought. That style is the best, which is tlie 
most transparent ; hence the grand aim of 
the elocutionist should be — perfect transpa- 
rencij ; and when this part is attained, he 
will be listened to with pleasure, be perfectly 
understood, and do justice to his subject, 
his powers, and his audience. 

411. YouNo Gentlemex, — (said Wil- 
liam Wirt,) you do not, I hope, expect from 
me, an oration for display. At my time of 
life, and worn down, as I am, by the toils of 
a laborious profession, you can no longer 
look for the spirit and buoyancy of youth. 
Spuing — is the season for fiowers ; but J— am 
in the autumn of life, and you will, I hope, 
accept from me, the fruits of my experi- 
ence, in lieu of the more showy, but less 
substantial blossoms of Spring. I could 
not have been tempted hither, for the pue- 
rile purpose of display. My visit has a 
much graver motive and object. It is the 
hope of making some suggestions, that may 
be serviceable in the journey of life, that is 
before you ; of calling into action some dor- 
mant energy ; of pointing your exertions to 
some attainable end of practical utility ; in 
short, the hope of contributing, in some 
small degree, towards making you happier 
in yourselves, and more useful to your 
co-"ntry. 

41 a. ThQ conversational — must be deliv- 
ered in the most natural, easy, familiar, dis- 
tinct, and agreenhle manner; the narrative 
and didactive, with a clear and distinct artic- 
ulation, correct emphasis, proper inflections, 
and appropriate modulations ; because, it is 
not so much your object to excite the affec- 
tions, as to inform the understanding : the 
argumentative, and reasoning, demand great 
' deliberation, slowness, distinctness, frequent 
pauses, candor, strong emphasis and occa- 
sional vehemence. No one can become a 
good reader and speaker, without mnch prac- 
tice and many failures. 

Pioneers. The " eccentric'' man — is gen- 
erally the pio7ieer of mankind, cutting his 
way the first — into the gloomy depths of un- 
explored science, cr'^^'commg difficulties,thai 
would check meaner spirits, and theii — hold- 
ing up the light of his knowledge— to guide 
thousands, who, but for him, would be wan- 
dering about in all the uncertainty of igno- 
rance, or be held in .ne fetters of some self- 
ish policy, which they had not, of themselves 
— ^the energy to throw off. 

Tis not itt/o%— not to scorn a. fool. 

And scarce in human wisdom— lo do more. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCD HON. 

Proverbs. 1. Constant nccupattoti^—'ihuVi 

out temptation. 2. A flatterer— is a most danger 
ous enemy. 3. Unless we aim at perfection, we 
shall never attain it. 4. They who love the loi\^ 
est, love the best. 5. Pleasure — is not the rule toi 
rest, but for health. 6. The president is but the 
/lead-servant of the people. 7. Knoiv'ed^e—\s not 
truly ours, till we have given it away. 8. Our 
debts, and our sim, are generally greater ths-r we 
suppose. 9. Some folks — are like snakes in th*J 
grass. 10. i/e— injuries the good, who spares the 
bad. 11. Beauty will neither feed or clothe us. 
12. Woman''s work is never done. 

Anecdote. What for? After the close 
of the Revolutionary war, the king of Great 
Britain — ordered a thanksgiving to be kept 
throughout the kingdom. A minister of the 
gospel inquired of him, " For ivhat arc we 
to give thanks? that your majesty has lost 
thirteen of your best provinces .^" The king 
answered, " No.'' " Is it then, that your ma- 
jesty has lost one hundred thousand lives of 
your best subjects?" "No, no!" said tlie 
king. " Is it then, that we have expended, and 
lost, a hundred millions of money, and for 
the defeat and tarnishing of your majesty's 
arms?" "No such thing," — said the king 
pleasantly. " What then, is the object of the 
thanksgiving '?" " Oh, give thanks that it is 
no worse." 

Varieties. 1. Who do^s not see, in Ce» 
sar's Commentaries, the radical elements of 
the present French character 1 2. " A man," 
says Oliver Cromwell, " never rises so high, 
as when he knows not whither he is going." 
3. The virtue, that vain persons affect to des- 
pvie, might have savedAhem ; while the beaur' 
ty, they so highly prized, is the cause of their 
ruin. 4. He, who flatters, without design- 
ing to benefit by it, is a fool ; and whoever 
encourages that flattery, that has sense 
enough to see through, is a vain coxcomb. 5. 
The business of the teacher — is not so much 
to communicate knowledge to the pupil, as 
to set him to thinking, and show him how 
to educate himself; tliat is, he must rather 
teach him the way to the fountain, than car- 
ry him to the water. 6. Many buy cheap^ 
and sell dear ; i. e. make as good bargains as 
they can ; which is a trial of skill, between 
two knaves, to see which shall overreach the 
other ; but honest men set their price and 
adhere to it. 7. If you put a chain round 
the neck of a slave, the other end fastens it 
self around your own. 
Would you then learn to dissipate the band 
Of these huge threatening difficulties dire, 
That, in the tceajfc man's way — like lions stand, 
His soul appal, and damp his rising^rp.' 
Resolve, resolve, and to be men aspiie. 
Exert that noblest privilege, alone. 

Here to mankind indulged : control desirtf 
Let godlike reason, from her sovereign throne, 
Speak the commandingword-Iwill, and it is dona 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



151 



413. Earnestkess of Manner — is of 
vital importance in sustaining a transparent 
style ; and this must be imbi])ed internally, 
and felt witli all the truth and certainty of 
nature. By proper exercises on these prin- 
ciples, a person may acquire the power of 
passing, at will, from grave to gay, and from 
lively to severe, without confounding one 
with the other: there are times, however, 
when they may be united ; as in the hunim'- 
i/us and pathetic, togetlier. 

Drcathes there a man with soul so dead. 
Who never, to himself hath said, 
" This — is my oicn, my native land ?" 
Whoso heart — ^Jiatli ne'er within him burned. 
As home— his footsteps he hath turned, 
From wandeting on aforeijrn strand ? 
J f such there breathe, go mark him well : 
For him, no minstrel raptures swell ; 
High tho' his titles, powers, or peff. 
The wre<cA— concentred all in self. 
Living — shall forfeit fair renown. 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung, 
Unwept^d, unhonored, and unsung. 

414. The following are the terms usually 
applied to style, in writing, and also in speak- 
ing ,' each of which has its distinctive charac- 

, teristics; though all of them have something 
m common. Bombastic, dry, elegant, epis- 
tolary, flowing, harsfi, laconic, lofty, loose, 
terse, tumid, verbose. There are also styles 
of occasion, time, place, &c.: such as the 
style of the bar, of the legislature, and of the 
pulpit; also the draniatic style, comedy, 
{high and low,) farce and tragedy. 

Illiterate and selfish people, are often op- 
posed to persons traveling through the coun- 
try, to lecture on any subject whatever; and 
especially, on such as the grumblers are ig- 
norant of. But are not books and newspa- 
pers, itinerants too 1 In olden time, the wor- 
slipers of the goddess Diana, were violentl3' 
opposed to the Apostles ; because, thro' their 
preaching of the cross, their craft was in 
danger. The liberally educated, and those 
who are in favor of a universal spread of 
knowledge, are ready to bid them "God 
speed," if they and their subject are praise- 
worthy. 

Anecdote. A Kingly Dinner in Nature^s 
Palace. Cyrus, king of Persia, was to dine 
with one of his friends ; and, on being asked 
to name the place, and the viands with which 
he would have his table spread, he replied, 
" Prepare the banquet at the side of the river, 
and let one loaf of bread be the only rfwA." 

Bright, as the pillar, rose at Heaven's command: 
When Israel — marched along the desert land. 
Blazed through the night— on lonely wilds afar, 
And told the path, — a never-setting star ; 
So, heavnnly Genius, in thy course divine, 
Hope— id thy star, her light— ia ever thine. 



Proverbs. 1. People generally lOvc t7ut^ 
more tha.r\ goodness ; knowledge more than /t>Zi- 
ness. 2. Never magnanimity — fell to the ground. 
3. He, who would gather immortal palms, must 
not he hindered by the name of goodness, but 
must expUre — if it be goodness. 4. JVo author 
was ever written down, by any but himself, b 
Better be a nettle in the side of your friend, than 
his echo. 6. Surmise is the gossamer, that malice 
blows on fair reputation; the corroding dew, that 
destroys the choicest blossoms. 7. A genera 
prostration of morals — must be the inevitable re- 
sult of the diffusion of bad principles. 8. To 
know— is one thing ; and to do— is another. 9. 
Candor— ]ends an open ear to all men. 10. .drt 
— is never so beautiful, as when it reflects the 
philosophy o{ religion and of man. 

We cannot honor our country — with too 
deep a reverence ,• we cannot love her — with 
an affection too pure and fervent ; we can- 
not serve her — with an energy of purpose, or 
a faithfulness oi zeal — too steadfast and ar- 
dent. And what is o\ir country ? It is not 
the East, with her hills and her valleys, with 
her countless sails, and the rocky ramparts 
of her shores. It is not the North, with her 
thousand villages, and her harvest-home, witli 
her frontiers of the lake, and the ocean. P, is 
not the West, with her forest-sea., and her 
inland isles, with her luxuriant expanses, 
clothed in the verdant com ,- with her beauti- 
ful Ohio, and her majestic Missouri. Nor is 
it yet tlie Soutli, opulent in the mimic snow 
of the cotton, in the rich plantations of the 
rustling cane, and in the golden robes of the 
rice-field. What are ttiese, but the sister 
families of one greater, better, holier family, 

OUR COUNTRY ] 

VARIETIES, 

Give thy thoughts no tongue. 
Nor any unproportior.ed thought his act. 
Be thou familiar ; but by no means vulgar. 
The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 
Orapple them to thy soul, with hooks of steel ; 
But do not dull thy palm— with entertainment 
Of ev'ry new hatched, uvfledg'd comrade. Beware 
Of entrance into quarrel I but, being in. 
Bear it, that the opposer — may beware of thee. 
Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice, [ment. 
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judg- 
Costly thy habit — as thy purse can buy. 
But not expressed infancy ; rich, not giudy • 
For the apparel— oft proclaims the man. 
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be ; 
For loan — oft loses both itself and friend. 
And borrowing — dulls the edge of husbandry. 
This above aZ^— to thine own self he true. 
And it must follow, as the night the day. 
Thou canst not, then— be /aZse to any man. 
Dare to be true — nothing — can need a lie ; 
The fault that needs it— grows two— thereby. 

What do you think of marriage ? 

I take it, as those that deny purgatory { 

It locally contains or heaven or hell; 

There is no third place in it. 



152 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



415. Beware of a slavish attention to 
rules; for nothing should supercede Nature, 
who knows more than^r^; therefore, let Aer 
stand in the foreground, with art for her 
servant. Emotion — is the soul of oratory : 
one flash of passion on the cheek, one beam 
oi feeling from the eye, one thrilling note of 
sensibility from the tongue, one stroke of 
hearty emphasis from the arm, have infinite' 
ly more value, than all the rhetorical rules 
and flourishes of ancient or modern times. 
The great rule is — be ix earnest. This is 
what Demx)sthenes more than intimated, in 
tlrice declaring, that the most important 
UiLig in eloquence, was action. There will 
be no execution without ^re. 
Wlioever thinks^ must see, that man — wa.s made 
To face the storm, not languish in the shade; 
Action — his sphere, and, for that sphere designed, 
Eternal pleasures — open on his mind. 
For tliis — fair hope — leads on th' impassioned soul, 
Through Ufe'^s wild labyrinth— to her distant goal : 
Paints, in each dream, to fan the genial flame, 
The pomp of riches, and the pride of fame; 
Or, fondly gives reflection's cooler eye, 
A glance, an image, of a future sky. 

]VoteS« The standard for propriety, and force, in public 
speaking is— to speak just as one would naturally express himself 
in earnest conversation in private company. Such should we all 
do, if left to ourselves, and early pains were not taken to substitute 
an artificial method, for that which is natural. Beware of im- 
agining that you must read in a different way, with different tones 
And cadences, from that of common speaking. 

Anecdote. The severity of the laws of 
Draco, is proverbial; he punished all sorts 
of crime, and even idleness, with death : 
hence, De-wia-des said — "He writes his 
laws, not with ink — but with blood.'''' On 
being asked why he did so, he replied, — that 
the smallest crime deserved death, and that 
there was not o. greater punishment he could 
find out, for greater crimes. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Envy — is the daugh- 
ter oi pride, the author oi revenge and mur- 
ier, the beginning of secret sedition and the 
perpetual tormentor of virtue; it is the filthy 
slime of the soul, a venom, a poison, that 
consumeth the^esj^, and drieth up the mar- 
row of the bones. 2. What a pity it is, that 
there are so many quarter and half men and 
women, who can take delight in gossip, be- 
cause they are not great enougli for any 
thing else. 

Were I so tali— as to reach the pole, 
And grasp the ocean — with a span, 
I would be measured — by my soul, 
The mind''s — the standard of the man. 

4. What is the difference between loving 
the minds, and the persons of our friends ? 

5. How different is the affection, the thought, 
action, form and manners of the male, from 
the affection, thought, action, form and man- 
ners oi ihe female. 

Then/ar«oeZ/,— I'd rather make 
My b.id — upon some icy lake, 
Whcii thawing suns — begin to shine, 
Ty&\ .rust a love— as f Use as ihiru. 

The slomoyt— -hat i no «ar». 



liaconics. 1. Gou has given us vocai organs 
and reason to use them. 2. True gesture — is the 
language of nature, and makes its way to the 
heart, without the utterance of a single word. 3. 
Coarseness and vulgarity — are the effects of a bad 
education; they cannot be chargeable to nature 
4. Close observation, and an extensive knowledge 
of human nature alone, will enable one to adapt 
himself to all sorts of character. 5. Painting— 
describes what the object is in itsdf: poetry — wha4 
it inspires or suggests : one — represents the fisible, 
the other — both the risible and the invisible. 6. 
It is uncandid self-will, that condemns without a 
hearing. 7. The mind — wills to he free; and tlie 
signs of the tirae-s — proclaim the approach of its 
restoration. 

Woman. The Hg-A< education of this sex 
is of the utmost importance to human life. 
There is nothing, that is more desirable for 
the common good of all the world; since, as 
they are mothers and mistresses oi families, 
they have for some time the care of the ed- 
ucation of their children of both sorts ; they 
are intrusted with that, which is of the 
greatest consequence to human life. As the 
health and strength, or weakness oi our bodies, 
is very much owing to their methods of 
treating us when we were young; so — the 
soundness or folly of our minds is not less 
owing to their first tempers and ways of 
thinking, which we eagerly received from 
the love, tenderness, authority, and constant 
conversation of our mothers. As we call our 
first language our mother -tongue, so — we 
may as justly call owe first tempers our moth- 
er -ievcv^exs ; and perhaps it may be found 
more easy to forget the la?iguage, than to 
part entirely with those tempers we learned 
in the nursery. It is, therefore, to be la- 
mented, that the sex, on whom so much de- 
pends, who have the first forming both of 
our bodies and our minds, are not only edu- 
cated in pride, but in the silliest and most 
contemptible pari of it. Girls are indulged 
in great vanity; and mankind seem to con- 
sider them in no other view than as so many 
painted idols, who are to allure and gratify 
their passions. 

Varieties. 1. Was England — Justified 
in her late loarlike proceeding against Chi- 
na? 2. Fit language there is none, for the 
heart's deepest things. 3. The honor of a 
maid — is her name; and 7io legacy is so rich 
as honesty. 4. O, how bitter a thing it is — 
to look into happiness — thro' another''s eysb. 
Ungrateful man, with liquorish draughts, 
And morsels unctuous, greases his pure iTiini 
That from it — all consideration slips. 
To persist 
In doing wrong, extenuates not wrong, 
But makes it much more heavy. 
He cannot be a perfect man. 
Not being tried or tutored in the world : 
Experience is by industry achieved, 
And perfecUd—hy the swift course of time 
A confused report — passed thro' my ears, 
But, full o( hurry, like a morning dream. 
It vanished— 'in the busimsa of the day. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



163 



416. The Declamatokt and Horta- 
roRT — indicate a deep interest for the per- 
sons addressed, a Jiorror of the evil they are 
entreated to avoid, and an exalted estimate 
of the good, they are exhorted to pursue. 
The exhibition of the strongest feehng, re- 
quires such a degree of self-control, as, in the 
very torrent, tempest and whirlwind of pas- 
sion, possesses a temperance to give it 
smoothness. The Dramatic — sometimes 
calls for the exercise of all the vocal and 
mental powers: hence, one must consider 
the character represented, the circumstances 
under which he acted, the state of feeling he 
possessed, and every thing pertaining to the 
ecene with which he was connected. 

417. Rolla's Address to the Peru- 
vians. My brave associates — -partners — of 
my toil, my feelings, and my fame! Can 
Rolla's words — add vigor — to the virtuous 
'iner gies, wMxch. inspire yoxxr hearts? No; 
you have judged as I have, the foulness of 
the cvahy plea, by which these bold invaders 
would delude you. Your generous spirit 
has compared, as mine has, the motives, 
which, in a war like tliis, can animate their 
minds and ours. They, by a strange frenzy 
driven, fight iox power, for plunder, and ex- 
tended rule; we,ior our country, our altars, 
and our homes. They — follow an adventur- 
er, whom they fear, and obey a. power, which 
they hate; we — serve a monarch whom we 
love, — a God, whom we adore. Whene'er 
they move in anger, desolation — tracks their 
progress ! Whene'er they pause in amity, 
affliction — mourns their friendship. They 
boast, they come but to improve our state, 
enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the 
yoke of error ! Yes — they will give enUght- 
ened freedom to our minds, who are themi- 
selves the slaves of passion, avarice, a.m\ pride. 
They offer us their protection. Yes, s^uch 
protection — as vultures — give to lambs — 
covering, and devouring them. They call 
on us to barter all of good, we have inherited 
and proved, for the desperate chance of some- 
thing better, vfhich. they promise. Be our 
plain answer this : The throne — we honor 
— is the people^ s choice; the lav^s we rever- 
ence — are our hra\e fathers* legacy ; the faith 
we follow— teaches us to live in bonds of cha- 
rity with all mankind, and die — with hope 
of bliss — beyond the grave. Tell your in- 
vaders this, and tell fliem too, we seek no 
change; and, least of all, such change as 
they would bring us. 

GAMBLING. 

Oh ! vice accursed, that lur'sf. thy victim on 
With specious smiles, and faise deluding hopes — 
Smiles — ihaidestroy, and hopes — that bring despair, 
Infatuation — dangetojis and destructive, 
Pleasure most visionary, [{delight, how transient! 
frduie ofhonnr, angtiish, and dismay! 
20 



Proverbs. 1. The fnore--womcn M/ok mto 
their glasses, the less— ihcy attend to their houses 
2. Works, and not words, are the proof of love. 3. 
There is no better )ooking-glas5, tli-m a ime/riend. 
i. When we obey our superiors, we instruct our 
inferiors. 5. Tiieie is more trouble in having no- 
thing to do, than in having much to do. 6. The 
best throw of the dice— is to throw them away. 7. 
Virtue, that parleys, is near the surrender. 8. The 
spirit of <m«/i— dwelleth in meekness. 9. Resist a 
temptation, till you conquer it. 10. Plain dealing 
is a jewel. 

Anecdote. Faithful unto Death. Whftn 
the venerable Polycarp — was tempted by 
Herod, the proconsul, to deny, and blaspheme 
the Lord Jestjs Christ, he answered, — 
" Eighty and six years — ^have I served my 
Lord and Savior,— and in all that time — 
he never did me any injury, but always 
good ; and therefore, I cannot, in conscience, 
reproach my King and my Redeemer." 

A Wife 5 not an Artist. When a man 
of sense comes to marry, it is a companion he 
wants, and not an artist. It is not merely a 
creature who can paint, and play, and sing, 
and dance. It is a being who can comfort 
and counsel him; one who can reason and 
reflect, and feel and Judge, and discourse and 
discriminate ; one who can assist him in his 
affairs, lighten his sorrows, purify his joys, 
strengthen hisprinciples and educate his childr 
ren. Such is the woman who is fit for a mo- 
ther, and the mistress of a ftimily. A woman 
of tlie former description may occasionally 
figure in a drawing-room, and excite the ad" 
miration of the company; but is entirely 
unfit for a helpmate to man, and to train up 
a child in the way he should go. 

Varieties. 1. He, who is cautvms an«! 
prudent, is generally secure from many dan- 
gers, to which many others are exposed. 2 
A fool may ask more questions in an hotir 
than a wise man may answer in seven years 
3. The manner in which words are delivered 
contribute mainly to the effects they are to 
produce, and the importance which is attach- 
ed to them. 4. Shall this greatest of free na- 
tions be the best ? 6. One of the greatest 
obstacles to knowledge and excellence, is in- 
dolence. 6. One hour's sleep before midnight, 
is worth two afterward. 7. Science, or learn' 
ing, is of little use, unless guided by good 



sense 



J>/en— use a diflbrent speecft— in different climes, 
But Nature hath ont voice, and only one. 
Her wandering moan, her stars, her golden sun. 
Her vooods and waters, in all lands and times. 
In one deep son^ proclaim the wondrous story. 
They tell it to each other— ia the sky, 
l/pon tht winds they send it— sounding high, 
Jehovahs wisdom, goodness, power, and glory. 
I bear it come from mountain, diff, and tret. 
Ten thousand voices— in one voice united ; 
On every side— the song encircles me, 
The whole round world reveres— and is delighted. 
Ah ! why, when hcaverv-^A eart/i— lift up their voit^ 
Ah I why should man alone, no.- looriMy, nou«o««? 



154 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



4:18. The merging of the Diatonic Scale 
in tire Musical Staff, as .some have done in 
elocution, is evidently incorrect; for then, the 
exact pitch of voice is fixed, and all must 
talte that pitch, whether it be in accordance 
with the voice, or not. But in the simple di- 
atonic scale, as here presented, each one 
takes hi^ lowest natural note for his tonic, or 
key-nott-t, and then, passes to the mediiun 
range of pitches. Different voices are often 
keyed on different pitches; and to bring 
♦.hem all to the same pitch, is as arbitrary as 
P7'ocrusie's bedstead, a.ccordm^ to Hudribras: 

"This iron bedstead, Ihey do fetch, 
To try our hopes upon ; 

If w^e're too sAort, we must be stretched, 
Cut off— if we're too long.'''' 

Beware of all racks ; be natural, or nothing. 

What the weak head — with strongest bias rules. 

Is (0) PKiDE ; the neter- failing vice of fools. 

A soul, without reflection, like a pile, 

Without inhabitant — to ruin runs. 

Wit — is fine language — to advantage dressed ; 

Better often thought, but ne'er so well expressed. 

Our needful knowledge, like our needfuiybod, 

Unhedged, lies open — in life's common^e/-d, 

And bids all — tcelcome — to the vital /easr. 

Let sense — be ever in your view ; 

Nothing is lovely, that is not true. 

419. Suggestions. Let the pupils me- 
morize any of the proverbs, laconics, maX' 
ims, or questions, and recite them on occa- 
sions like tlie following : when they first as- 
semble in tlie school-room ; or, meet together 
in a social cii'cle : let them also carry on a 
kind of conversation, or dialogue w^ith them, 
and each strive to get one appropriate to the 
supposed state, charade)', &c. of another: or 
use them in a variety of ways, that their in- 
genuity may suggest. 

Pride. There is no passion so universal, 
or that steals into the heart more impercep- 
tibly, and covers itself under more disgui- 
ses, than pride ; and yet, there is not a sin- 
gle view of human nature, which is not suf- 
ficient to extinguish in us all the secret 
f<t?.ds of pride and sink the conscious soul — 
tc the lowesfv _ epths of humility. 

Anecdote. Sterling Integrity. In 1778, 
while congress was sitting in Philadelphia, 
frequent attempts were made, by the British 
officers, and agents, to bribe several of the 
members. Governor Johnstone — authorized 
tlie following proposal, to be made to Col. 
Joseph Reed : " That if he would engage his 
interest to promote the objects of the British, 
he should receive thirty thousand dol- 
LAiis, and any office in the colonies, in his 
majestj 's gift. Col. Reed — indignantly re- 
plied, — " I pm not worth purchasing ; but 
such as I am, the king of Groat Britain is 
not rich enough to buy me." 



Ijaconics. 1. Any vic^ation of lavf~\i t 
breach of morality. 2. M^tsic, in all its variety, 
is essentially one ; and so is speecA, tho' infinitely 
diversified. 3. Literary people — are of\en unplea* 
ant companions in mixed society; because they 
have not always the power of adapting them- 
selves to others. 4. It is pedantry — to introduce 
foreign words into our language, when we have 
pure English words to express all that llie exotics 
contain ; with the advantage of being intelligib!«» 
to every one. 5. ^Vhatever is merely artific'ial, is 
unnatural; which is opposed to general etoqutnce. 
6. There can he no great advances made, in gen- 
uine scientific truth, without well regulated affec- 
tions. 7. We can be almost anything we choose; 
if we will a thing to be done, no matter how high 
the aim, success is nearly certain. 

Anger. Of all passions — there is not one 
so extravagant and outrageous as this; ot/ter 
passions solicit and mislead us : but this — 
runs away with us by force, hurries us as 
weU to our own, as to another^s ruin : it often 
falls upon the wrong person, and discharges 
its wrath on the innocent instead of the guil- 
ty. It spares neither /ne nd nor foe ; but tears 
all to pieces, and casts imman nature into a 
perpetual warfare. 

VARIETIES. 

All the world^s — a stage. 
And all the m^n and women — merely players : 
They have their exits, and their entrances ; 
And one man, in his time, plays many parte, 
His acts — being seven ages. At first, the infant, 
Mewling and puking in tlie nurse's arms ; 
And then, the whining school-hoy, with his satchel, 
And shining morning/ace, creeping like snail, 
Unwilingly, to school. And then, the lover; 
Sighing like a furnace, with a woeful ballad 
Made to his mistress' eyebroio : Then, a soldier. 
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like liie panl, 
Jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel, 
Seeking the bubble reputation 
Even in the tannon'5 mouth : And then ihejustict; 
In fair round belly, with good capon lined, 
With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut, 
Full of wise salts and modern instances. 
And so he plays Ais part: The sixth age— shifts 
Into tne lean and slipper'd pantaloon ; 
With spectacles on nose, and pouch on sidi; 
His youthful hose, wdl saved, a world too wide 
For his shrunk shank ; and his big manly vciw, 
Turning again toward childish treble — pipes, 
And whistles in his sound : Last scene of all, 
That ends this strange eventful history, 
Is second childishness, and mere oblivion ; 
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sanscueri/ihir.g. 
Charity, decent, modest, easy, kind, 
Softens the high, and rears the abject mind ; 
Knows, with just reins, and gentle hand, to gllidc 
Betwixt vile shame — and arbitrary pride. 
Not soon provoked, she easily forgives ; 
And much — she suffers, as she much — believea. 
Soft peace she brings, wherever she arrives ; 
She builds our quiet, as she torms our lives; 
Lays the rough paths — of peevish nature even 
And opens, in each heart, a lililp heave7i. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



155 



4:80. The Sle^tuer characteristic of ! 
Voice. In all cases, endeavor to express by 
the voice and gesture, the sense and feeling, 
that are designed to be conveyed by the 
words; i. e. teU the whole truth. Most of 
Lie following words, that Shakspeare puts 
into the mouth of Hotspur, descriptive of a 
dandy, requires the use of this peculiarity of 
voice, in order to exhibit their full meaning. 
Conceive how a blunt, straight-forward, hon- 
e»i soldier would make his defence, when 
unjustly accused by his f nical superior, of 
unsoldier-like conduct; and then recite the 
following. 

My liege — I did deny no prisoners. 
But I remember, when xhefght was done, 
When I was dry with rage, and extreme toil, 
Breathless, and faint, leaning upon my sword, 
Came there a certain lord ; neat, trimly dress'd; 
Fresh as a bridegroom; and his chin, new reap'd, 
Showed like sttiiible-\mu\ — at harvest home. 
He was perfumed like a milliner; 
And, 'twixt h\s finger and his thumb, he held 
A pouncet-hox^ which, ever and anon, 
He gave his nose. And still he smiPd] and talk% 
And as the soldiers — bore dead bodies by. 
He called them untaught knaves, unmannerly, 
To bring a slovenly, unhandsome corse 
Betwixt the wind — and his nobility. 
With many holiday, and lady terms. 
He questioned me ; amongst the rest, demanded 
My prisoners, in her majesty's behalf; 
r then, all smarting with my wounds, being gall'd 
To be so pestered with a popinjay. 
Out of my grief— and my impatience. 
Answered negligently, — 1 know not what — 
He should, or should not; for he made me mad, 
To see him shine so brisk, and smell so sweet, 
And talk so like a waiting gentlewoman, [mark,) 
Of guns, and drums, and ivounds, (heaven save the 
And telling me the sovreign''st thing on earth, 
Was spermaceti — for an inward bruise : 
And that it was great ^%, (so it was,) 
That villanous saltpetre — should be digged. 
Out of the bowels of the harmless earth. 
Which many a good^ tall fellow had destroyed 
So cowardly ; and, but for these vile guns, 
He would himsefhave been a soldier: 
This bald, unjointed chat of his, my loid, 
I answered indirectly, as I said ; 
And I beseech you, let not his report 
Come current, for an accusation, 
betwixt my love, and your high majesty. 

Number. Umty — is an abstract concep- 
tion, resembling primary, or incorporeal 
matter, in its general aggregate; one — ap- 
pertains to things, capable of being num- 
bered, and may be compared to matter, 
rendered visible under a particular form. 
Number is not infinite, any more than mat- 
ter is ; but it is the source of that indefinite 
divisibility, into equal parts, which is the 
property of all bodies. Thus, unity and one 
aw to 'ie distinguished from each otiier. 
P/r-iSy— makes dainty. 



Maxims. 1. Some are aleH in the btginning^ 
but negligent in the end. 2. Fear— is ofttm con- 
cealed under a show o^ daring. 3. The remedy i.^ 
often worse than tlie disease. 4. K faint heart nev- 
er won a fair lady. 5. No man is free, who does 
not govern himself. 6. An angry man opens his 
mouth, and shuts his eyes. 7. Such as give ear to 
slanderers, are as bad as slanderers themselves. 
8. A cheerful manner denotes a gentle nature. 9. 
Proud looks lose hearts, but courteous tvordi—win 
them. 10. Brevity is tlie soul of eloquence. 

Anecdote. Self-interest. When Dr. 
Franklin applied to the king of Prussia to 
lend his assistance to America, — " Pray D(x;- 
tor," says he, " what is the ofrject you mean 
to attain!" '^Liberty, Sire," replied the phi* 
losopher ; " Liberty! that freedom, which is 
the birthright of all men." Tl^e king, after a 
abort pause, made this memorable answer : 
" I was born a jjrince, and am become a king; 
and I will not use the powers I possess, to 
the ruin of my own trade." 

Of Liying. Lying — supplies those who 
are addicted to it — with a plausible apology 
for every crime, and with a supposed shelter 
from every punishment. It tempts them to 
rush into danger — from the mere expecta- 
tion of impunity ; and, when practiced with 
frequent success, it teaches them to confound 
the gradations of guilt; from the effects of 
which tliere is, in their imaginations, at 
least one sure and common protection. It 
corrupts the early simplicity of youth; it 
blasts the fairest blossoms of genius; and 
will most assuredly counteract every effort, 
by which we may hope to improve the tal- 
ents, and mature the virtues of those wliom 
it infects. 

"Varieties. \. A very moderate power^ 
exercised by perseverance, will effect — what 
direct force could never accomplish. 2. We 
must not deduce an argument against the use 
of a thing, from an occasional abuse of it. 3. 
Should we let a painful and cold attention to 
manner and voice, chill the warmth of our 
hearts, in our fervency and zeal in a good 
cause] 4. Youth — often rush on, impetu- 
ously, in the pursuit of every gratification, 
heedless of consequences. 5. Tlie adherence 
to truth — produces much good ; and its ap- 
pearances — much mischief. 6. Every one, 
who does not grow better, as he grows older^ 
is a spendthrift of tliat time, which is more 
precious than gold. 7. Obedience to fho 
truths of the Word, is the life of all; for 
truths are the laws of the heavens, and of the 
church ; obedience — implies the reception of 
them; so far as we receive, so far we are 
alive, by the coming of the kingdom wUhin 
us. 

Whoe'er, amidst the sons 
Of reason, valor, liberty, and virtue. 
Displays distinguished merit, is a ncbh 
Of Nature^s own making. 



156 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



4ai. Tkemor or Voice — resembles the 
trill in singing, and may be indicated in tliis 
manner, — ^^ ^-^.^-.^-v.^-w ; the voice ranging 
from a quarter of a tone, to several tones. 
It is made deep in the throat, witli a drop- 
ping of the jaw ; and when properly used, 
it is very effective and heart-stirring : espe- 
cially, in the higher kinds of oratory. It 
heightens Joij, mirth, rapture, and exulta- 
tum; adds pungency to scorn, contempt, and 
sarcasm : deepens the notes of sorrow, and 
enhances those of distress : often witnessed 
in children, when manifesting their delights. 
There are several degrees, from the gjvss to 
tlie most refined. 

4:3a. 1. Said Falstaff, of Ms ragged regi- 
ment, " I'll not march through Coventry 
with them, that's^a/ ,• no eye hath seen such 
^cm-ea-ows." Almost every word requires a 
kind of chuckle, especially the italic ones 
and by making a motion with the chin, up 
and down, the shake of the voice will corres- 
pond to the sign, — ^^ — ^-^^^.^^^^ . 2. In 
this example we have an instance of a refin- 
ed tremor of voice ; but the right feeling is ne- 
cessary to produce it naturally. Queen Cath- 
arine said, in commending her daughter to 
Henry, " And a little to love hej^for her moth- 
er's sake; who loved him — heaven knovjs 
how dearly.^' The coloring matter of the 
voice is feeling — passion, which gives rise to 
the qualities of voice; thus, we employ 
harsh tones in speaking of what we disap- 
prove, and euphoneous ones in describing the 
objects of love, complacency, admiration, &c. 
433. In extemporaneous speaking, or 
speaking from manuscript, (i. e. making it 
talk,) when the speaker is under the influ- 
ence of strong passion, the voice is apt to be 
carried to the higher pitches : how shall he 
regain his medium pitch 1 by changing the 
passion to one requiring Iwv notes; thus, 
the surface of his flow of voice, will present 
the appearance of a country with mountains, 
hills, and dales. Elocution — relates more to 
the words and thoughts of others ,- oratory 
to our own. To become a good reader and 
speaker, one must be perfect in ehcution, 
which relates to words : in logic, which re- 
lates to thoughts ; and in rhetoric, which ap- 
pertains to the affections : thus involving 
ends, causes, and effects. 

Anecdote. Aged Gallantry. A gallant 
old gentleman, by the name of Page, who 
was something of a rhymester, finding a la- 
dy's glove at a watering-place, presented it 
to her, with the following lines : 
" If from your glove — you take the letter g, 
YoiT glove — is love — which /devote to — thee.'" 
To which the lady returned the following 
answer : 
" If from your Page, you take the letter p> 
Your rag!— is age —an! I :at won't do for me." 



Proverbs. 1. Proud persons have fcvvr«i. 
friends. 2. Mildness — governs belter than anger. 
3. No hope should influence -as to do evil. 4. Feio 
things are impossible to skdl and industry. 5. 
Diligence — is the mistress of success. 6. Conscience 
is never dilatory '::i her warnings. 7. A vain 
hope flattereth the heart of u.fool. 8. Moderate 
speed is a sure help to all proceedings. 9. Liber- 
ality of knowledge makes no one the poorer. 10. 
If you endeavor to be honest, you struggle with 
yourself. 

Names. A man, that should call every thing 
by its right naw^e, would hardly pass through 
the streets, without being knocked down as a 
common enemy. 

Varieties. 1. In 1840, there were in the 
United States, five hundred and eighty-four 
thousand whites, who could not read or 
write; five thousand, seven hundred and 
seventy-three deaf and dumb ; five thous- 
and and twenty-four blind ; fourteen thous- 
and five hundred and eight insane, or idiots, 
and two millions four hundred and eighty- 
seven thousand slaves. 2. As our popula- 
tion increases thirty-four per cent, in ten 
years, at this rate, in 1850, our seventeen 
millions will be twenty-two millions : in 
1860, thirty millions ; and in 1900, ninety- 
five miUions. 3. The regular increase of the 
N. E. states is fourteen per cent ; of the mid- 
dle states twenty-five per cent. ; of the south' 
em twenty-two per cent. ; and of the west- 
em — sixty-eight per cent. 4. Many persons 
are more anxious to know who Melchisedec 
was, or what was Paul's thorn in the flesh, 
than to know what they shall do to be saverL 
5. To cure anger, sip. of a glass of water, till 
the fit goes off. 6. An infallible remedy for 
anxiety — "cast thy burden upon the Lord, 
and he shall sustain thee." 

TRY ; TRY AGAIN. 

'Tis a lesson — you should hud, 

Try, try again ; 
If ai first — you don't succeed, 

Try, try again ; 
Then your courage should appear, 
For, if you will persevere, 
You will conquer, never fear ; 

Try, try again. 
Once, or twice, though you should /at/, 

Try, try again ; 
If you would, at last, prevail, 

Try, try again ; 
If we strive, 'tis no disgrace, 
Though we may not win the race ; 
What should you do in the case? 

Try, try again. 
If you find your task is hard, 

Try, iry again; 
Time will bring you your reward. 

Try, try again; 
All that other folks can do, 
Why, w\\\i patience, siiould not you t 
Only kteep this rule in view, 

Thy, TRY »GAIN. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



157 



4a*. Before entering on a consideration 
and illustration of the Passions, the pupil is 
urged to revise the preceding lessons and 
exercises ; but do not be deceived with the 
idea, that thinki7ig about them is enough, 
or reading them over silently; join practice 
with thought, and the effects are yours. One 
of the great difficulties in thinking about 
any art or science, and witnessing the efforts 
oi others in their presentation, is — that one's 
taste is so far in advance of his own jrractice, 
that he becomes disgusted with it, and des- 
pairs of his success. Let us remember that 
nothing is truly our own, that we do not 
u?idersta7id, love and practice. 

hamlet's instructions on delivery. 

Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced 
Jt to you; trippingly ou the toiigue. But if you 
mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief 
the town-crier had spoke my lines. And do not 
saw the air too much with j'our hand; but use all 
frently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I 
may say, whiklwind of your passion, you must 
acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it 
smoothness. Oh! it offends me to the soul,, to hear 
a robustious, periwig-psiled fellow tear a passion 
to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the 
groundlijigs ; who, (for the most part.) are capa- 
ble of nothing, but inexplicable dumb-show and 
noise. I would have such a fellow^ whipped for 
o'erdoing Urmagant, it out-Herod's Herod. Pray 
you, avoid it. Be not too tame, neither; but let 
your own discretion be your tutor. Suit the ac- 
tion — to the word, the wo"-! — to the action; witli 
this special observance, that you o'erstep not the 
modesty of nature: for anything, so overdone, is 
from the purpose of playing ; whose end, both at 
l\\e first, and now, was, and is — to hold, as 'twere, 
the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own 
feature, scorn — her own image, — and the very age 
and body of the time, his form and pressure. Now, 
this overdone, or come tardy off, though it may 
make the unskillful laugh, cannot but make the 
judicious — grieve: the censure of one of which, 
must, in your allowance, o'erweigh a whole thea- 
tre of others. OJi! there be players that I have 
seen play, and heard- others ^rafse, and that high- 
ly, tliat, neither having the accent of christian, nor 
the gait of christian, pagan, nor ?nan, have so 
strutted and belloived, that I have thought some 
of nature's journeymen had made men, and not 
made them well; they imitated humanity so abom- 
inably. 

4:35. Tendencies of our Lang-uage. 
As our language abounds in monosyllables, 
it affords good means to deliver our thoughts 
in few sounds, and thereby favors despatch, 
which is one of our characteristics ; and 
when we use words of more than one sylla- 
ble, we readily contract them some, by our 
rapid pronunciation, or by the omission of 
Bome vowel; as, drown'd, walk'd, dips; in- 
stead of drown-ed, walk-ed, dip-peth, &c,; 
tind even proper names of several syllables, 
when familiarized, often dwindle down into 
monosyllables; whereas, in other languages, 
they receive a softel turn, by the addition 
ot a new syllable. 



Proverbs. 1. Beauty is ip longer am/able, 
than while virtue adorns it. 2. Past services 
should never be forgotten. 3. A knoion enemy ia 
better than a treacherous friend. 4. Don't engage 
in any undertaking, if your conscience says no 
to it. 5. Benefits and injuries receive their value 
from the intention. 6. We should give by choice, 
and not by hazard. 7. He, that does £cod to a>i. 
other, from proper motives, does good a:fco to him- 
self. 8. He that is false to God can never be tru4 
to man. 9. A good principle is sure to produce a 
good practice. 10. None are truly wise, but thoee 
that are pure in heart. 

Anecdote. Contrary. A womn.n, having 
fallen into a river, her husbajid went to look 
for her, proceeding up stream from where 
she fell in. The bystanders asked him if 
he was mad? she could not have gone 
against the stream. The man answered : 
' ' She was obstinate and contrary in her life- 
time, and I suppose for certain she is so at 
her death:' 

Intuition. We cannot have an idea of 
one, without the idea of another to which it 
is related. We then get the idea of two, 
by contemplating them both; referring, ab- 
stractly, to one of them. We say one and 
one are equal to two; one one, is less than 
two ones; therefore, one does not equal two. 
One and one, are the parts of tv^o, and the 
parts of a thing are equal to the whole of it. 
Thus, we come to the knowledge of what 
has been called intuitive proposition, only 
by reasoning. When such a principle ia 
clearly admitted, we cannot deny its truth, 
for a moment : but it is far from being, 
strictly speaking, an intuitive truth. 

Varieties. 1 . The virtues of the country 
are with our wometi, and the only remaining 
hope of the resurrection of the genius and 
character of the nation, rests with them. 2. 
The present — is the pa.reiit of i]\Q future. 3. 
The last words of the Indian chief, who 
died at Washington, in 1824, were, " When 
I am gone, let the big gmis be fired over 
me." 4. Beware of turning away from do- 
ing good, by thinking how much good you 
would do, if you only had the means. 5. 
The pleasure oi thinking on important sub- 
jects, with a view to communicate our tho'ta 
to the unfolding minds around us, is a most 
exquisite pleasure. 6. Principle and prac- 
tice must go hand in hand, to make the 
man, or woman. 7. The time is fast ap- 
proaching, when the mind will strike out 
new fields, and view itself, its Creator, and 
the Universe from new positions. 

HOPE. 

Why do those cliffs of shadowy lint appear. 
More sweet than all the landscapes shining nf.arJ 
'Tis distance lends snchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountain in its azure hue ! 
Thus with delight we linger to survey 
The promis'd joys of life's unmeasur'd way 
Thus from afar, each dim discover'd scene, 
More pleasing seems than all the past hath be t»i 
And every form that, fancy can repair. 
From dark oblivion, glows divinely there. 



I5tt 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



436* A just delivery consists in a distinct 
articulation of words, pronounced in proper 
tones, suitably varied to the sense, and the 
emotions of the mind ; with due observation 
of accent, the several gradations of emphasis ; 
pauses or rests in proper places, and well 
measured degrees of time ; and the whole ac- 
companied with expressive looks, and signi- 
ficant gestures. To conceive, and to execute, 
are two different things ; the first may arise 
fiom study and observation; the second is 
{lie eftect of practice. 

4i27* Rules for the ^ . When ques- 
tions are not answered by yes or no ; as, Who 
is that lady] In affirmative sentences ; 
as — I am prepared to go : language of au- 
THORiTr; as — Back to thy punishment, 
false fugitive: terror; as — The hght 
burns blue: surprise; as — Sir, I perceive 
that thou art a prophet: reprehension; 
as — You are very much to blame for suffer- 
ing hiva to pass : indignation: Go — false 
fellow, and let me never see your face 
again : contempt ; as — To live in awe of 
such a thing as / myself : exclamation : 
O nature ! how honorable is thy empire J 
RHETORICAL DIALOGUE, when oue OX more 
persons are represented ; as — James said, 
Charles, go and do as you were bidden; and 
John said, he need not go at present, for I 
have something for him to do: and the 
FINAL pause; as — All general rules have 
some exceptions. 

4SJS. Important Questions. 1. Is there 
more tJian one God ? 2. Was the wwld crea- 
ted out of nothing ? 3. What is the mean- 
ing of the expression, " let us make man in 
our image, after our likeness .?" 4. By what 
means can we become hapjnj ? 5. Can we 
be di friend, and an enemy, at the same time ] 
6. Are miracles the most convincing eviden- 
ces of truth ? 7. Will dying for principles, 
prove any thing more than the sincerity of 
the martyr I 8. Is it possible for a created 
being to merit salvation by good works ? 9. 
Have we life of our own ; or are we dependent 
on God for it every moment? 10. What is 
the difference between good and evil? 11. 
Is any law independent of its m,aker? 12. 
A/e miracles — violations of nature's laws? 

4*^9* Some think matter is all, and mrni- 
ner little or nothing ; but if one were to 
gpeak the sense of an angel in bad words, and 
with a disagreeable utterance, few would 
listen to him with much pleasure or profit. 
The figure of Adonis, with an awkward air, 
and ungraceful motion, would be disgusting 
instead of pleasing. 

Reader, whosoe'er thou art, 
What thy Ood has given, impart ; 
Hide it not within the ground; 
S;nd the cup of" lessing round 



Proverbs. 1. To fail, or not-'io fail ; thai 
is the question. 2. He, ihat loveth pleasure, shaJI 
be a poor man. 3. Flattery is a dazzling meteor 
that casts a delusive glare before the mental eye 
seduces the imagination, perverts the judgment, 
and silences the dictates of reason. 4. Mankind 
are governed more by feeling and impulse, than 
by reason and reflection. 5. Our duty and true 
interest, always unite. 6. An occasional hearty 
laugh, is often an act of wisdom. 7. No one can 
be great, who is not virtuous. 3. We make more 
than half the evils we feel. 9. JVo one can esti- 
mate the value of a pious, discreet, and faithful 
mother. 10. The boy— is the father of the man. 

Anecdote. Tallovj and Talent. Fletcher, 
bishop of Nesmes, was the son of a tallow- 
chandler. A great duke once endeavored to 
mortify the prelate, by saying to him, at the 
king's levee, that he smelt of tallow. To 
which the bishop replied, "My lord, I am 
the son of a chandler, it is true, and if you: 
lordship had been the same, you would have 
remained a chandler all the days of your life. 

Disinterestedness — is the very fiower of 
all the virtues, a manifestation — in the heart 
of one who feels and acts from it, of heaven 
on earth, — the very reflection of the sun of 
Paradise. If mankind more generally, knew 
how beautiful it is to serve others, from the 
love of doing them good, there would not be 
so much cold and narrow selfishness in the 
world. When we have contributed most to 
the happiness of others, we are receptive our- 
selves of the most happiness. 

"Varieties, 1. Never repay fem(Z?7,e5S With 
wnkindness. 2. Is pride — commendable? 3. 
No guarantee for the conduct of nations, or 
individuals, ought to be stronger than that 
which honor imposes. 4. True patriotism 
labors for civil and religious liberty aU over 
the world — for universal freedom ; the liber- 
ty and iiappiness of the human race. 6. 
What is charity, and what are its fruits? 6. 
When persons are reduced to want, by their 
own laziness, or vices, is it a duty to relieve 
them! 7. To read Milton's Paradise Lost, 
is the pleasure of but feiu. 8. The argu- 
ment of the Essay on Man, is said to have 
been written by Bolinghroke, and versified 
by Pope. 9. Painting, Sculpture and Archi- 
tecttire — are three subjects, on which nearly 
all persons, of polite education, are compelled 
to conceal ignorance, if they cannot display 
knowledge. 10. Is labor — a blessing, or a 
a curse ? 

Music!— o\i\ how /aint, how weak I 

Language — fades before thy spell ; 
Why should feeling — ever speak, 
When thou canst breathe her soul — so well 
Ah! why will kings^orget— thai they a.re men., 
And MEN, that they are brethren ? [the tiea 

Why delight — in human sacrifice! Why buret 
Of NATURE, that should knit their souls tJgethei 
In one soft band — of amity and love ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



159 



4d€ Sttle. The character of a person's 
style L'f reading and speaking depends upon 
his moral perceptions of the ends, causes, and 
effects of the composition: thus, sttle may 
be considered the man himself, and, as every 
one sees and feels, with regard to everything, 
according to the state or condition of his 
mind, and as tliere are and can be no two 
persons alike; eacli individual will have a 
manner and style pecuhar to himself; tho" 
in the main, that of two persons of equal 
education and intelligence, ma>' be ir. a great 
iegree similar. 

431. RnLEs FOR THE . When ques- 
tions are answered by yes or no, they gen- 
erally require the '. Exs. Are you well ? 
Is he gone ? Have you got your hat ? Do 
you say yes P Can he accommodate me 1 
Will you call and see mel But when the 
questions are emphatic, or amount to an affir- 
mative,ihe^isused. ^Ve you well] As much 
as to say : tell me wliether you are well. Is 
he gone 1 Have you done iti All given 
in an authoritative manner. Hath he said 
it, and shall he not do iti He that planted 
the ear, shall he not hear 1 Is he a man, 
that he should repent P 

433. Important Questions. 1. Is the 
casket more valuable than the Jewel P 2. 
Will not the safety of the community be en- 
rfang-ererf, by permitting the murderer to liveP 
3. Are theatres — beneficial to mankind '' 4. 
Did Napolean do more hurt than good to the 
world'.' 5. Were the Texans right — in re- 
belling against Mexico] 6. OugJit the license 
system to be abolished ] 7. Is animal mag- 
netism true ] 8. Who was tlie greatest mon- 
ster — Nero, or Catiline P 9. Should we act 
from policy, or from principle P 10. Is not 
the improvement of the mind, of the first im- 
portance ] 

Nature. Man is radiant with expressions. 
Every feature, limb, muscle and vein, may 
tell something of the energy within. The 
brow, smooth or contracted, — the eye, placid, 
dilated, tearful, flashing, — the lip, calm, quiv- 
ering, smiling, curled, — the wliole counten- 
ance, serene, distorted, pale, flushed, — the 
hand, with its thousand motions, — the chest, 
still or lieaving, — the attitude, relaxed or firm, 
cowering or lofty, — in short, the visible char- 
acteristics of the whole external man, — are 
Nature's hand-writing ; and the tones and 
qualities of the voice, soft, low, quiet, broken, 
agitated, shrill, grave, boisterous, — are her 
ORAL LANGUAGE : let the student copy and 
learn. Nature is the goddess, and art and 
science her ministers. 

Since trifles— TTOike the fum of human things, 
And half our mtjery— from our /oi62« springs: 
Since life's ba^t joys— consist in peace and ease, 
And few— CAn save or serve, but oZJ— can please ; 
O let the ungentle spirit— leflm from henee, — * 
A rtnall tinkindnas—ia a great offence. 



Maxinis. 1. It does not become a law-maker, 
to become a law-breaker. 2. Friendship is strongei 
than kindred. 3 Idleness is the sepulchre of a liv- 
ing man. 4. An orator, wilhont judgment, is like a 
horse without a bridle. 5. He that kno^ws when to 
speak, knows when to be silent. 6. The truest end 
of life— IS to know tlie life th»t never ends. 7 
Wine has drowned more than ;he sea, S. Impose 
not on others a burthen which you cannot bear 
yourself. ^- ^^ overcomes a stout enemy, that 
overcomes his own anger. 10. Study tnankuui 
as well as books. 

Anecdote. Note of Interrogation (T). 
Mr. Pope, the poet, who was small and dt' 
formed, sneering at the ignorance of a yousig 
man, who was very inquisitive, and asked a 
good many impertinent questions, inquired 
of iiim if he knew what an interrogation 
point was ] " Yes sir," said he, " it is a little 
crooked thing, like yourself, that asks ques- 
tions.^'' 

Ideas, acquired by taste — are compound 
and relative. If a man had never experi- 
enced any change, in the sensation produced 
by external things, on the organs of taste, 
that which he now calls siueet, (if it had been 
the quality, subjected to the sense,) would 
have conveyed to the mind no possible idea ; 
but, alternating witli the quality we call bit- 
ter, contrariety — produces the first impres- 
sion, and lie learns to distinguisJi the qualities 
by names. The sensation — awakened by 
Madeira wi7ie, must be very acute, to enable 
a man to discriminate, accurately, without a 
very careful comparison. Let a particular 
kind of Madeira wine remain a few years on 
the lees of many other kinds, and who wcul'J 
detect the compound flavor, but the contriver ? 

Varieties. 1. Inspire a child with right 
feelings, and they will govern his actions. 
hence, the truth of the old adage, Example 
is better than precept. 2. The ^eat difficulty 
is, that we give rules, instead of inspiring 
sentiments ; it is in vain to lead the under- 
.standing with rules, if the affections are not 
right. 3. Benjamin West states, that his mo 
ther kissed him, eagerly, when he showed her 
the likeness he had sketched of his baby sis- 
ter; and, he adds, — that kiss made me u 
pavnter. 4. Lay by all scraps of material 
things, as well as of knowledge, and th?v 
will certainly come in use within seven years. 
5. Gain all the information you can, learn all 
that comes in your way, without being intru- 
sive, and provided it does not interfere with 
the faithful discharge of other duties. 6. It 
was a maxim of the great William Jones, 
never to lose an opportunity of learning 

anything. 

A wfse man poor, 

Is like a sacred booh, that's never read; 

To himself he lives, and to all else seems dead: 

This age— thinks better of a gilded /oo?, 

Than of a threadbare saint— in wi$dom''8 schoo* 



160 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



433. Sttle. The numerous examples 
given throughout this work, afford the neces- 
sary means for illustrating all the principles 
i)f elocutiQn : let the taste, andjudgmeiit, as 
well as the abilities of the student — be test- 
ed by a proper selection and application of 
them. He must not expect too much from 
others, nor take it unkindly, when thrown 
upon his own resources : the best way to in- 
crease our strength, is to have it often tested. 
All who become orators, must make them- 
selves orators. 

434. Impoktant Questions. 1. If we 
do well, shall we not be accepted ? 2. Which 
18 more useful, fire, or water ? 3. Ought cir- 
cumstantial evidence to be admitted in crim- 
inal cases 1 4. Can we be too zealous in 
rightly promoting a good cause '.' 5. Which 
is worse, a bad education, or no education 1 
6. Are not bigotry and intolerance — as des- 
tructive to morality, as they are to common 
sense ? 7. Are we not apt to be proud of 
that which is not our own ? 8. Ought there 
not to be duties on imported goods, to en- 
courage domestic manufactures ? 9. Is sla- 
very right ? 10. Have steamboats been the 
cause of more good than evil ? 

435. Ignokance and Error. It is al- 
most '^s difficult to make one unlearn his er- 
rurs, as to acquire knowledge. Mal-infor- 
maticMi is more hopeless than won-informa- 
tion ', for error is always more busy than ig- 
norance. Ignorance — is a blank sheet, on 
which we may V'rite ; but error — is a scrib- 
bled one, from which we must first erase. 
Ignorance — is contented to stand still, with 
her back to the truth; but OTor — is more 
jn-esumptuous, and proceeds in the same di- 
rection. Ignorance has no light, but error 
follows a false one. The consequence is, 
that error, when she retraces her footsteps, 
lias farther to go, before she can arrive at the 
truth, than ignorance. 

Anecdote. Virtue before Riches. The- 
mistocles — had a daughter, to whom two men 
were wishing to make love ; one — was very 
HcJi, but a simpleton, and the other — poor, 
but a very luise man : the father preferred the 
lailer, — saying, " I would rather have a man 
without Hches, than riches without a man^ 
Tbe primal duties — shine aloft, like stars ; 
Thucharilies, ihaX soothe, and heal, and bless. 
Are scattered at the feet of man, V\ke flowers ; 
The generous inclination, the juslrwZe, 
Kind tiHshes, and good actions, and pure thoughts. 
No myntery is here ; no special boon 
For hig\, and not for loxo ; {ox proudly graced, 
A nd not for meek of lieart. The smoke ascends 
To heaven as lightly from the cottage hearth, 
^8 from the haughty palace. He, vi'hose soul 
Fondcrs this true equality, may walk 
n^i} fields of earth — witli gratitude and hope. 
Our wishes letigthen — ai our sun declines. 



Maxims. 1. Punctuality begets eonfidenoo., 
and is the sure road to honor and respect. 2. A 
picture is a poem, without words. 3. Sensible me.i 
show their sense, by saying much in few words 
4. He, who thinks to cheat another, cheats hitn- 
self. 5. Pride is easily seen m others ; but we 
rarely see it in ourselves. 6. Wealth is not hts 
who gets it, but his who enjoys it. 7. A bad book 
is one of the worst of thieves. 8. Tolercitiou 
should spring from charity, not from indifference 

9. Too much prosperity makes mx)st men fools 

10. He, who serves God, has the best master i'S 
the world. 11. 0?ie love drives another out. 12 
Health is better than wealth. 

Influence. Few are aware of the full ex- 
tent of meaning contained in this word. If 
we can measure the kind and quantity of 
influence, that every variety of heat and cold 
has on the world of matter ; if we can tell 
the influence, that une individual has on an- 
other, one society on another, and one na- 
tion on another, both for time and eternity; 
if we can estimate the influence, that spir 
itual beings have on one another, and on 
the human race, collectively, and separately ; 
also the influence of the Great Spirit on all 
creation, then, we are able to see and realize 
the mighty meaning of this important word. 
Contemplate and weigh tlie influence, tJiat 
different kinds of food and drink have on the 
human system, by being appropriated to it3 
innumerable parts; the influence on body 
and mirid of keeping and violating the laws 
of life, by thinking, feeling, and acting ; the 
influence, which a good or bad person has on 
his associates and also their influence on oth- 
ers, through all coming time, as well as in the 
eternal world, and you will perceive some- 
thing of the importance of ceasing to do evil, 
and learning to do well ; of living and prac- 
ticing whdit is good and true, and thereby 
being saved from all that is evil and false. 

Varieties. 1. Lord Coke — wTote the fol- 
lowing, which he religiously observed ; " Six 
hours to sleep, to law's great study six, Four 
spend in prayer, the rest to nature fix." 2. 
Wm. Jones, a Vjiser economist of the fleeting 
hours of life, amended the sentiment thus ; 
Seven hoius to law, to soothing slumbers 
5even, Ten to the world allot, and all to 
heaven. 3. Tl>e truly beautiful and sublime 
are to be found within the regions of nature 
and probability : the false sublime sets to it- 
self no bounds : it deals in thunders, earth- 
quakes, tempests, and whirlwinds. 4. Is it 
any pain for a bird iofly, a. fish to sunm, or 
a boy to play ? 5. Confound not vociferation 
with emphatic expression; for a w/i^^per 
may be as discriminating as the loudest tones. 
6. Speech — is the gift of God. 7. Order— .i 
the same in the world, in man, and in the 
church; man — is an ejitome of all \heprin 
ciples of order. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



161 



436. Style, &c. To accomplish your ob- 
ject, study the true m-canmg and character 
of the subject, so as to express the whole, in 
such a way as to be perfectly understood and 
felt .- thus, you will transport youi hearers 
to the Acene you describe, and your earnest- 
ness raise them on the tiptoe of expectation, 
and your just arguments sweep everything 
before them like a MOUXTAiisr torrent: to ex- 
cite, to agitate, and delight, are among the 
most powerful arts of persuasion: but the 
impressions must be enforced on the mind by 
fl command of all the sensibilities and sym- 
I>athies of the soul. That your course may 
be ever upward and onward, remember, none 
but a GOOD man can be a perfect orator; un- 
cnrrupted and incorruptible integrity is one 
of the most jwwerful engines of persuasion. 

437. Impohtant Questioxs. I. Is any 
government — as important as the principles 
it should protect and extend? 2. Should we 
remain passive, when our country, or politi- 
cal rights are invaded ? 3. Are hanks bene- 
hcial % 4. Have the crusaders been the cause 
of more evil than good? 5. Was the war 
waged against the Seminoles of Florida, j'ws^.? 
6. Which is the more important acquisition, 
tvealth, or knowledge ? 7. Is there any neu- 
tral ground between good and evil, truth and 
falsehood ? 8. Which should we fear most, 
the commission of a crime, or the fear of pun- 
ishment ? 9. By binding the understanding, 
and forcing tlie judgment, can we mend tJie 
heart? 10. When proud people meet toge- 
ther, are they not always unhappy? 11. Is 
not common sense a very rai^e and valuable 
article l 1 2. What is the use of a body, with- 
out a soul? 

438. Manneu and Matteii. The secret 
of success in Music, as well as in Elocution, 
is, to adapt tlie manner perfectly to the mat- 
ter : if the subject be simple, such must be 
the manner : if it be gay and lively, or solemn 
and dignified, such, or such must be the 
manner .• in addition to which, the performer 
nmst forget himself, or rather lose himself in 
the subject, body and soul, and show his re- 
gard to his audience, by devoting himself to 
the subject : and hence he must never try to 
show himself off: but hide behind the thought 
and feeling, and depend upon them to pro- 
duce the effect: if tliere is any affectation, 
the hold on the heart is in that proportion 
relinquished. Oh, when shall we take our 
appropriate place and regard use as the grand 
object ! 

But »ur»— to foreigTi climes — we need not range, 

Nor torch the aiicimt records of our race, 
To leim— the dire elTect of time — and chatige, 

Which, in cnirsdves, alu ! we dmily trace ; 
ya*, at the darkened eye, the withered face, 

Or hoary hair — 1 never will repine ; 
But f-pare, Time ! whate'er of mental grace, 

Of ca7ia yr, Inve, or sympathy divine ; 
'Vhate'er of fancv^t ray, or frienibhip's fiarae ii miiu, 

BRONSON. 11 



Maxims. 1. Revenge, however sweet, is 
dearly bought. 2. Life is half spent, before w»* 
know what it is to live. 3. The tvorld is a ivork- 
shop, and the wise onfy know how to use its toois 

4. A man is valued, as he makes himself valuable 

5. Heaven is not to be had, merely, by tvishing for 
it. 6. As often as we do good, we sacrifice. 7. Be 
careful to keep your loord, even in the most trifiin^ 
matter. 8. Hearts may agree, tlio' heads may diC- 
fe,r. 9. Honestm^n are easily boiind ; but yoi tan 
never buid a knave. 10. Experience keeps a dear 
school ; hxxi fools will learn in no other. 

Anecdote. Curious Patriotism. Some 
years ago, one of the convicts at Botany Bay, 
wrote a fakce, which was acted with mucJi 
applause in some of the tlieatres. Barring- 
ton, the notorious pick-pocket, wrote the 
prologue ,' which ended with these hnes : 
True patriots we ; for, be it understood, 
We letl our country — for our country's good 

Ignorance — Willfulness. The ignor- 
ant — oppose without discrimination. Har- 
vey, for asserting the circulation of the bloody 
was styled a vagabond, a quack ; and perse- 
cuted, through life, by the medical profession. 
In the time of Francis I., Ambrose Fare — in- 
troduced the ligament, to staunch the blood 
of an amputated limb, instead of boiling hot 
jritch, in which the bleeding stump had for- 
merly been dipped ; and he was persecuted, 
with the most relentless rancour, by the Fa- 
culty, who ridiculed the idea — of risking a 
man's life upon a thread, when boiling pitch 
l)ad stood the test for centuries. Medicines 
have been proscribed as jsowow, and then pre- 
scribed in great quantities ,- the proscription.^ 
and prescriptions being both adopted with 
equal ignorance and credulity. There is no 
hope for man, but a thorough and correct 
education in the school of truth and goodness. 

Varieties. 1. Does the nature of things 
depend on tlie matter, of which they are 
formed ; or on the laws of constitution, by 
which matter is arranged? 2. Is not veget- 
able matter formed from oxygen and hydro- 
gen ; and animal matter from these two and 
carbon? But what are their constituent 
parts ? Were their essences created, or are 
\!i\e:y eternal? 3. What large portions of tlie 
world there are of which we know compara- 
tively nottiin% ! and although we are familiar 
with our bodies, externally, yet Iiow little of 
their internals do even the best physiologists 
know? 4. How much is really known of 
the nature of mind? and yet there is pre- 
sumption enough in some, to decide at once, 
upon all the phenomena of the mind, and 
prescribe its limits, 5. Thus, man clothes 
himself with his fanciful knowledge, and 
plays such insane trick.-! before the w<vld. 9P 
make the angels ':vcep, 

The^tj/ier— is out on the sunny <■«, 



And the reinrfeer— bounds o'er the pMtxm free; 
And the ptne— has a fringe of a softer pve>t, 
And the mwi— looks bright, where niy/od kaU 



h«OT. 



162 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



439. Effective Sttle. The more your 
reading and speaking partake of the freedom 
and case of common discourse, (provided 
you sustain the object and life of the compo- 
sition) the more just, natural, and effective 
will be your style of delivery : hence the ne- 
cessity of studying nature, of avoiding all 
affectatixm, and of never attempting that in 
public, which is beyond your ability. Some 
mar, or spoil what they are going to say, by 
making so much ado over it, thinking they 
must do some great thing; when it isal most 
as simple as — wa^h and be clean : whatever 
is not natural is not agreeable or 'persuasive. 

440. Important Questioits. 1. Were 
any beings ever created angels 1 2. Is it 
right ever to do wrong ? 3. Why was a rev- 
elation necessary ? 4. May we not protect 
our person and character from assault ? 5. 
Does civilization increase happiness? 6. 
Which excites more curiosity, the works of 
nature, or the works of art? 7. Ought a 
witness to be questioned with regard to his 
religious opinions, or belief? 8. Was the 
general bankrupt law a benefit to the coun- 
try 1 9. Why are we disposed to laugh, even 
when our best friend falls down 1 10. Which 
is the greatest, /ai^ A, hope, or charity? 11. 
Should controversy interrupt our friendship 
and esteem for each other 1 12. Have chris- 
tians any right to persecute each other for 
their opinions ? 

4:4-1. It is much to be regretted, that our 
Uachers are so illy qualified to instruct their 
pupils oven in the first rudiments of reading : 
and they arc all so much inclined to fall into 
bad habits, and the imitation of faulty speafe- 
ers, that it requkes constant watchfulness to 
keep clear of the influences of a wrong bias, 
and fal^e, and merely arbitrary rules. We 
never can succeed in this important art, until 
we take elementary instruction out of the 
hands of ignoramuses, and insist upon hav- 
ing persons fully competent to take charge 
of the cause. Away then with the idea, that 
any one can teach reading and speaking, 
merely because he can call the letters, and 
«peak the words so as to be understood. 

Operating Circumstances* We are too 

apt, in estimating a law, passed at a remote peri- 
od, v» combine in our consideration, all the subse- 
qaent events, which have had an influence upon 
K ; instead of conforming ourselves, as we ought, 
10 the circumstances, existing at the time of its 



So Utb, that, when thy ntmmoni comes— to join 
The innumenible cmavan, that moves 
To the pade r«lms of »hade, where each shall take 
His chamber — in the silent balls of death, 
Thou go not, like the quarry-slave, at ni?ht, 
SeoMrgtd to his dungeon ; but, nutairud and loothtd 
By an wifaltering trust, approach thy fratw, 
•LiiKe one, who wnps the draper) of his couch 
Atout him, and lies daws— ts ptfoionf dmniu. 



Maxims. 1. Happiness is the shadow of 

contentment, and rests, or moves forever with itH 
original 2. A drop of wisdom is worth a tun of 
riches. 3. Whatever does not stand with credit^ 
will not stand long. 4. Business must be attend- 
ed to, at the expense oi every thing else of less iuh 
parlance. 5. Our states of mind differ as much 
as our spirits and temper. 6. Death — cannot kiS 
what never dies, — mutual love. 7. If you will 
not hear reason, she wil rap you over your knuck- 
les. 8. Open rebuke is better than secret love. 9. 
Good counsel is thrown away on the arrogatyt 
and self -conceited. 10. He, who resolves to cimetid, 
has God, and all good beings on his side. 

Anecdote. Vanity Repiwed "I am 
very thankful, that my moutii has been open- 
ed to preach without any learning^' — said 
an illiterate preacher, in speaking against 
educating ministers, to preach the gospel. 
A gentleman present replied, " Sir, a similar 
event took place in Baalambs time " 

Education— should give us command of 
every faculty of body, and mind — call out all 
our powers of observation and reflectiun- 
change the creatures of impulse, pryudice 
and passion, to thinking, reasoning, and lov- 
ing beings ; lead to objects of pursuits, and 
habits of conduct, favorable to the happiness 
of every individual, and to the whole world, 
and multiply all the means of enjoyment, 
and diminish, every temptation to vice and seji- 
suality ; and true education will do all this. 

Varieties. 1. What is moral mr/t^e.? 2. 
The greatest danger to public liberty, is frona 
vice and idleness. 3. He, that showeth mer- 
cy, shall receive mercy. 4. Never attempt 
anything more, tlian there is a prospect of 
accomplishing. 5. Should not beasts — aa 
well as men, be treated with kindness ? 6. 
Rational liberty — is diametrically opposeo 
to the wildness of anarchy. 7. We should 
never ascribe bad motives, when we can sup- 
pose good ones. 8. Nothing is more prejU' 
dicial — to the great interests of a nation, 
than uncertain and varying policy. 9. Is 
it lawful — to contend witli others, on any oc- 
casion? 10. Prefer tlie evident interests of 
the crmimuniiy, to the suggestions of the 
pride of consistency. 10. Cleanliness — 1» 
next to godliness. 

Why have those banished and forbidden legs 
Dared once to touch a dust of England's ground > 
But more than why — Why have they dared to zn&reh 
So many miles upon her peaceful bosom ; 
Frightening her pale-faced villagers with war, 
And ostentation of despised arms? 
Comest thou because the anointed king is heoce 
Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind, 
And in my loyal bosom lies his powe'. 
Were I but now the lord of such not youth 
As when brave Gaunt, thy father, and mj'self. 
Rescued the Bruck Prince, that young Mars of mnt. 
From forth the ranks of many thousftiid French ; 
Oh, then, how quickly should tfa'.< arm U raise, 
Now prisoner to the palsy, chastise thee. 
And minuter cortectiofe tc thy fault 1 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION 



163 



44% Eloquence. What were all the 
attribu es of man, his personal accompUsh- 
ments, and his boasted reason, without the 
faculty of SPEECH ? To excel in its use is 
the highest of human arts. It enables man 
to govern whole nations, and to enchant, 
while he governs. The aristocracy of Elo- 
quence is supreme, and, in a free country, 
can never be subdued. It is the pride of 
peace, and the glory of war: it rides upon 
the zephyr's wings, or thunders in the storm. 
Bui, there is in eloquence, in painting, the 
life of the canvas, which breathes, moves, 
speaks, and is full of action : so is there in 
the dance, the poetry and music of motion, 
the eloquence of action; whose power con- 
sists in the wonderful adaptation of the gra- 
ces of the body to the harmonies of 7nind. 
There is eloquence in every object of taste, 
both in art and nature; in sculpture, gar- 
dening, architecture, poetry and music ; all 
of which come within the scope and plan of 
the orator, that he may comprehend that 
intellectual relation, that secret clause in the 
liberal professions, which, connecting one 
with another, combines the influence of all. 
Virtue., alone, ennobles human kind, 
And power— should on her glonous footsteps wait. 

Wisdom — finds tongues — in trees / books — in run 
ning streams; sermons— m stones, and good— in 
ivery thing. 

7ou pride you — on your golden hue; [too. 

Know— the poor g'tot^;-worm— hath its brightness 
When men of judgment— feel, and creep their way, 
Tlie jJOsiiiVe-pronounce— without delay 
'Tis good^ and lovely, to be kind ; 
But charity— should not be blind. 

A little learning — is a dangerous thing; 

Drink deep— or taste not the Pierian spring t 

There, shallow draughts — intoxicate the brain, 

But, drinking largely, sobers us again. 
A h rae ! the laureled wreath, that murder wears, 
Biood-nursed and watered with the widoioh tears, 
Seems not so foul, — so tainted, — and so dead, 
As waves the night-shade round the sceptic^s bed. 

443. Music — is the oral language of the 
affections; as words are the natural language 
of the thoughts. The notes of a tune are 
analogous to letters; themeasures — to words; 
the strains — to sentences; and the tune, or 
musical piece, to a discourse, oration, or po- 
em. As there is a great variety oi affections, 
and states of affection in the human mind, 
so there is a great variety of tunes, through 
the medium of which these affections, and 
states of affection are manifested. There 
are three grand divisions of music, which, 
for the sake of distinction, may be denomin- 
ated the upjjer, or that which relates to the 
Supreme Being ; the middle, or that relating 
to created, rational beings, or social music ; 
and the lower, or what appertains to that 
part of creation below man — called descrip' 
iive music. 

Ambition — is like tore,— impatient— 
Both of d«Zaj/Sj— and rivals. 



MaxlniS. 1. Oid age and faded Jlowers, no 
remedies can revive. 2. Something should be 
learned every time a book is opened. 3. A truly 
great man never puts away the simplicity of the 
child. 4. The gem cannot be polished without 
friction, nor man— perfected, without adversity. 5. 
The full stomach cannot realize the evils o[ hun- 
ger. 6. When thought is agitated, truth rises. 7. 
A child requires books, as much as the merchant 
docs goods. 8. Learn by the vices of oAers, how 
detestable your own are. 9. Judge not of men or 
things, at first sight. 10. Reprove thy friend pri- 
vately, and command him publicly. 

Anecdote. Sharp Reply. Two country 
atlor?ieys overtaking a wagoner, with two 
span of horses, and, thinking to be witty at 
his expense, asked him, " How it happened, 
that his forward horses were so fat, and the 
rear ones so lean V The wagoner, know- 
ing them, answered, "That his fore span 
were lawyers, and the other — clients.'''' 

Selflslmess — seems to be the complex of 
all vices. The love of self, when predom- 
inant, excludes all goodness, and perverts all 
truth. It is the great enemy oi individuals , 
societies, and communities. It is the cause 
of all irritation, the source of all evil. Peo- 
ple, who are always thinking oi themselves, 
have no time to be concerned about others; 
their own pleasure or profit, is the pivot, on 
which everything turns. They cannot even 
conceive of disinterestedness, and will laugh 
to scorn all, who appear to love others, as 
well as themselves. Selfishness — is the very 
essence of the first original sin, and it must 
be corrected, or we are lost. 

Varieties. 1. The wind, the falling of 
water, humming of bees, a sweet voice read- 
ing monotonously, tend to produce sleep; 
this is not so much the case with musical 
tones. 2. The trilling and quivering of 
the voice, which please so much, correspond 
to the glittering of light: as the moonbeams 
playing on the waves. 3. Falling from a dis- 
cord to a concord, which produces so much 
sweetness in music, correspond to the affec- 
tions, when brought out of a state of dislike; 
and also with the taste; which is soon cloy- 
ed with what is sweet alone. 4. Music has 
great effect on mind and body, making us 
warlike or the reverse, soft and effeminate^ 
grave and light, gentle, kind and pitiful^ 
&c., according to its nature, and perform- 
ance; the reason is, because hearing is more 
closely associated with feeling or spirits, 
than the other senses. Observe the effect of 
Yankee Doodle, God save the King, Mar 
seilles Hymn, &.c. 5. When music speaks 
to the affection, affection obeys, as when na- 
ture speaks, nature replies. 

Let gratitude — in acts of goodruss flow; 

Our love t-o God, in love to man below. 

Be this our joy— to calm the troubled breast, 

Support the weak, and succor the distressed • 

Direct the wandher, dry the widow^s tear; 

The orphan guard, the sinking spirit cheer. 

Tho' small our power to «t, tbo- small our skUi^ 

God— se*:S the heart; .^e judges- by the will. 



164 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTIOjS'. 



444. There are also three great divisions 
in Poetry, which is closely allied to music ; 
and both of them originate in the will, or 
affections: and hence, the words of the 
psalm, hymn, poem, and the music in which 
they are sung, chanted, or played, constitute 
the forms, or mediums, through which the 
affections and sentiments are bodied fortli. Is 
not genxiine music from heaven ? and does it 
not lead there if not ■perverted ? May not the 
same be said of poetry ? Woe betide the per- 
son, that converts them into occasions of evil ! 

How blind is pride ; what eagles are we still — 
In matters that belong to other men ; 
What beetles — in our own. 

Who fights 
With passions, and overcomes them, is endued 
With the best virtue.— 
JVa(u7-c— to each — allots his proper sphere ; 
Bat— that forsaken, we like comets are ; [broke, 
Tossed thro' ihe void ; by some rude shock we're 
And all our boasted ^re— is lost in smoke. 
Thick waters— show no images of things ; 
Friends— are each others^ mirrors, and should be 
Clearer than crystal, or the mountain springs, 
And free from cloud, design, or flattery. 
'Tis virtxie, that they want ; and wanting its 
Honor — no garments to their barks can fit. 

445. The Uses of ELoatrE?fCE. In every 
situation, in all the pursuits of life, may be 
seen the usefulness and benefits of eloquence. 
In whatever light we view this subject, it is 
evident tliat oratory is not a mere castle in 
the air : a fairy palace of/n'5/-work ; desti- 
tute of substance and support. It is hke a 
magnificent temple of Parian marble, ex- 
hibiting t!ie most exact and admirable sym- 
metry, and combining all the orders, varieties, 
and beauties of architecture. 

Habits of Industry. It is highly impor- 
tant, that children should bo taught to acquire 
habits of industry ; for whatever be their habits 
while young, such, for the most part, must they 
continue to be in after life. Children — are apt 
to think it a great hardship, to be obliged to de- 
vote so much time to occupations, at present 
perhaps, disagreeable to them; but they ought 
to be made to believe, that their tasks are not 
only intended for the informing of their minds, 
but for the bending of their wills. Good habits 
are as easily acquired as bad ones; with the 
great advantage of being the only true way to 
prospsrity and happiness. 

Anecdote. Conciseness. Louis XIV. who 
loved a concise style, one day met a priest on 
the round, whom he asked hastily — " Whence 
come you 1 where are you goinf^ ? wliat do 
you ivant .?" The other immediately replied, 
"From Bruges, — To Paris, — A Benefice.''^ 
" You shall have it," replied tlie king. 

Servile doubt- 
Argues an impotence of mind, that says, — 
We fear because we dare not meet misfortune. 



Maxims. 1. Want oi punctuality s a species 
of falsehood. 2. Pay as you go, and keep from 
small scores. 3. He, that has his heart in hia 
learning, will soon have his learning in his heart. 
4. The empty stomach tias no ears. 5. A man 
may talk like a wise man, and yet act like afoot. 
6. Rather improve by the errors of others, than 
find fault with them. 7. The devil turns his 
back, when lie finds the door shut against him. 
8, Better be upright, with poverty, thiin depraved 
with abundance. 9. The value of things, is iioTer 
so strongly realized^ a» when we are deprived of 
them. 10. None are so deaf as thoKe v?ho will 
not hear. 

Reform. He, that looks back to the his- 
tory of juankind, will often see, that in poli- 
tics, jurisprudence, religion, and all the 
great concerns of society, refjrm — has usu- 
ally been the work of reason, slowly awaken- 
ing from the lethargy of ignorance, gradu- 
ally acquiring co7J/if/ence in her own strength, 
and ultimately triumphing over the domin- 
ion of prejudice and custom. 

Varieties. 1. What is mercy and its 
uses? 2. Individuals and nations, fail in 
nothing they boldly, attempt, when sustained 
by virtuous purpose, and determined resolu- 
tion. 3. Some persons' heads are like bee- 
hives: not because they are all in abuzz, but 
that they have separate cells for every kind 
of store. 4. What nature offers, with a smil- 
ing face, fruit, herb, and grain— -are just 
what man's pure instinct would cfioose for 
food. 6. The majority — ought never io 
trample on the feelings, or violate the just 
rights — of the minority ; they should not 
triumph over tlie fallen, nor make any but 
temperate and equitable use of their power 
6. Death is the enacted penalty of nature's 
violated laws. 7. Was it causeless, that 
washing — was introduced, as a religious 
rite, seeing tJiat its observance is so essential 
to the preservation of health? 

And wlien the soul— is fullest, the hushed toiigrte, 
yoicelessly trembles — like a lute unstrung. 

There's beauty — in the deep ; 
The wave — is bluer than the sky ; 
And tho' the light — shine briglit on high. 
More softly do the sfa-gems glow, 
That sparkle in the depths beloiv ; 
The rainbow^s tints — are only made 
When on the waters they are laid, 
And sun and moon — most sweetly shine 
Upon the ocean^s level brine : 

There's beauty in the deep. 

There's music — in the deep : 
It is not in the surfs rough rear, 
Nor in the whispering, shelly shore — 
They — are but earthly sounds, that tell 
How little — of the sea-nymph's shell. 
That sends its loud, clcarnote abioad, 
Or winds its softness mrough the flood 
Echoes through groves— with coral ga> 
And dies, on spongy banks, away : 

There's music in the ("eep .' 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



lot 



446. Ouii Field. The oratofs^eW is the 
universe of mind and matter, and his sub- 
jeds, aJI that is known of God and man. 
Study the principles of things, and never 
rest satisfied with theresults and applications. 
All distinguished speal<ers, whether they ever 
paid any systematic attention to the pri7i- 
ciples of elocution or not, in their most suc- 
cc^fful efforts, conform to tliem; and their 
imperfections are the regults of deviations 
from these principles. Think correctly — ra- 
ther tha.n finely ,• sound conclusions are much 
better than beautiful conceptions. Be useful, 
rather than showy; and speak to the pur- 
pose, or not speak at all. Persons become 
eminent, by the force of mind — the power 
of thinking comprehensively, deeply, closely, 
usefully Rest more on the thought, feeling, 
and expression, than on the style ; for lan- 
guage is like the atmosphere — a medium of 
vision, intended not to be seen itself, but to 
make otlier objects seen ; the more transpar- 
ent however, the better. 
Hast thou, \n feverish, and unquiet sleep^ — 
Dreamt — tli't some merciless demon of the air, 
Rais'd thee a/o/i,— and held thee by the hair, 
Over the hrow — of a down-look'mg steep, 
Gaping, bdow. into a chasm — so deep, 
Th't. by tlie utmost straining of thine eye. 
Thou canst no resting place descry; 
Not e'en abnsh—lo save thee, shouldstthou sweep 
Adown the black descent; that then, the hand 
Suddenly parted- thee, and left thee there, 
Holding— b\n by f7iger-Vps, the bare 
And jagged ridge above, that seems as sand, 
To crumble 'neath thy touch? — If so, I deem 
Th't thou liasl had rather an ugly dream. 

447. Vocal Music In foca^ music, there 
s a union of music and language — the lan- 
ruage of affection and thought; which in- 
cludes the whole man. Poetry and music 
ire sister arts ; their relationship being one 
of fieaven -like intimacy. The essence of 
poetry consists in fine perceptions, and vivid 
expressions, of that subtle and mysterious 
analogy, that exists between the physical and 
moral world ; and it derives its power from 
the correspondence of natural things with 
spiritual. Its effect is to elevate the thoughts 
and affections toward a higher state of ex- 
istence. 

Anecdote. A powerful Stimulous. When 
Lord Erskine made his debut, at the bar, his 
agitation almost overcame him, and he was 
just about to sit down. " At that moment," 
eaid he, " I thought I felt my little children 
tugging at my gown, and the idea roused me 
to an exertion, of which I did not think my- 
stlf capable.'' 

Tis not enough— your counsel still be true ; 
Blunt truths more »7wc/i4«/than nice falsehoods do. 
Men inu»f be tausrlit — aa if you taught them not, 
And things unhiomn — propos'd aa things /org-ot. 
Witlmut eood-Lreeding, truth is disapprov'd;' 
T^-a: only niaket *ur;nw sense —Wow'rf. 



Maxims. 1. Poverty of nunJL Is ofte.i con- 
cealed under the ^tixhoi splendor. 2. Vice — is in. 
famous, even in a prince; and virtue, honorable, 
even in a peasant. 3. Prefer loss — to unjust gain, 
and solid sense — to wit. 4. He, that would be 
well spoken ofhintsdf, must speak well of others. 
5. lievfty one would mend himtelf, we should all 
be mended. 6. A sound mind is not tc> be shaken 
with jwpular applause. 7. The best way to see 
divine light, is to put out our own 8. Some 
blame themselves for the purpose of being praised. 
9. Nothing needs a trick, but a trick; sincerity 
loathes one. 10. As virtue has itu own reward, so 
vice has its own punishment. 

Wliat is Wortlvl The spirit of the agi 
says, — ^^ Worth — means wealth; and wis- 
no3r — the art of getting it." To be rich is 
considered, by most persons — a merit ; to be 
poor, an offence. By ihis false standard, it is 
not so important to be wise and good, as to 
be rich in worldly wealth ; thus it is, every 
thing, as well as every person, has its price, 
and may be bought or sold ; and thus — do 
we coin our hearts into gold, and exchange 
our souls — for earthly gain. Hence, it is said 
" a man is worth so ntuch;'" — i. e. worth just 
as much as his property or money, amount 
to, and no inore. Thus, wealth, worth, or 
gain, is not apj^lied to science, to knowledge, 
virtue, or happiness ; but to pecuniary ac- 
quisition ; as if nothing but gold were gain, 
and everything else were dross Thus the 
body — is Lives, clothed in purple and fine 
linen, and faring sumptuously every day; 
while the mind — is Lazarus, lying in rags at 
the gate, and fed with the crumbs, that fall 
from the tables of Time and Sense. 

Varieties. 1. Instead of dividing man- 
kind into the luise and foolish, the good and 
wicked, would it not be better to divide them 
into more or /e.w wise and foolish, mwe or 
less good or wicked! 2. It was a proof of 
low origin, among the ancient Romans, to 
make mistakes in pronouncing words ; for it 
indicated tliat one had not been instructed by 
a nursury maid: what is the inference':^ 
That those maids were well educated ; par- 
ticularly, in the pronunciation of the Latin 
language, and were treated by families as 
favorites. How many nursery maids of our 
day enjoy such a reputation, and exert such 
an infiuence? Indeed, how many mothers 
occupy such a pre-eminence ? Let wisdom 
and affection answer, and furnish the remedy. 
3. The purest and best of precepts and ex- 
amples should be exhibited to our youth, in 
the development of their minds, and tie for- 
mation of their characters. 

The seas — are quiet, when the winds are o'er; 

So, calm are we, when passimts — are no more ; 

For then, we know how vain it was— to boast 

Ot fleeting things, so certain to be lost. 

Clouds of (affliction— trova our younger eyee, 

Conceal that envptiness, that age descries ; 

The iourt dArk cottage, batter'd and decay'd^ 

Lets in new ligdt through chinks, that time has madM. 



16U 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



448. The Humak Voice. Among all 
the wonderful varieties of artificial instru- 
ments, which discourse excellent music, 
where shall we find one that can be compared 
to the human voice ? And where can we 
find an instrament comparable to the human 
mind ] upon whose stops the real musician, 
the poet, and the orator, sometimes lays his 
hands, and avails himself of the entire com- 
pass of its magnificent capacities ! Oh ! the 
length, tlie breadth, the height, and the depth 
of music and eloquence .' They are high as 
heaven, deep as hell, and broad as the uni- 
verse. 

THE POWER OF IMAGINATION. 

The lunatic, the lover, and the poet, 

Are, of IMAGINATION— all compact : 

One — sees more devils — than vast hdl can hold; 

Thnt—\s the madman : the lover, all asfrantu;, 

?ees Helen's beauty— in a brow of Egypt : 

The poet's eye, in a ^ne frenzy rolling, [heaven ; 

Doth glance from heaven— to earth, from earth— Ui 

And, as imagination— botZies/orfA 

The forms of things unknown, the poeVs pen, 

Forms them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing, 

A local habitation, and a name. 

449. Cicero and DiMOSTHEisrES. An 
orator, addressing himself more to the pas- 
fiions, naturally has much pSssionate ardor : 
whilst another, possessing an elevation of 
ifyle and majestic gravity, is never cold, 
though he has not the same vehemence; 
tn this respect do these great orators differ. 
Demosthenes — abounds in concise sublimity; 
Cicero, — in diffuseness : the former, on ac- 
count of his destroying, and consuming ev- 
erything by his violence, rapidity, strength, 
and vehemence, may be compared to a hurri- 
cane, or thunderbolt: the latter, to a wide 
extended confiagration, spreading in every 
direction, with a great, constant, and irre- 
nstibleflame. 

Aneedote. Envy and Jealousy. Colonel 
Thornton, of the British army, could not bear 
to hear the Americans praised. When he 
was at Charleston, S. C, some ladies were 
eulogising Washington ; to which he replied, 
with a scornful air, " I should be very glad to 
get a sight of your Col. Washington ; I have 
heard much talk about him, but have never 
feen kim.^'' " Had you looked behind you, at 
tlie battle of Cowpens,'" rejoined one of the 
ladies, " you might easily have enjoyed that 
pleasure." 

With illustration jimple,yel profound, and with unfaltering leal 

He spake from a warm heart, and made even cold heartt/eeZ; 

nil — is eloquence — 'tis the intense, 

Innpagsioned /eruor — of a mind, deep fraught 

With native enagy, when touL, and sense 

Burst forth, embodied in the burning- thought ; 

When look, emotion, tone, and all combine ; 

When the whole man — is eloquent with mind ; 

& fonn that comes not to the coil or quest, 

But fixnn the gifted soul, and the deep feeling breast. 

The farmers patient care — and toil 
Are oftener to znting— limn the so*/, 



Maxims. 1. Blind men must not undeitafeo to 
judge of colors. 2. Gamesters and race-horses nev- 
er last long. 3. Forgiveness and smiles are the 
best revenge. 4. They, are not our best friends, 
who praise us to our faces. 5. An honest man's 
word is as good as his bond. 6. Never fkh for 
praise ; it is not worth the bait. 7. None bat a 
good man can become a perfect orator 8. Culti- 
vate a love of truth, and cleave to it win all your 
heart. 9. Female dc^tcaci/ is the best prfctervntive 
of female honor. 10. Idleness is the itfuse of 
weak minds, and the holliday oi fools. 

Tlie Trine in Man. There are three 
things of which human beings consist, the 
soul, the mind and the body ; the inmost is 
the soul, the mediate is the mind, and the 
ultimate the body : the first is that which re- 
ceives life from Him, who is life itself; the 
second, is the sphere of tl;e activities of that 
hfe ; and the third, is the medium through 
which those activities are manifested: but it 
should be remembered, that tliere is, as the 
apostle says, " a natural body, and tlierc is 
a spiritual body." 

Varieties. 1. Nature — makes no em'tn- 
dations ; she labors for all: her^s is not mo- 
saic work. 2. The more there is prosaic in 
orators, poets and urtists, the less are they 
natural; the less do they resemble the copi- 
ous streams of the fountain. 3. The more 
there is of progression, the more there is of 
truth, and nature ,- and the more extensive^ 
general, durable, and noble is the effect: 
thus is formed the least plant, and the most 
exalted man. 4. Nature is everywhere sim- 
ilar to herself; she never acts arbitrarily^ 
never contrai-y to her laws : the same wis- 
dam and power produce all varieties, agreea- 
ble to one law, one will. Either all things 
are subject to the law of order, or nothing w 
Home! liow that Hissed word— thrills the ear' 

In it — what recoKxtions blend I 
It tells of childhood^s scenes so dear, 

And speaks — of many a cherisheil/n'eji/t 
O ! through the world, where'er we rcc-fx,. 

Though souls he pure — and lips be ktnd. 
The heart — w'aXi fondness — turns to home, 

Still turns to those — it left behind. 
The bird, that soars to yonder skies. 

Though nigh to heaven, still seems unblessed ; 
It leaves them, and with rapture flies 

Downward — to its own wwcA-loved nest. 
Though beauteous scenes— may meet its view. 

And breezes blow— from balmy groves, 
With wing untired—m\A bosom true, 

It turns — to that dear spot it loves. 
When heaven—shall bid this soul depart, 

This form — return to kindred earth. 
May the last throb, wliich swells my heart 

Heave, where it started into birth. 
And should affection — shed one teat , 

Should/n'enris/itp — linger round my tomb ; 
The tribuie will be doubly dear, 

When given by Hiose of '■'■hoine. sweet "lome." 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



167 



430. Poetry — may be written in rhyme, 
or oiank verse. Rhyme is the correspond- 
ance r.f sounds, in the ending of two (or 
mere "1 successive or alternate words or sylla- 
bles of two or more Unes, forming a couplet 
jr triplet : see the various examples given. 
Rythmus, in the poetic art, means the rela- 
tive duration of the time occi.pied in pro- 
nouncing the syllables ; in the art of music 
it signifies the relative duration of the sound, 
that enters into the musical composition : 
sec measures of speech and song. 
Lo ! the poor hviian, — whose untutored mind, 
Sees God in clouds^ or hsars him in the wind : 
His soul proud science— never taught to |tray 
Far as the solar vcalk, or milky way ; 
Yet, simple nature to his hope has given, 
Behind the cloud- topp'd hill, an humble heaven; — 
Some safer world — in depth of wood embraced, 
Some happier island — in the watery waste; 
\Vherc slaves, ouoe more, their native land behold, 
So FIENDS torment — no christians thirst for gold. 

451. Skips and Slides. By closely ob- 
serving the movements of the voice, when 
under the perfect command of the mind, you 
will see that it changes its pitch, by leaps of 
jne or more notes, in passing from word to 
vvord, and sometimes from syllable to sylla- 
ble, and also slides lipwards and downwards ; 
which skips and slides are almost infinitely 
diversified, expressing all the shades of tho't 
and feeling, and playing upon the minds of 
the listeners, with a kind of supernatural 
power, the whole range of tunes from grave 
to gay, from gentle to severe. The worlds 
of mind and matter are full of music and 
Dratory. 

Even ags itself— ia cheered with music; 
It wakes a glad remembrance of our youth, 
CjIIs back past joys, and warms us into transports. 
Nature — is the glass — reflecting God, 
As, by the sea — reflected is the sun. 
Too glorious to be gazed on — in his sphere. 
The night 
Hath been to me — a more, familiar face 
Thau that of man; and, in her starry shade 
Of dim, and solitary loveliness, 
I learned the language — of another world. 
Parting — they seemed to tread upon the air, 
Twin roses, by the zephyr blown apart. 
Only to meet again — more close, and share 
The inward /rag-rance — of each other''s heart. 
Notliiug — is made out of Notlxing. 
Good, in his "Book of Nature," contends, that 
liiere is no absurdity, in the supposition, of God 
creating something— out of nothing; and he main- 
tains, that the proposition, conveying this idea, is 
only relatively absurd, and not absolutely. But it 
IS absolutely absurd. When God said, "Let there 
be light, and there was light," light cannot be said 
to have been created out of nothing, but from God 
himself; not out of God, tut by his Divine Will, 
through his Divine Truth. So, we may conceive, 
that God, by his Will, made atmospheric matter, 
and then created it in form. 

Enou-} 1 to live in tempest; die in port. 



Maxims. 1. It i« .. < rter to io and not prom' 
ise, than to promise and not perform. 2. A ben^ 
is a common tie between the giver and receiver 
3. The consciousness of well doing is an ample re- 
to %rd. 4. As benevolence is the most sociable of 
all virtues, so it is the most extensive. 5. Do not 
postpone until tomorrow, what ought lo be done 
to-day. 6. Without a friend, the world is but a 
wilderness. 7. The jnore we kjiow our hearts, the 
less shall we be disposed to trust in ourselves. 8. 
Obedience is belter than sacrifice, and is insepera- 
bly wedded to happiness. 9. We should not run 
out of the path of duty, lest w^e run into the path 
of danger. 10. He doeth mu^h, that doeth a thing 
well. 

Anecdote. Bloro, duke of Milan, having 
displayed before the foreign embassadors his 
magnificence and his riches, which excelled 
those of every other prince, said to them : 
" Has a man, possessed of so much wealth 
and prosperity, anything to desire in this 
world?" " One thing ofily,'''' said one of 
them, " a 7iail \o fix the wheel o{ fortune.'''' 

Swearing. Of all the crimes, that ever 
disgraced society, that of swearing admits of 
the least palliation. No possible benefit can 
be derived from it ; and nothing but perverse- 
ness and depravity of human nature, would 
ever have suggested it ; yet such is its pre- 
valence, that by many, it is mistaken for a 
fashionable acquirement, and considered, by 
unreflecting persons, as indicative oi energy 
and decision of character. 

Varieties. 1. Duty sounds sweetly, to 
those who are in the love, and under the in- 
fluence of truth and goodness: its path does 
not lead thro' i\\oxny places , and over cheer- 
less ivastes ; but winds pleasantly, amid 
green meadows and shady groves. 2. A new 
truth is, to sojne, as impossible of discovery, 
as the new world was to the faithless cotem- 
poraries of Columbus; they do not believe in 
such a thing ; and more than this, they will 
not believe in it: yet they will sit in judg- 
ment on those who do believe in such a con- 
traband article, and condemn them without 
mercy. 

THE FALLS OF NIAGARA. 

The thoughts are strange that crowd into my brain, 
While I look upward to thee. It would seem 
As if God — pour'd thee from his " hollow hand,^^ 
And hung his bow upon thine awful /ron«/ 
And spoke, in that loud voice, which seem'd to him 
Who dwelt in Fatmos — for his Saviour''s sake, 
" The sound of many waters /" and had bade 
Thy /ood— to chronicle the ages back. 
And notch His centuries— in the eternal rocks. 

Deep— callelh unto deep. And what are loa, 
That hear the $«es<tcn— of that voice sublime » 
O ! what are all the notes, that ever rung 
From war^s vain trumpet, by thy thundering side . 
Yea, what is all the riot — man can make 
In his short life, to thy unceasing roar! 
And yet, bold babbler what art thou— to Him 
Who drown'd a wmia, and heaped the vmten fax 
Above its loftiest mountains ?—a. light wave. 
That breaks, and whispers— of its Maker's might 

Say, johat can Chloe want? she wants a heart. 



168 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



452. Observations. N« one can ever 
Decome a good reader, or speaker, by reading 
in a hook; because what is thus acquired 
is more from tkougkt than from feeling ; 
and of course, has less of freedom in it; 
and we are, from the necessity of the case, 
more or less constrained and mechanical. 
What we hear, enters more directly into the 
ajfectuous part of the mind, than what we see, 
and becomes more readily a part of ourselves, 
i. e. becomes conjoined instead of being ad/- 
joined: relatively, as the food which we eat, 
digests and is appropriated, and a plaster 
that is merely stuck on the body. Thus, we 
can see a philosophic reason why faith is 
said to come by hearing, and tliat we walk 
by faith, and not by sight : i. e. from love, 
tJiat casts out the fear that hath torment ; that 
fear which enslaves body and mind, instead 
of making both free. 

Ever distinguish substances— (torn sound ; 
There is, in liberty, what gods approve ; 
And only men, like gods, have taste to share ; 
There is, in liberty, what pride perverts. 
To serve sedition, and perplex command. 
True liberty— leaves all things free, but guilt ; 
And fetters everything-— hut art, and virtue ; 
False liberty— holds nothing bound, but power. 
And lets loose — every tie, that strengthens law. 

Home — is man's ark, when trouble springs ; 

When gathering tempests — shade his morrow ; 
And woman's love — the bird, that brings 

His peace-branch — o'er a flood of sorrow. 

453. CoNauERiNG-LovE. To learn al- 
most any art, or science, appears arduous, or 
difficult, at first ; but if we have a heart for 
any work, it soon becomes comparatively 
easy. To make a common watch, or a watch 
worn in a ring ; to sail over the vast ocean, 
&c., seems at first, almost impossible ; yet 
they are constantly practiced. The grand 
secret of simplifying a science is analyzing 
it ; in beginning with what is easy, and pro- 
ceeding to the combinations, difficult, most 
diflficult: By this method, miracles may be 
wrought : the hill of science must be ascend- 
ed step by step. 

Conceptions. Would it not be well for 
metaphysicians —to distinguish between the 
conception of abstract truth, and the conception 
of past perception, by calling the latter— mental 
perception, as contradistinguished from all other ? 
Anecdote. Rouge. A female, praising 
Uie beautiful color, used by the artist on her 
miniature, was told by him, that he did not 
doubt she was a woman of good taste ; for 
Uiey bothhoughtiheir rouge at the same shop. 
True philosophy discerns 
A ray of heavenly light— gilding all forms 
Terrestriil,— in the vast, the minute. 
The unanbiguous footsteps of a Ood, 
Who gives his lustre — to an insert's wing, 
And wheels his throne, upon the rolling worlds. 



Maxims. 1. A people's education- is a na^ 
tion's best defence. 2. Let not the sun go down 
upon your wrath. 3. Who aims at excellence, 
will be above mediocrity ; and who aims at me- 
diocrity, will fall short of it. 4. Forbearance is 
a domestic je/ceZ. 5. The affection of parents is 
best shown to their children, by teaching them 
what is good and true. 6. Feeble are the efforts 
in which the heart has no share. 7. By taking 
revenge, a man is but even with his enemy; but 
in passing it over— he is superior. 8. Loveliness 
needs not the aid of ornament; bui is, when wi- 
adorned, adorned the most. 9. No one ever diti, 
nor ever can, do any one an injury, without do- 
ing a ^r/a«er injury to himself. 10. It is better 
not to know the truth, than to know it, and not' 
do it. 

Pursuit of Knowledge. He, that en 
larges his curiosity after the works oi nature, 
demonstrably multiplies the inlets to happi- 
ness ; therefore, we should cherish ardor 
in the pursuit of useful knowledge, and re- 
member, that a blighted spring makes a bar- 
ren year, and that the vernal flowers, how- 
ever beautiful and gay, are only intended by 
nature as preparatives to autumnal /rwi/s. 

Varieties. 1. Bimness letters should al- 
ways be written with great clearness and per^ 
spictiity : every paragraph should be so 
plain, that the dullest fellow cannot mistake 
it, nor be obliged to read it twice, to under- 
stand it. 2. Lawyers and their clients re- 
mind one of two rows of persons at a fire ; 
07ie — passing full buckets, the other return- 
ing ew^j/y ones. 3. The hump of self-esteem 
is so prominent on some men's heads', that 
they can't keep their hats on in a windy day. 
4. A crow will fly at the rate of 20 miles an 
hour; a hawk, 40; and an eagle 80. 5. 
The heaviest fetter, that ever weighed down 
the limbs of a captive, is as the robe of the 
gossamer, compared with the pledge of a 
man of honor. 6. An envious person, wax- 
eth lean with the fatness of his neighbor. 7, 
Nature — supplies the raw material, and edii- 
cation — is the mamfacturer. 
The dumb shall sing, the Zawiehis crutch forego, 
And leap, exulting, like the bounding roe. 
Distrustful sense with modest caution speaks ; 
It still looks home, and short excursions makes j 
But rattling nonsense in full volleys breaks. 
Come, gentle Spring, etherial mildness, come. 
And, from the bosom of yon dropping cloud. 
(While music wakes around,) vailed in a showet 
Of shadowing roses, on the plains descend. 
The man, that dares traduce, because he can. 
With safety to himself, is not a man. 

Slander — meets no regards from noble minds | 

Only the 6ase— believe what the base utter. 
If I lose mine honor, I lose myself; 
Mine honor — is my life ; both grow in one ; 
Take honor from me — and my life is dcn». 
He was a man, take him for all in all, 
I shall not looV jpon his like again. 



.■^RINCIPLLS OF ELOCUTION. 



Wj9 



4154. Inflections and Intonations. 
The author is perfectly satisfied, that most 
of his predecessors have depended entirely 
'XK) much upon the wfiections, to produce 
variety, instead of upon the intonations of 
the voice : the former, invariably maizes rne- 
chanical readers and speakers; v^rhile the 
latter, being founded in nature, makes natu- 
ral ones : the one is of the liead, and is tlie 
result of thought and calculation ; and the 
other of tlie heart, and is the spontaneous ef- 
fusion of the affections : the former spreads 
a tail before the mind; the latter takes it 
away. Is it not soP Choose ye. Nature 
iknows a great deal more than art ; listen to 
Iicr teachings and her verdict. 

There are two hearts, whose movements thrill 
In unison, so closely sweet! 
That, -pulse to pulse, responsive still, 
That both must heave, or cease to beat ; 
There are t^vo souls, whose equal flow 
In gentle streams — so calmly run. 
That when they part, (they part?) ah no ; 
They cannot part, — their souls are one. 
No marvel woman should love goiters, they bear 
So much of fanciful similitude 
To her own history ; like herself, repaying, 
With Buch sweet interest, all the cherishing. 
That calls their beauty, and their sweetness forth ; 
And, likeAer, too, dying — beneath neglect. 
455. Ignorance and Ehhok. How fre- 
quently an incorrect mode of pronunciatirm, 
and of speaking, is caught from an ignorant 
nurse, or favorite servant, which infects one 
through life ! so much depends on first im- 
pressions and habits. Lisping, stammering, 
and smaller defects, often originate in the 
same way, and not from any natural defect, 
or impediment. If parents and teachers 
would consider the subject, they might see 
the importance of their trust, and be induced 
to fulfill their respective offices in a conscien- 
tious manner : to do wrong, in any way, is 
a sin. 

Association of Ideas. We may trace 
the power of association — in the growth and 
development of some of the most important 
principles of human conduct. Thus, under 
the feudal system, appeals from the baronial 
tribunals were first granted to the royal 
courts, in consequence of the delay, or refusal 
o( justice ; afterwards, they were taken, on 
account of the injustice or iniquity of the 
sentence. In the same way, a power, ap- 
pealed to from necessity, is at length resorted 
to from choice -, till finally, what was once a 
privilege is, in certain cases, exacted as an ob- 
ligation. This principle is full of political 
and social wisdom, and cannot be too deeply 
studied by those, who wish to analyze the 
onuses and motives of human conduct. 
Tlie purest treasure, — mortal ties afford, 
Is — svotiest reputation ; that — away, 
Mf D are but gilded loam, and painted elay. 1 
22 



Maxims. 1. The tvise man thinks he knows 
hul little; the /ooZ tli inks he knows it o.W. 2. He, 
who cannot govern himself, cannot govern others. 
3. He is a poor wretch, whose lopes are confinet! 
to this world. 4. He, who employs himself well, 
can never want for something to do. 5. TJmbTa,ge 
should never be taken, where offence was never 
intended. 6. Deride not the unfortunate. 7. l\\ 
conversation, avoid the extremes of ialkattvemss 
and sileyice. 8. Lawyers^ gowns are often lined 
with the willfubiess of their clients. 9. Good booke 
are the only paper currency, that is belter than 
silver or gold. 10. No man may be both accuser^ 
and judge. 11 . At every trifle—scorn tc take offence. 
Anecdote. A Rose. A blind man, having 
a shrew for his wife, was told by one of his 
friends, that she was a rose. He rephe<i, " 1 
do not doubt it; for I feel the thorns daily." 
Laconics. He who would become dis- 
tinguished in manhood, and eminently useful 
to his country, and the world, must be con- 
tented to pass his boyhood and youth in ob' 
scurity, — learning tliat which he is to prac- 
tice, when he enters upon the stage of action. 
There are two kinds of education ; the liber- 
al and the servile; the former puts us in 
possession of the prtnciples and reasons of 
actions and things, so far as they are capable 
of being known or interrogated : the latter 
stops short at technical rules and methods, 
without attempting to understand thereasona 
or principles on which they are grounded. 

Varieties. 1. We may apjrrehend the 
works and word of God, if we cannot fully 
comprehend them. 2. A man passes, fof 
what he is worth. The world is full of judg- 
ment-days; and into every assembly, that a 
man enters, in every action he attempts, ho 
is guag'd and stamp'd. 3. It is base, and 
that is the one base thing in the universe, to 
receive favor, and render none. 4. How shall 
we know, that Washington — was the most 
prudent and judicious statesman, that ever 
lived] By carefully observing his actions, 
and comparing them with those of other men, 
in like circumstances. 5. The union of science 
and religion, is the marriage of earth and heav- 
en. 6. Mankind can no more be stationary 
than an individual. 7. The virtue of woinm 
is often the love of reputation and quiet. 
Satan's supposed speech to his legions. 

Princes, PotaxtcUa, 
Warriors, the flower of Heaven ! mice yoora, novo -loit, 
Ifsuch astonishment as lAts— can seize 
Eternal spirits ; or liave ye chosen this place, 
After tlie toil of battle, to repose 
Your wearied virtue, for the ease you find 
To slumber liere, as in tlie vales of Heaven ? 
Or, in this abject posture— \aie ye swom— 
To adore the Conqueror ! who now beholds 
Cherulf—3iui seraph — pollinn- in the flood. 
With scat terM arms and ensipis ; till anoD 
Hb swift pursuas—trom Heaven's gate»— rfiserrn 
The advantage, and descending, tread us (iotOfl, 
Thug droopine;. or with linked thunderbottt 
Transfix us to tlie bottom of this gulff 
Juxilie, ARISE, or be forever fallen 



170 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



456. The PassiOjXS xnv Actio's. The 
numan mind we contemplate under two 
grand divisions, called Will and Understand- 
ing : the former is the receptacle, or conti- 
nent, of our passions, emotions, affections ; 
the latter — of our thoughts. To attend to 
the workings of mind, to trace the power 
that external objects have over it, to discern 
the nature of the emotions and affections, 
and to comprehend the reasons of their be- 
ing affected in a particular manner, must have 
a direct influence on our pursuits, character 
and happiness, as private citizens, and as 
public speakers. 

What notliing earthly gives, or can destroy, 
The soul's calm sunshine, and the heartfelt jo?/, 
I i virtue's prize. 

l-A faith, and hope, the world will disagree; 
But all mankind's concern — is charity. 
lie gave to mercy — all he had, a tear ; [friend. 
He gained from heaven, ('twas all he wished,) a 
In the faithful husbandman — you see, 
^Vhat all — true christian? — ought to be. 
Speak of me, as I atn ,• nothing extenuate, 
Nor set down aught — ni malice. 
Honor, and shame, from no condition rise ; 
Act well your part, there all the honor lies. 

457. An accurate analysis of the passions 
and affections is, to the moralist, as well as 
the student in elocution, what tlie science of 
anatomy, and physiology is to the physi- 
cian and surgeon: it constitutes the first 
principles of rational practice for both; it is, 
in a moral view, the anatomy of the heart ,- 
discloses why and how it beats; indicates 
appearances in a sound and healthy state, 
and detects diseases, with their causes, and 
is much more fortunate in applying remedies. 
Stages of Progress. Useful discoveries 
and improvements generally have four distinct 
stages in their progress to universality. The first 
IS, when the theory is pronounced false, contrary to 
experience, absurd and unworthy of the attention 
of sensible men. The second is, when they are 
claimed as having been known before; thus, de- 
priving the medium— of all credit for more indus- 
try, discrimination and originality, than others. 
The third is, when they are denounced as perilous 
utnovations, endangering the religion and morals 
of socisty. The fourth is, when they are receiv- 
ed as established truths by every body ; the only 
wonder being, that they should ever have been 
doubted, they are in such perfect harmony with 
tie laws of the universe. 

The meek-ey'd mom appean, mother ot dews, 
At first, faint glimmering — in the dappled eart • 
Till, far o'er ether— spreads the wid'uing g^Zoio ; 
And, from bpfore the histre of her face, 
White break the clouds away. With gutcften'd step, 
Brown night— retires ; young day pourg in apace. 
And ope-.is all the liwnv prospect wide. 
The dripping rock, the mount xui's misty top, 
Swell on the sight, and l/rightcn— with the daton. 
If, on a sudden, he begins to rise, 
No roan tliat liiies can count his enemies. 



IJaconics. 1. All men, possessed of reai 
power, are vprigkf and honest: craft is but the 
substitute of power. 2. To answer ttit by reason, 
is like trying to hold an eel by the tail 3. Fre- 
quent intercourse often forms such a similarity, 
that we not only assure a mental likeness, but 
contract some resemblance in voice and features. 
4. The more ideas included in our own words, and 
the more cases an axiom, is applied to, the more 
extensive and potverful will they be. 5. The im- 
provement of the internal, will also be the im- 
provement of tlie external. 6. A little vice often 
deforms the whole countenance,- as one single 
false trait in a portrait, makes the whole a carri- 
cature. 7. The noblest talents may rust in indo- 
knee; and the most moderate, by industry, may be 
astonishinglt/ improved. 

Anecdote. A Good Hint. A clergyman 
and Garrick the tragedian, were spending 
an eveniiig together ; and among otfier tojv 
ics of conversation, that of delivery was in- 
troduced. The man of the pulpit asked Gar- 
rick. " Why is it, you are able to produce so 
much more effect, with the recital of your fie- 
tions, than we do. by the delivery of the 
most important truths?" The man of the 
stage replied — " My Lord, you speak truths, 
as if they were fictions ; we speak fictions, 
as if they were truths.^* 

Action. To do an ill action is base ; to 
do a good one, which involves you in no dan- 
ger, is nothing more than common ; but it ig 
the property of a truly good man, to do great 
and good things, though he risk et;er?/thing 
by it. 

Varieties. 1 . The coin, that is most cur- 
rent among mankind— is flattery : the (mly 
benefit of which is, that by hearing what we 
are not, we may be instructed what we ou^ht 
to be. 2. Bring the entire powers of your 
mind, to bear on whatever sttidy you under- 
take, with a singleness of purpose, and you 
will not feil of success. 3. The predtwii- 
nance of a favorite study, affects ail the sub- 
ordinate purposes of the intellect. 4. Vex 
not thy heart, in seeking — what were far bet- 
ter unfound. 5. In reference to certain pri7i 
ciples and persons, unstable people cry out, 
at first, "All hail," — but afterwards, 
"cnucifT! cuucift!" 6. Luxtiry is an 
enticing pleasure, which hath honey in her 
mouth, but gall in her heart, and a stiiig in 
her embrace. 7. Let your rule of action l)e, 
to perform, fait hftilly, and without solicitude, 
the duty of the present hour ; let the future 
take care of itself. 

Two tiMki are ours, tO'tiioto— and understand, 
Evil, and good, and name their various band; 
But voorthier far, with cheerful will, to choose 
Whate'er is good, and all the ill— refuse. 
Why all this toil— for triumphs of an hour? 
What though we wade in wealth, or soar mfam»/ 
Earth's highest station ends in — " Here he Ites:" 
And— <'dtw«—todt«<"— concludes her noblest song. 

Virtue itself 'scapes not caiumn.cc? siiokes. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



171 



4*8. The Passions. There are three 
things involved in the exhibition of the -pas- 
sions; viz. the tones of the %oice, the appear- 
ance, of the countenance, and rhetorical ac- 
tion; the first is addressed to the ear only, 
the latter to the eye. Here, then, is another 
language to learn, after the pupil has learned 
,.he written, and the vocal languages : how- 
ever, the language of the passio7is may be 
said to be written — by the hand of Nature. 
"./onlemplate the passions separately, and 
comhmed, and seek for examples to illus- 
trate them. 

For praise, too dearly loved, or warmly sought, 
Enfeebles all internal strength of thought ; 
And the weak, within itself m\h\es,i, 
TiSans, for all pleasures, on another^ breast. 
Friendship, like an evergreen, 

Will hrave the inclement blast, 
And still retain the bloom o( spring, 

When summer days — are past; 
And tho' the wintry sky should lower, 

And dim, the cheerful day. 
She still perceives a vital power, 
Unconscious — of decay. 
Jealousy ! thy own green food. 
Thy joy — is vengeance, death, and blood! 
Thy love — is wrath! thy breath — is sighs! 
Thy life — suspicious sacrifice! 
459. Truth. Some men say, that " wealth 
is power" — and some that ^'■talent — is power" — and 
some that ^^ knowledge — is power" — and others, 
that ^^ authority — is power"— but there is an apo- 
thegm, that I would place on high al)ove them all, 
when I assert, that, "truth— is power." Wealth 
cannot purchase, talent — cannot refute, knowledge 
— cannot over-reacA, authority — cannot silence 
her ; they all, like Felix, tremble at her presence : 
cast her into the sevenfold heated furnace of the 
tyrant's wrath — fling her into the most tremend- 
ous billows of popular commotion — she mounts 
aloft in the ark — upon the summit of the deluge. 
She is the ministering spirit, who sheds on man 
that bright and indestructible principle of life, 
which is given, by its mighty author, to illumin- 
ate and to inspire the immortal soul — and which, 
like himself, " is the same yesterday, lo-daj, and 
/oret'er." 

The wintry blast of death — 
Kills not the buds of virtue; no: they spread 
Beneath the heavenly beams — of fcri'^/iter suns, 
Through endless ages — into higher poivers* 
The scale of being — is a graduattd thing; 
And deeper. — than the vanities of power. 
On the vain pomp of glory — there is writ — 
Gradation — in its hidden characters. 

EPITAPH. 

Here rests his head — upon the lap of earth, 

A youth — 10 fortune and \ofame unknown ; 
Fair science— frown'' d not — on his humble birth, 
And melancholy — mark'd him for her own. 
A dandy — is a thing, that would 
Be a young lady — if he could; 
But. as he canH, cioes all he can. 
To show the ivorld — he's not a man. 
The course of true love — nev .ir did run smooth. 



Maxims. 1. A well instructed people, only, 
can be a. free people. 2. 'J'o ask for a ICcing, wiiiv 
out labor, would be to ask for a curse, instead of a 
blessing. 3. No one lool s after hisotfn atTairs, u.s 
well as himself. 4. Fruitless advice is like pour- 
ing water on a duck^s back. 5. The more our tal- 
ents are exercised, the more will they become de- 
veloped. 6. Unless the laws are executed on the 
great, they will not be obeyed. 7. lie, who toils 
with pain, will reap with pleasure. 8. The tor- 
ment of envy — is like janrf in the ei/e. 9. Laziness 
often gives occasion to dishonesty. JO. The error 
of an hour — may become the sorrow of a lahoii 
life 

Auecdote. Father Aurius said, when 
Boardaloue preached at Rouen, the trades- 
me7i forsook their workshops, the lawycra 
their clients, and the physicians their sick, 
to hear the orator: but when I preached 
there, the following year, I set all things 
right; every man minded his own business. 

Iiuxiiry. When I behold a fashionable 
ta^e, set out in all its viag7iificence, I fancy 
that I see gouts and dropsies, fevers and leth- 
argies, with other innumerable distempers, 
lying in ambuscade among the dishes. Na- 
ture delights in the most plain and simple 
diet. Every animal, but man, keeps to one 
dish. Herbs are the food of this species, fish 
of that, and flesh of a third. Man falls upon 
every thing that comes in his way ; not the 
smallest fruit or excresce?ice of the earth, 
scarce a berry or a mushroom can escape him. 

Varieties. 1. Without exert io?i and dili- 
gence, success in the pursuits of life, is rarely 
attained. 2. It is the business of i\\e judge 
to decide as to the points of lav), and the 
duty of the_;Mror.s — to decide as to the mat- 
ters of fact. 3. The essence of our liberty 
is — to do whatever we please, provided we 
do not violate any law, or inpire anotlter. 
4. A handful of common sense is worth a 
bushel of learning. 5. Few things are more 
injurious to our health and constitution, than 
indulgence in luxuries. 6. Did God, after 
creating the u?iiverse, and putting it in mo- 
tion, leave it to itself? 7. Credit — is of in- 
estimable value, whether to a nation, or an 
individual. 

THE MINISTRY OF ANGELS. 

And is there care in heaven? and is there love 
In heavenly spirits — to these creatures base, 

That may compassion of their evils move ? [case 
There is: else, much more wretched were the 
Of men than beasts. But; oh ! the exceeding grace 

Of highest Heaven! that loves his creatures so : 
Aud all his works — with mercy doth embrace. 

That blessed angels he sends to and fro. 

To serve to wicked man, — to serve his wickedybc 

How oft — do they their silver bowers leave, 
To come to succor us, that succor want! 

How oft— do they, with golden pinions, cleave 
The Riu'mg skies, like fiy'mg pursuivant, 
Against foul ^en<is— to aid us militant! 

They for us fight, they watch and duly ward, 
And their bright squadrons round about us plant. 

And all for love, and nothing for reward: 

Oh ! loh u should the Ixird to man have such rugard . 



172 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTIOIV. 




TRANQUILLITY, &c. 

460. Tranquv'- 
tity appeals by the 
open and compos- 
ed countenance, 
and a general re- 
pose of the whole 
body; mouth near- 
ly closed ; eye- 
brows a little 
arched; f o r e- 
head smooth; eyei 
passing with an 
easy motion, from 
one object to 
another, but not 
dwelling long on 
"iny ; cast of hap- 
piness, bordering 
on cheerfulness ; 
desiring to please and be pleased ; gaity, good 
humor, when the mouth opens a little more. 

CHEERFULNESS IN RETIREMENT. 

Now my co-mates, and brothers in exile. 
Hath not old custom— ma.de this life more sweet, 
Than that of painted pomp ? Are not these wdods 
More free from peril, than the envious court ? 
Here— feel we but the penalty ofjidam ; 
The season^s difference ; as the icy fartff. 
And churlish chiding of the winter's wind ; 
Which, when it bites and blows upon my body, 
Ev'n till I shrink with cold, I smile and say, 
This is wo flattery ; these are counsellors. 
That feelingly persuade me what I am: 
Sweet—are the uses of adversity. 
That, like a toad, ugly and venomous, 
VVears yet a precious jewel in its head. 
And this our life, exempt from public haunts, 
Finds touffues, in trees, hooks, in running brooks. 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Timidity — often ob- 
scures the bnghtest powers of orators, at 
their outset ; hike the chilling vapor, awhile 
retarding the beauty of a morning in spring,- 
but the day of sziccess, attained by persever- 
ing efforts, when it comes, will well repay for 
its late appearance, and its splendor more 
than atone for its morning shade. 2. By tak- 
ing in the widest possible range of authors of 
all ages, one seems to create, within himself, 
a sympatliy for the whole brotherhood of 
man, past, present, and to come, and to ap- 
proximate continually, to a view of Univer- 
sal Truth, tho' never attaining it. 3. All 
good speakers and writers, are addicted to 
imitation : no one — can write or speak well, 
who has not a strong sympathy with, and ad- 
mtration for — all that is beautiful. 

Anecdote. A Pun. Purcell, the famous 
minster, being desired, one evening, when in 
company, to make an extempore pun, asked, 
" on what stibjeci .?" " The king ;" was the 
answer. "O sir," said he, "the king is not 
B ncbject." 

I hcLie to see a boy— so rude, 

That one might think him— raised 
^n some wild reg^ion of the wood. 
And but Aatf-civilized. 



Maxims. 1. The follies we tell of otker\ 
are often only mirrors to reflect our own. 2. 
Righteousness — ezalteth a nation ; but sin — is a 
reproach to any people. 3. The best mode o. 
dealing with a quarrelsome person, is, to keep 
out of his way. 4. Good thotight, couched in an 
appropriate simile, is like a precious stone, set in 
gold. 5. Great minds may produce great vices, 
as well as great virtues ; an honest man— is the 
noblest work of God. 6. JVature, and natural 
causes, are nothing else, than the way in which 
God works. 7. 'Tis wse that constitutes posses- 
sio7i. 8. No sooner is a law made, than the wick- 
ed seek to evade it. 9. One lie draws ten mere 
after it. 10. Idleness— buries a man alive. 

Irresolution. In matters of great cc/?i- 
cern, and v/hicJi must be do?ie, there is no 
surer argument — of a weak mind, than irre- 
solution ; to be undetermined, where the 
case is so plain, and the necessity so xirgent. 
To be always intending to live a new life, 
but never to find time to set about it ; this is 
as if a man should put off eating, and dii7ik- 
ing, and sleeping, from one day and night to 
another, till he is starved and destroyed. 

Varieties. 1. Every evil, that we con- 
quer, is a benefactor to our souls. The Sand- 
wich Islander believes that the strength and 
valor of the enemy he kills, passes into him- 
self. Spiritually, it is so with us ,- for we 
gain strength, from every temptation we 
resi.st. 2. It is absurd, to think of becoming 
good, in any thing, without understanding 
and practicing what we learn. 3. Have we 
life of our ovm ? or, are we dependent on 
God for it, every moment of our lives ? 7. 
All the moments of our lives, produce eter 
nal consequences. 

How sweet — the words oi truth. 
Breathed from the /j>s— we love. 
One alone 
May do the task odnany, when the mind 
Is active in it. 

Coxcombs — are of all realms, and kind, 
They're not to sex, or age confined, 
Of rich, or poor, or ffreat, or small, 
'Tis vanity— besets them all. 

True happiness — had no localities ; 
No tones provincial ; no peculiar ^arb. 
Where duty went, she went ; with justice went i 
And went with meekness, charity, and love. 
Where'er a tear was dried ; a wounded hrnri 
Bound up ; a bruised spirit— with the dew 
Of sympathy anointed ; or a pang 
Of honest svfferinsr soothed ; oi injury, 
Repeated oft, as oft — by love— forgiven ; 
Where'er an evil passion was subdued. 
Or Virtue's feeble embers fanned ; where'er 
A sin was heartily abjured, and left ; 
Where'er a pious act wa« done, or breathed 
A pious prayer, or wished a pious jcish — 
There — was a hiffh — and holy place, a spot 
Of sacred li<rkt, a most religious fane. 

Faith— is not built— on disauisitiou'a nine, 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



17:1 




I 



JOY ; DELIGHT 
4«1. Joy, 
u pleasing ela- 
tion of mind 
on the actual 
or assured at- 
tain m e n t of 
good ; or de- 
fiveraiicefroin 
Fo tne evil. 
When moder- 
ate, 11 opens 
tlie counte- 
nance witli 
smiles, and 
tlnovvs a sun- 
siiine ofdelec- 
lation over the 
whole trame; 
■when sudden 
and violent, it 
:» expressed by clapping the hands, exultation 
and weeping, raising- the eyes to heaven, and per- 
haps suffusing them w^ith tears, and giving such a 
spring to the body, as to make attempts to mount 
up as if it could fly : and vi^hen it is extreme, goes 
into transport, rapture, and ecstasy; the voice 
often raisesonvery high pitches, a)id exhilarating; 
it has a wildness of look and gesture that borders 
on folly, madness and sorrow^ ; hence the expres- 
sion, '• frantic w^ith joy." Joy, mirth, &c., produce 
a rousing, exciting, lively action. 

JOY EXPECTED. 

Ah ! Juliet, if the measure of thy joy 
Be heaped, like mine, and that thy skill be more 
To hlazen it, then sweeten, with thy breath, 
This neighbor air, and let rich music's tongue 
Unfold the imagin'd happiness, that both 
Receive, in either,'hy this dear encounter. 

See ! my lord, [veins 
Would you not deem it breath''d, and that those 
Did verily bear blood ? O sweet Paulina, 
Make me think so twenty years together; 
No settled senesof the world can match 
The pleasure of that madness. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Talents — angel-hxlghx, 

If wanting worth, 

Are shining instruments 

In false ambition''s hand — to &n\sh. faults 

Illustrious, and give to infamy renown. 
•Tis easiest — dealing with ihc firmest mind. [kind. 
More just, when it resists, and when it yields, more 
A mirror — has been well defined — 
An emblem — of a thoughtful mind, 
For, look upon it — when you will, 
You find — it is refecting still. 

Life— is a sea, where storms must rise ; 

'Tlsfolly — talks of cloudless skies ; 

He, who contracts his swelling sail, 

Eludes the fury of the ga^e. 
Anecdote. A painter — was employed in 
painting as/dp, on a stage, suspended under 
h3r stern. The captain, who had just got 
into the boat to go astiore^ ordered the cabin 
Doy to let go tlie painter. The boy went aft, 
and let go tlic rope by which the painters 
sta^e was held. The captain, surprised at 
ihp boy's delay, cried out," Confound you for 
a lazy dog; why don't you let go the paint- 
er ?^^ "He's gone sir," replied the boy 
" pots and all." 



Maximg* 1. The o&t«e of money is worse 
than the want of it. 2. Revenge is a mean plea- 
sure ; but no principle is more noble, than that of 
forgiving injuries. 3. Without/m?t(/s, the world 
is but a wilderness. 4, Flattery to ourselves— Aoe% 
not change the nature of that which is ivrong. 5 
When a man is not liked, whatever he does is 
amiss. 6. If a man is wifortunate, and reduced :n 
the world, it is easy to find faiilt with him. 7. \ 
pure heart makes the tongue impressive. 8. A 
man's best fortune, or his worst— is a vrife. i 
Health is better than wealth. 10. Unexperienced 
persons think all things easy. 

Free Scliools j or t/ie road to JJanoj'open 
to all. When the rich man — is called from 
the possession of his treasures, he divides 
them as he wills, among his children and heirs. 
But an equal Providence deals not so with 
the living treasures of the mind. There are 
childre?!, jnst growing up in the bosom of 
obscurity, in town and country, who have in- 
herited nothing but poverty and health, and 
who will, in a few years, be striving, in stern 
contention, with the great intellects of the 
land. Our system of free schools, has opened 
a straight way from tlie threshold of every 
abode, however humble, in the village, or in 
the city, to the high-places of usefulness, in- 
fluence and hmiar. And it is left for each, 
by the cultivation of every talent, by watch- 
ing, with an eagle-eye, for every chance of 
improvement; by bounding forward like a 
gray-hound, at the most distant glimpse of 
honorable opportunity ; b